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Cellular Transport Fact: Particles of matter are always in motion no matter what state this random motion helps explain how materials enter and exit the.

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Presentation on theme: "Cellular Transport Fact: Particles of matter are always in motion no matter what state this random motion helps explain how materials enter and exit the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cellular Transport Fact: Particles of matter are always in motion no matter what state this random motion helps explain how materials enter and exit the cell Fact: Particles of matter are always in motion no matter what state this random motion helps explain how materials enter and exit the cell There are 2 ways that materials enter and exit the cell wall 1.Passive Transport- (Without using cell energy) Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, or Osmosis 2. Active Transport- (Requiring cell energy)

3 Active Transport 1. Protein Pumps 2. Endocytosis 3. Exocytosis Passive Transport 1. Diffusion 2. Facilitated Diffusion 3. Osmosis high low Wheee!!! high low This is gonna be hard work!!

4 What is It? -Moving molecules have Kinetic Energy -Particles collide and rebound -Particles do not lose energy Diffusion- The overall movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration (by random particle movement) How does it work? -Most substances in and around the cell are in H 2 0 -Solutes (Molecules, ions, etc) are usually distributed evenly in the water by the random movement of molecules -When the distribution of all of the solutes in the solution is even, the particles can collide but there is no change in concentration

5 Results? If the concentrations inside and outside the cell are not in Dynamic Equilibrium then the molecules will move according to the concentration gradient Flow is always from High to low Flow is always from High to low High Concentration Low Concentration = With the gradient Low Concentration High Concentration = Against the gradient !! (No longer a concentration gradient, no diffusion, @ dynamic equilibrium) !! The selective permeability of the cell membrane is not great for allowing ions or polar molecules to pass by diffusion because they are not attracted to non-polar fatty acids. Only a few molecules can pass by diffusion. They include… H 2 O, O 2, N 2, CO 2

6 What is it? Osmosis- Diffusion of H 2 O through a selectively permeable membrane from high to low concentration

7 Before High conc of H 2 O High conc of H 2 O on left of Membrane/ low conc of solute Low conc of H 2 O Low conc of H 2 O on right of Membrane/ High conc of solute After H2O molecules move from high conc, across The membrane, to low conc until DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM is reached. (conc solute/water on left = conc solute/ water on right) NOT AT DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

8 1.Isotonic: Concentrated molecules on the inside = Concentrated molecules on the outside Concentrated molecules on the outside Random motion allows water in and out, but at the same rate Random motion allows water in and out, but at the same rate Therefore No Therefore No concentration gradient

9 2. Hypotonic: Concentration Solutes on the Outside < Concentration Solutes inside Concentration Solutes inside High water on outside, low water inside High water on outside, low water inside Water goes into cell, and cell swells Water goes into cell, and cell swells Increase in cell pressure called TURGOR PRESSURE Increase in cell pressure called TURGOR PRESSURE

10 3. Hypertonic- Concentration Solute Outside > Concentration Solute Inside Concentration Solute Inside -High Water inside, low water outside -Water goes out of cell and decreases cell pressure -Cell Shrivels -Plasmolysis- Loss of cell pressure

11 Bellringer 1.The two main parts of the cell membrane’s phospholipid bilayer are…? a.________________ and b. ______________

12 Bellringer 2.From the Sandwich Baggie Demo, we learned iodine molecules were able to pass through the membrane because they were…? a.Small enough b.Attracted to the starch c.Very large d.Faster to diffuse than starch molecules

13 Bellringer 3.The Cell Membrane Test is coming soon. Mrs. Weber set up a study group to facilitate our studying. What does the word facilitate mean?

14 Bellringer 4.Water and other molecules don’t always share e - ’s equally. This give the molecules a partially positive and partially negative charge. We say these molecules are POLAR. a.Does the cell membrane easily allow polar molecules? Y or N b.Which part of the cell membrane is hydrophobic and dislikes polar molecules? _________________

15 !! Okay…so molecules pass through the cell membrane based on… 1.Size -Small molecules pass easily, -Large molecules do not or cannot 2.Polarity 2.Polarity (if the molecule has charged ends it will not be able to pass the hydrophobic lipids) Polar

16 Q: How do LARGE or POLAR molecules enter the cell? A: Through PROTEINS! Common for Sugars, Amino Acids, or charged molecules like ions or polar molecules. Sugars Ions Amino Acids

17 HELP FACILITATE Proteins HELP or FACILITATE the passage of larger or polar molecules Kinds of Proteins 1.Channel Proteins -have a tube down the middle of the protein thru which molecules can diffuse 2.Carrier Proteins -change their shape to fit specific molecules

18 Facilitated Diffusion Animation


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