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Presentation on theme: "The AMERICAN REVOLUTION pt. one"— Presentation transcript:

Section 1: The Revolution Begins Section 2: Declaring Independence Chapter 7

2 A. The First Continental Congress
Philadelphia 1. September Met in ________ to discuss what action to take because of the __________ against Boston. Intolerable Acts

3 2. John Dickinson Wanted peace with GB

4 3. Patrick Henry (Virginia)
“The king is forcing us to _________” take up arms!

5 4. Compromise- rights Sent list of _____ to King George and agreed to meet again in ____ 1775 to discuss the king’s response spring King George III

6 B. “Shot Heard Round the World”

7 1. Minutemen militia Local ______ in and around Boston, prepared to ______ defend supplies

8 2. Gen. Thomas Gage Governor of _________; wanted Minutemen’s _________ Mass. weapons


10 3. Paul Revere & William Dawes
The Redcoats are coming! 3. Paul Revere & William Dawes warned the Minutemen that….

11 Revere captured by British

12 Who shot first? 5. April 19, 1775-Lexington

13 6. Later that day: Concord
Minutemen Redcoats The _______ and _______ fought again. The _______ chased the ______ back to Boston. Minutemen Redcoats

14 7. Results & Importance Blood had been spilled. Beginning of the war!

15 C. Second Continental Congress

16 1. Philadelphia (May, 1775) G.B. (not yet) army
Decided not to break away from _________. 2. Created an ____ to defend the nation. G.B. (not yet) army

17 3. Selected _________ to lead the army.
George Washington 3. Selected _________ to lead the army.

18 4. Sent peace offer to King George-known as the
Olive Branch Petition

19 5. King George _____ the offer. (declared rebellion!)
Insane King George III King George III (known as the king who lost America), was born in 1738.  King George III's father, the Prince of Wales died when he was young. When George III was 22, in 1760, his grandfather, George II, died. On September 8th, 1761 he married Princess Charlotte Sophia from Mecklenburg-Strelitz, in Germany and on September 22nd, 1761, George III became the King of England. George himself was of partial German ancestry. George and Charlotte had 15 children, one of whom, George IV would be the next king. King George III sat upon the throne of England from It was on his watch that the American colonies were lost. King George III, after the French and Indian War, had large debts to pay, and thought he could extract the necessary money from the colonies. King George was incensed when the insolent American colonists objected to the taxes being levied, particularly the Stamp Act. When the Stamp Act was repealed, King George flew into a rage. King George thought the colonists should be dealt with harshly for their disobedience and insolence. Using his profound influence, he pushed through the  Townshend Acts, in 1766, taxing many commodity items including tea resulting in the infamous Boston Tea Party. King George was eventually humbled as the American colonies successfully became the United States Of America. Other colonies began to rebel after America's success and King George remained embroiled in one conflict or another for many years. George III inherited more than just the throne. He also had the royal hereditary disease porphyria which had afflicted Mary Queen of Scots. She passed it to her son, King James I of England. Porphyria is caused by the insufficient production of hemoglobin. The symptoms are photosensitivity, strong abdominal pain, port wine colored urine and paralysis in the arms and legs. The interruption of nerve impulses to the brain causes the development of psychiatric symptoms. Finally, epileptic convulsions occur and the patient sinks into a coma. George III's  first attack occurred in 1765, four years after his marriage to Queen Charlotte.  From 1811 to the time of his death in 1820 he became progressively insane and blind. He spent his time in isolation, and was often kept in straight jackets and behind bars in his private apartments at Windsor Castle. King George III died in 1820, at the age of 82, and his son, George IV, succeeded him. Other members of the far-flung royal family who suffered from this hereditary disease were Queen Anne of Great Britain; Frederic the Great of Germany; George IV of Great Britain--son of George III; and George IV's daughter, Princess Charlotte, who died of the disease at childbirth. Portrait of George III, Queen Charlotte and their six eldest children. When George III was pronounced  insane in 1810, Queen Charlotte was given custody - they had been married for nearly 50 years George III - From Britannia's guide to the history of England, Wales and Scotland. George III - Biography from Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia King George III - Biography from the official site of Queen Elizabeth II The Madness of King George - First of two articles (follow the link in the page to the second) which describes George's "madness" and how it was treated by his physicians. rejected 5. King George _____ the offer. (declared rebellion!)

20 D. Early Battles “Amateur Army”
Ft. Ticonderoga-Lake Champlain

21 Benedict Arnold Militia leader

22 Ethan Allen Leader of Green Mtn. Boys

23 Surprised the British-
Battle- Surprised the British- Captured fort

24 Importance- Captured cannons

25 2. Minutemen held Boston under _______
Siege (surrounded) Americans Americans British Americans Americans

26 3. Breed’s Hill & Bunker Hill (June 1775)
1st major battle!!


28 William Prescott American Bunker Hill

29 Joseph Warren Patriot leader killed at Bunker Hill

30 Battle- Br. Frontal assault …. Americans held… Then fell back

31 Results/Importance- Brits won Amer. Gained confidence

32 4. Winter : Americans moved cannons from Ft. Ticonderoga

33 4. Winter : … Dorchester Heights which overlooked ________. This forced the British to _______. Boston withdraw

34 5. Paying for the war Printed money (worthless) No national tax Private financing

35 Why George? Honest Virginian Experienced To Declaration To Hobbes

36 Bell Ringer: 11.1.10 Write in Packet
Identify & describe one peaceful way the colonies tried to settle their dispute with G.B.

37 I. Enlightenment Roots p.399
Definition-a change in outlook among educated Europeans that began in the 1600’s and put great trust in Reason as key to human progress

38 B. Philosophers- thinker scholar government
a ________ and a __________ Came up with new ideas about __________ and individual rights government

39 C. The Scientific Revolution
Science laws based on __________ and _________. Enlightenment philosophers wanted to apply this way of thinking to ___________ observation reason government

40 C. The Scientific Revolution
3. Examples: a. What __________ govern the way people live? b. Does natural law give all people certain ________? c. What is the best form of __________? Natural laws rights government

41 D. Renaissance and Reformation
The humanists of the Renaissance questioned ___________ of religion. In the Reformation, Protestants rebelled against ________ Church. accepted beliefs Catholic

42 E. Enlightenment Philosophers
authority Rejected _________. Wanted people to ________________. think for themselves

43 F. Classical and Christian Influences
Greece Trust in _________ People should have say in _________ Christianity-Enlightenment ideas reflected many ________ values. (equality, morals) reason government Christian

44 F. Classical and Christian Influences
Divine 3. Questioned belief in ______ right of king to rule. 4. Stressed ___________ that government must respect. individual rights

45 What is the connection to American History?

46 Thomas Hobbes “Absolute Monarchy”
Used education to study government Humans are selfish, greedy… Governments formed to protect people from themselves Absolute power needed for control 1st to apply science methods to politics

47 Tableau- A living picture
a depiction of a scene usually presented on a stage by silent and motionless costumed participants

48 B. John Locke “Natural Rights”
Constitutional monarchy (limited power of king) 2. Magna Carta & English Bill of Rights

49 John Locke 3. Two Treatises Social contract- agreement among free people Natural Rights- life, liberty and property Rights govt. make laws

50 4. Consent of the governed * People had right to change govt.
John Locke 4. Consent of the governed * People had right to change govt. 5. Declaration of Independence

51 C. Baron de Montesquieu “Separation of Powers
Used humor to criticize govt. How governments should be organized

52 3 branches to divide power 4. Despotism (tyranny) 5. Constitution
Baron de Montesquieu 3. Separation of Powers 3 branches to divide power 4. Despotism (tyranny) 5. Constitution

53 D. Voltaire “Religious Toleration & Free Speech”
Fought oppression-Unjust use of authority That world was not perfect Governed by law Acceptance of difference in beliefs Free speech Bill of Rights

54 E. Beccaria “Crime and Punishment”
Scientific study of crime and punishment Torture Secret trials, corrupt judges

55 E. Beccaria 4. Crime and Punishment
a. Punishment did not have to be brutal b. Just harsh enough to stop crime c. Laws for order 5. a. Fair and speedy trial b. Eliminate capital punishment 6. Bill of Rights To Amateur Armies

56 Who is John Locke and how did he influence the Declaration of Independence?

57 II. The Declaration of Independence

58 A. Common Sense by Thomas Paine
1. Background- Failed as sailor, teacher and tax man. Franklin’s friend

59 Common Sense published pamphlet

60 3. Wrote in a style that appealed to
Common people Effective propaganda

61 4. Ideas king People not ______ should make the laws. Colonies should demand _________ Huge influence on the _______ independence colonies

62 B. Declaring Independence

63 1. June 1776- 2nd Continental Congress decided to appoint a committee to write a Declaration of Independence

64 2. Committee Franklin Adams Jefferson** did most of the writing

65 Ideas from the ________
3. Natural Rights Ideas from the ________ Enlightenment

66 All men are created equal & possess _____ ____ Unalienable rights
3. Natural Rights All men are created equal & possess _____ ____ Unalienable rights (life, liberty & happiness) Enlightenment philosopher- John Locke

67 consent of the governed/people
b. Governments gain their power from the ______________. consent of the governed/people c. If government lacks the support of the people; the people have the right to _______. change it Natural Rights

68 4. Reasons for Separation
King George III had violated the colonists ___________ (By passing unfair _________ and interfering with colonies self-_________) rights laws government

69 4. Reasons for Separation
Examples: Quartering Troops Cutting off trade Taxes without consent Waging war on colonies Encouraging Indian attacks

70 separate 5. Independence
The Colonists had the right to ________ from Great Britain. ALSO-Declaration of War!! separate

71 hang separately 6. Ben Franklin
“We must all hang together or we shall ____ _______.” hang separately

72 Declaring Independence

73 7. July 4, 1776 First public reading of the Declaration of Independence Pennsylvania militia colonel John Nixon ( ) is portrayed in the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence on July 6, This scene was created by William Hamilton after a drawing by George Noble and appeared in Edward Barnard, History of England (London, 1783). Independence Day!

74 Destroying the statue of King George III
After hearing the Declaration of Independence read on July 9, the American army destroyed the statue of King George III at the foot of Broadway on the Bowling Green in New York City. The French lithographer portrayed the "wild" American soldiers as Turkish Moors, dressed in pantaloons and turbans.

75 C. Choosing Sides Patriots Fight for independence

76 Liberty or give me death!”
2. Patrick Henry “I know not what course others may take; but as for me. give me ….. Liberty or give me death!”

77 3. Loyalists or _______- Tories Stay or leave? Many left for Canada

78 4. Divided friends and families
Washington and Fairfax Franklin and his son

79 D. Other Reactions Women- Not included in the Declaration

80 Abigail Adams Wrote to husband John- “Remember the ladies”

81 2. African Americans Many who signed the Declaration were slave owners. **Massachusetts abolished slavery in _____; rest of New England by _____. 1783 1784

82 Graphic Organizer: Revolution Begins
SECTION 1 Minutemen stood ground & attacked Br. Back to Boston The Revolution Begins April 18 & 19, 1775 Paul Revere and William Dawes Redcoats burned town Concord Lexington Minutemen “Shot heard round the world” Weapons Stored Graphic Organizer: Revolution Begins

83 Ch. 7 Journal DVD Liberty “Common Sense” Thomas Paine Beliefs- Importance- “Declaration of Independence” Who? What” When? Where? Why?

84 A “I have heard it asserted by some , that as America hath flourished under her former connection with Great Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument.”

85 A in our own words We have prospered by being British
and must stay British to continue prosperity…. This is FALSE!!

86 B “We have boasted the protection of Great Britain without considering her motive was interest, not attachment; and that she did not protect us from our enemies on our account, but from her enemies on her own account.”

87 B in our own words!! Britain only liked us for profits… She protected us for her benefit.. She doesn’t love us!!

88 C “But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families…”

89 C in our own words…. Britain is a terrible parent… Good parents don’t attack their kids!

90 D “I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation, to show a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge; not a single advantage is derived.”

91 There is not a single reason we should remain British!
D in our own words There is not a single reason we should remain British!

92 E “Small islands, not capable of protecting themselves, are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something absurd, in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island. In no instance hath nature made the satellite larger than its primary planet.”

93 E in our own words.. It is crazy to think a small island like Britain… Can rule over US!!

94 F “Nothing but independence… can keep the peace of the continent… a government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power…”

95 F in our own words Only independence will bring peace… All people are born with the right to govern themselves!!

96 For Discussion- Agree or Disagree?
A powerful nation will always defeat a weaker nation in war.

97 Ch. 7 Journal #4 “Loyalist or Patriot??” Would you have been a Loyalist or a Patriot? Why?

98 COMMON SENSE What is “common sense?”
Ch. 7 Journal COMMON SENSE What is “common sense?” If you were writing a book in 1776 title “Common Sense,” what reasons would you give for the colonists to separate from Great Britain?

99 Bell Ringer 11/5/10 Identify 2 Enlightenment Philosophers and describe how you benefit from each of their beliefs.

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