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1 The AMERICAN REVOLUTION pt. one Section 1: The Revolution Begins Section 2: Declaring Independence Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The AMERICAN REVOLUTION pt. one Section 1: The Revolution Begins Section 2: Declaring Independence Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The AMERICAN REVOLUTION pt. one Section 1: The Revolution Begins Section 2: Declaring Independence Chapter 7

2 2 A. The First Continental Congress 1. September Met in ________ to discuss what action to take because of the __________ against Boston. 1. September Met in ________ to discuss what action to take because of the __________ against Boston. Philadelphia Intolerable Acts

3 3 2. John Dickinson Wanted peace with GB

4 4 3. Patrick Henry (Virginia) “The king is forcing us to _________” take up arms!

5 5 4. Compromise- Sent list of _____ to King George and agreed to meet again in ____ 1775 to discuss the king’s response rights spring King George III

6 6 B. “Shot Heard Round the World”

7 7 1. Minutemen Local ______ in and around Boston, prepared to ______ militia defend supplies

8 8 Governor of _________; wanted Minutemen’s _________ 2. Gen. Thomas Gage Mass. weapons

9 9

10 10 warned the Minutemen that…. 3. Paul Revere & William Dawes The Redcoats are coming!

11 11 Revere captured by British

12 12 5. April 19, 1775-Lexington Who shot first?

13 13 6. Later that day: Concord The _______ and _______ fought again. The _______ chased the ______ back to Boston. Minutemen Redcoats Minutemen Redcoats

14 14 7. Results & Importance Blood had been spilled. Beginning of the war! Blood had been spilled. Beginning of the war!

15 15 C. Second Continental Congress

16 16 1. Philadelphia (May, 1775) Decided not to break away from _________. 2. Created an ____ to defend the nation. G.B. (not yet) army

17 17 3. Selected _________ to lead the army. George Washington

18 18 4. Sent peace offer to King George-known as the Olive Branch Petition

19 19 5. King George _____ the offer. (declared rebellion!) rejected

20 20 D. Early Battles “Amateur Army” 1.Ft. Ticonderoga-Lake Champlain

21 21 Benedict Arnold Militia leader

22 22 Ethan Allen Leader of Green Mtn. Boys

23 23 Battle- Surprised the British- Captured fort Surprised the British- Captured fort

24 24 Importance- Captured cannons

25 25 2. Minutemen held Boston under _______ Siege (surrounded) Americans British

26 26 3. Breed’s Hill & Bunker Hill (June 1775) 1 st major battle!!

27 27

28 28 American Bunker Hill William Prescott

29 29 Joseph Warren Patriot leader killed at Bunker Hill

30 30 Battle- Br. Frontal assault …. Americans held… Then fell back

31 31 Results/Importance- Brits won Amer. Gained confidence

32 32 4. Winter : Americans moved cannons from Ft. Ticonderoga

33 33 4. Winter : … Dorchester Heights which overlooked ________. This forced the British to _______. Boston withdraw

34 34 5. Paying for the war Printed money (worthless) No national tax Private financing

35 35 Why George? Honest Virginian Experienced To Declaration To Hobbes

36 36 Bell Ringer: Write in Packet Identify & describe one peaceful way the colonies tried to settle their dispute with G.B.

37 37 I. Enlightenment Roots p.399 Definition-a change in outlook among educated Europeans that began in the 1600’s and put great trust in Reason as key to human progress

38 38 B. Philosophers- a ________ and a __________ thinkerscholar Came up with new ideas about __________ and individual rights government

39 39 C. The Scientific Revolution 1.Science laws based on __________ and _________. 2.Enlightenment philosophers wanted to apply this way of thinking to ___________ reason observation government

40 40 C. The Scientific Revolution 3. Examples: a. What __________ govern the way people live? b. Does natural law give all people certain ________? c. What is the best form of __________? Natural laws rights government

41 41 D. Renaissance and Reformation 1.The humanists of the Renaissance questioned ___________ of religion. 2.In the Reformation, Protestants rebelled against ________ Church. accepted beliefs Catholic

42 42 E. Enlightenment Philosophers 1.Rejected _________. 2.Wanted people to ________________. authority think for themselves

43 43 F. Classical and Christian Influences 1.Greece a.Trust in _________ b.People should have say in _________ 2.Christianity-Enlightenment ideas reflected many ________ values. (equality, morals) reason government Christian

44 44 F. Classical and Christian Influences 3. Questioned belief in ______ right of king to rule. 4. Stressed ___________ that government must respect. Divine individual rights

45 45 What is the connection to American History?

46 46 A.Thomas Hobbes “Absolute Monarchy” 1.Used education to study government 2.Humans are selfish, greedy… 3.Governments formed to protect people from themselves 4.Absolute power needed for control 5.1 st to apply science methods to politics

47 47 Tableau- A living picture a depiction of a scene usually presented on a stage by silent and motionless costumed participants

48 48 B. John Locke “Natural Rights” 1.Constitutional monarchy (limited power of king) 2.Magna Carta & English Bill of Rights

49 49 John Locke 3. Two Treatises Social contract- agreement among free people Natural Rights- life, liberty and property Rights govt. make laws

50 50 John Locke 4. Consent of the governed * People had right to change govt. 5. Declaration of Independence

51 51 C. Baron de Montesquieu “Separation of Powers 1.Used humor to criticize govt. 2.How governments should be organized

52 52 Baron de Montesquieu 3. Separation of Powers 3 branches to divide power 4. Despotism (tyranny) 5. Constitution

53 53 D. Voltaire “Religious Toleration & Free Speech” 1.Fought oppression-Unjust use of authority 2.That world was not perfect 3.Governed by law 4.Acceptance of difference in beliefs 5.Free speech 6.Bill of Rights

54 54 E. Beccaria “Crime and Punishment” 1.Scientific study of crime and punishment 2.Torture 3.Secret trials, corrupt judges

55 55 E. Beccaria 4. Crime and Punishment a. Punishment did not have to be brutal b. Just harsh enough to stop crime c. Laws for order 5. a. Fair and speedy trial b. Eliminate capital punishment 6. Bill of Rights To Amateur Armies

56 56 Who is John Locke and how did he influence the Declaration of Independence?

57 57 II. The Declaration of Independence

58 58 A. Common Sense by Thomas Paine 1. Background- Failed as sailor, teacher and tax man. Franklin’s friend

59 59 Common Sense published pamphlet

60 60 3. Wrote in a style that appealed to Common people Effective propaganda

61 61 4. Ideas a.People not ______ should make the laws. b.Colonies should demand _________ c.Huge influence on the _______ king independence colonies

62 62 B. Declaring Independence

63 63 1. June nd Continental Congress decided to appoint a committee to write a Declaration of Independence 2 nd Continental Congress decided to appoint a committee to write a Declaration of Independence

64 64 2. Committee Franklin Adams Jefferson** did most of the writing

65 65 3. Natural Rights Ideas from the ________ Enlightenment

66 66 3. Natural Rights a.All men are created equal & possess _____ ____ Unalienable rights (life, liberty & happiness) Enlightenment philosopher- John Locke

67 67 c. If government lacks the support of the people; the people have the right to _______. Natural Rights b. Governments gain their power from the ______________. consent of the governed/people change it

68 68 4. Reasons for Separation King George III had violated the colonists ___________ (By passing unfair _________ and interfering with colonies self- _________) rights laws government

69 69 4. Reasons for Separation Examples: Quartering Troops Cutting off trade Taxes without consent Waging war on colonies Encouraging Indian attacks

70 70 5. Independence The Colonists had the right to ________ from Great Britain. ALSO-Declaration of War!! separate

71 71 6. Ben Franklin “We must all hang together or we shall ____ _______.” hang separately

72 72 Declaring Independence

73 73 7. July 4, 1776 Independence Day!

74 74

75 75 C. Choosing Sides 1.Patriots Fight for independence

76 76 2. Patrick Henry “I know not what course others may take; but as for me. give me ….. Liberty or give me death!”

77 77 3. Loyalists or _______- Tories Stay or leave? Many left for Canada

78 78 4. Divided friends and families Washington and Fairfax Franklin and his son

79 79 D. Other Reactions 1.Women- Not included in the Declaration

80 80 Abigail Adams Wrote to husband John- “Remember the ladies”

81 81 2. African Americans Many who signed the Declaration were slave owners. **Massachusetts abolished slavery in _____; rest of New England by _____

82 82 Graphic Organizer: Revolution Begins SECTION 1 The Revolution Begins Lexington Concord April 18 & 19, 1775 “Shot heard round the world” Paul Revere and William Dawes Minutemen Minutemen stood ground & attacked Br. Back to Boston Weapons Stored Redcoats burned town

83 83 Ch. 7 Journal DVD Liberty “Common Sense” Thomas Paine Beliefs- Importance- “Declaration of Independence” Who? What” When? Where? Why?

84 84 A “I have heard it asserted by some, that as America hath flourished under her former connection with Great Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument.”

85 85 A in our own words We have prospered by being British and must stay British to continue prosperity…. This is FALSE!!

86 86 B “We have boasted the protection of Great Britain without considering her motive was interest, not attachment; and that she did not protect us from our enemies on our account, but from her enemies on her own account.”

87 87 B in our own words!! Britain only liked us for profits… She protected us for her benefit.. She doesn’t love us!!

88 88 C “But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families…”

89 89 C in our own words…. Britain is a terrible parent… Good parents don’t attack their kids!

90 90 D “I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation, to show a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge; not a single advantage is derived.”

91 91 D in our own words There is not a single reason we should remain British!

92 92 E “Small islands, not capable of protecting themselves, are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something absurd, in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island. In no instance hath nature made the satellite larger than its primary planet.”

93 93 E in our own words.. It is crazy to think a small island like Britain… Can rule over US!!

94 94 F “Nothing but independence… can keep the peace of the continent… a government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power…”

95 95 F in our own words Only independence will bring peace… All people are born with the right to govern themselves!!

96 96 For Discussion- Agree or Disagree? A powerful nation will always defeat a weaker nation in war.

97 97 Ch. 7 Journal #4“Loyalist or Patriot??” Would you have been a Loyalist or a Patriot? Why?

98 98 Ch. 7 Journal COMMON SENSE What is “common sense?” If you were writing a book in 1776 title “Common Sense,” what reasons would you give for the colonists to separate from Great Britain?

99 99 Bell Ringer 11/5/10 Identify 2 Enlightenment Philosophers and describe how you benefit from each of their beliefs.

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