161. Philadelphia (May, 1775) G.B. (not yet) army Decided not to break away from _________.2. Created an ____ to defend the nation.G.B. (not yet)army
173. Selected _________ to lead the army. George Washington3. Selected _________ to lead the army.
184. Sent peace offer to King George-known as the Olive Branch Petition
195. King George _____ the offer. (declared rebellion!) Insane King George IIIKing George III (known as the king who lost America), was born in 1738. King George III's father, the Prince of Wales died when he was young. When George III was 22, in 1760, his grandfather, George II, died. On September 8th, 1761 he married Princess Charlotte Sophia from Mecklenburg-Strelitz, in Germany and on September 22nd, 1761, George III became the King of England. George himself was of partial German ancestry. George and Charlotte had 15 children, one of whom, George IV would be the next king.King George III sat upon the throne of England from It was on his watch that the American colonies were lost. King George III, after the French and Indian War, had large debts to pay, and thought he could extract the necessary money from the colonies. King George was incensed when the insolent American colonists objected to the taxes being levied, particularly the Stamp Act. When the Stamp Act was repealed, King George flew into a rage. King George thought the colonists should be dealt with harshly for their disobedience and insolence. Using his profound influence, he pushed through the Townshend Acts, in 1766, taxing many commodity items including tea resulting in the infamous Boston Tea Party. King George was eventually humbled as the American colonies successfully became the United States Of America. Other colonies began to rebel after America's success and King George remained embroiled in one conflict or another for many years.George III inherited more than just the throne. He also had the royal hereditary disease porphyria which had afflicted Mary Queen of Scots. She passed it to her son, King James I of England. Porphyria is caused by the insufficient production of hemoglobin. The symptoms are photosensitivity, strong abdominal pain, port wine colored urine and paralysis in the arms and legs. The interruption of nerve impulses to the brain causes the development of psychiatric symptoms. Finally, epileptic convulsions occur and the patient sinks into a coma. George III's first attack occurred in 1765, four years after his marriage to Queen Charlotte. From 1811 to the time of his death in 1820 he became progressively insane and blind. He spent his time in isolation, and was often kept in straight jackets and behind bars in his private apartments at Windsor Castle.King George III died in 1820, at the age of 82, and his son, George IV, succeeded him. Other members of the far-flung royal family who suffered from this hereditary disease were Queen Anne of Great Britain; Frederic the Great of Germany; George IV of Great Britain--son of George III; and George IV's daughter, Princess Charlotte, who died of the disease at childbirth.Portrait of George III, Queen Charlotte and their six eldest children. When George III was pronounced insane in 1810, Queen Charlotte was given custody - they had been married for nearly 50 yearsGeorge III - From Britannia's guide to the history of England, Wales and Scotland.George III - Biography from Spartacus Internet EncyclopediaKing George III - Biography from the official site of Queen Elizabeth IIThe Madness of King George - First of two articles (follow the link in the page to the second) which describes George's "madness" and how it was treated by his physicians.rejected5. King George _____ the offer. (declared rebellion!)
20D. Early Battles “Amateur Army” Ft. Ticonderoga-Lake Champlain
36Bell Ringer: 11.1.10 Write in Packet Identify & describe one peaceful way the colonies tried to settle their dispute with G.B.
37I. Enlightenment Roots p.399 Definition-a change in outlook among educated Europeans that began in the 1600’s and put great trust inReason as key to human progress
38B. Philosophers- thinker scholar government a ________ and a __________Came up with new ideas about __________ and individual rightsgovernment
39C. The Scientific Revolution Science laws based on __________ and _________.Enlightenment philosophers wanted to apply this way of thinking to ___________observationreasongovernment
40C. The Scientific Revolution 3. Examples:a. What __________ govern the way people live?b. Does natural law give all people certain ________?c. What is the best form of __________?Natural lawsrightsgovernment
41D. Renaissance and Reformation The humanists of the Renaissance questioned ___________ of religion.In the Reformation, Protestants rebelled against ________ Church.accepted beliefsCatholic
42E. Enlightenment Philosophers authorityRejected _________.Wanted people to ________________.think for themselves
43F. Classical and Christian Influences GreeceTrust in _________People should have say in _________Christianity-Enlightenment ideas reflected many ________ values. (equality, morals)reasongovernmentChristian
44F. Classical and Christian Influences Divine3. Questioned belief in ______ right of king to rule.4. Stressed ___________ that government must respect.individual rights
46Thomas Hobbes “Absolute Monarchy” Used education to study governmentHumans are selfish, greedy…Governments formed to protect people from themselvesAbsolute power needed for control1st to apply science methods to politics
47Tableau- A living picture a depiction of a scene usually presented on a stage by silent and motionless costumed participants
48B. John Locke “Natural Rights” Constitutional monarchy(limited power of king)2. Magna Carta & English Bill of Rights
49John Locke3. Two TreatisesSocial contract- agreement among free peopleNatural Rights- life, liberty and propertyRights govt. make laws
504. Consent of the governed * People had right to change govt. John Locke4. Consent of the governed* People had right to change govt.5. Declaration of Independence
51C. Baron de Montesquieu “Separation of Powers Used humor to criticize govt.How governments should be organized
523 branches to divide power 4. Despotism (tyranny) 5. Constitution Baron de Montesquieu3. Separation of Powers3 branches to divide power4. Despotism (tyranny)5. Constitution
53D. Voltaire “Religious Toleration & Free Speech” Fought oppression-Unjust use of authorityThat world was not perfectGoverned by lawAcceptance of difference in beliefsFree speechBill of Rights
54E. Beccaria “Crime and Punishment” Scientific study of crime and punishmentTortureSecret trials, corrupt judges
55E. Beccaria 4. Crime and Punishment a. Punishment did not have to be brutalb. Just harsh enough to stop crimec. Laws for order5. a. Fair and speedy trialb. Eliminate capital punishment6. Bill of RightsTo AmateurArmies
56Who is John Locke and how did he influence the Declaration of Independence?
631. June 1776-2nd Continental Congress decided to appoint a committee to write aDeclaration of Independence
642. CommitteeFranklinAdamsJefferson**did most of the writing
65Ideas from the ________ 3. Natural RightsIdeas from the ________Enlightenment
66All men are created equal & possess _____ ____ Unalienable rights 3. Natural RightsAll men are created equal & possess _____ ____Unalienable rights(life, liberty & happiness)Enlightenment philosopher-John Locke
67consent of the governed/people b. Governments gain their power from the ______________.consent of the governed/peoplec. If government lacks the support of the people; the people have the right to _______.change itNatural Rights
684. Reasons for Separation King George III had violated the colonists ___________ (By passing unfair _________ and interfering with colonies self-_________)rightslawsgovernment
694. Reasons for Separation Examples:Quartering TroopsCutting off tradeTaxes without consentWaging war on coloniesEncouraging Indian attacks
70separate 5. Independence The Colonists had the right to ________ from Great Britain.ALSO-Declaration of War!!separate
71hang separately 6. Ben Franklin “We must all hang together or we shall ____ _______.”hang separately
737. July 4, 1776First public reading of the Declaration of IndependencePennsylvania militia colonel John Nixon ( ) is portrayed in the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence on July 6, This scene was created by William Hamilton after a drawing by George Noble and appeared in Edward Barnard, History of England (London, 1783).Independence Day!
74Destroying the statue of King George III After hearing the Declaration of Independence read on July 9, the American army destroyed the statue of King George III at the foot of Broadway on the Bowling Green in New York City. The French lithographer portrayed the "wild" American soldiers as Turkish Moors, dressed in pantaloons and turbans.
76Liberty or give me death!” 2. Patrick Henry“I know not what course others may take; but as for me. give me …..Liberty or give me death!”
773. Loyalists or _______-ToriesStay or leave?Many left for Canada
784. Divided friends and families Washington and FairfaxFranklin and his son
79D. Other ReactionsWomen-Not included in the Declaration
80Abigail AdamsWrote to husband John-“Remember the ladies”
812. African AmericansMany who signed the Declaration were slave owners.**Massachusetts abolished slavery in _____; rest of New England by _____.17831784
82Graphic Organizer: Revolution Begins SECTION 1Minutemen stood ground & attacked Br. Back to BostonThe Revolution BeginsApril 18 & 19, 1775Paul Revereand William DawesRedcoats burned townConcordLexingtonMinutemen“Shot heardround the world”Weapons StoredGraphic Organizer: Revolution Begins
83Ch. 7 JournalDVD Liberty “Common Sense”Thomas PaineBeliefs-Importance-“Declaration of Independence”Who?What”When?Where?Why?
84A“I have heard it asserted by some , that as America hath flourished under her former connection with Great Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument.”
85A in our own words We have prospered by being British and must stay British to continue prosperity….This is FALSE!!
86B“We have boasted the protection of Great Britain without considering her motive was interest, not attachment; and that she did not protect us from our enemies on our account, but from her enemies on her own account.”
87B in our own words!!Britain only liked us for profits…She protected us for her benefit..She doesn’t love us!!
88C“But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families…”
89C in our own words….Britain is a terrible parent…Good parents don’t attack their kids!
90D“I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation, to show a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge; not a single advantage is derived.”
91There is not a single reason we should remain British! D in our own wordsThere is not a single reason we should remain British!
92E“Small islands, not capable of protecting themselves, are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something absurd, in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island. In no instance hath nature made the satellite larger than its primary planet.”
93E in our own words..It is crazy to think a small island like Britain…Can rule over US!!
94F“Nothing but independence… can keep the peace of the continent… a government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power…”
95F in our own wordsOnly independence will bring peace…All people are born with the right to govern themselves!!
96For Discussion- Agree or Disagree? A powerful nation will always defeat a weaker nation in war.
97Ch. 7 Journal#4 “Loyalist or Patriot??”Would you have been a Loyalist or a Patriot? Why?
98COMMON SENSE What is “common sense?” Ch. 7 JournalCOMMON SENSEWhat is “common sense?”If you were writing a book in 1776 title “Common Sense,” what reasons would you give for the colonists to separate from Great Britain?
99Bell Ringer 11/5/10Identify 2 Enlightenment Philosophers and describe how you benefit from each of their beliefs.