Presentation on theme: "CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER"— Presentation transcript:
1CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER CHAPTER 5:Honors US HistoryMr. Basich
2Timeline: What’s Going On? World:1869 – Suez Canal is opened.1900 – Boxer Rebellion takes place in China.United States:1881 – James Garfield is assassinated – Chester Arthur becomes President.1890 – Sioux are massacred at Wounded Knee.
3Section 1: Objectives By the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west.2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.4. Trace the development of the cattle industry.5. Describe both the myth and reality of the American cowboy and explain the end of the open range.
4Section 1: Cultures Clash On The Prairie Main Idea: The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800’s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined.Why it Matters Now: Today, ranchers and Plains Indians work to preserve their cultural traditions.Key Terms:Great PlainsTreaty of Fort LaramieAssimilationDawes ActBattle of Wounded KneeKey Terms / Names:Sitting BullGeorge A. CusterLonghornChisholm TrailLong Drive
5How is everyone feeling today? GreatGoodAverageNot so goodBad201234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
6SECTION 1: CULTURES CLASH ON THE PRAIRIE The culture of the Plains Indians rarely had come in contact with European-Americans.The Osage and the Iowa had hunted and planted in the Great plains for over 100 yearsGreat Plains – the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US.THE PLAINS
7THE HORSE AND THE BUFFALO Spain introduced the Buffalo in 1598 thus allowing faster and longer hunting tripsWhile the horse provided speed and mobility, it was the buffalo that provided for basic needs.The Sioux and Cheyenne tribes hunted buffaloBUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING
8FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS Small extended families were the normMen were hunters, while women helped butcher the game and prepare itThis is called a hunter-gatherer community.Tribes were very spiritual and land was communal
9Why was the buffalo more important to the Indians than the horse? They were more plentifulThey were fasterThey could be used for many purposesThey weren’t more important:201234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
10SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD The white settlers who pushed westward had a different idea about land ownershipConcluding that the plains were “unsettled, “ thousands advanced to claim landGold being discovered in Colorado only intensified the rush for landA COVERED WAGON HEADS WEST
11THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES As more and more settlers headed west, the U.S. government increasingly protected their interestsRailroad Companies also influenced government decisionsRAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE
12Why did the settlers continue to pursue land in the West? The government supported themThe railroads supported themThey found goldAll of the above201234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
13NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH 1834 – Government set aside all of the Great Plains as “Indian lands”1850s- Government shifts policy, giving natives much smaller landsThe Indians continued to hunt on “their” landMany deaths ensuedMassacre at Sand Creek; US Army attack killing 150 native women and children“I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.” – US Army Commander S.R. Curtis
14Death On The Bozeman Trail: Bozeman Trail – ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds.Whites and Indians fought over this land.The Treaty of Laramie closed the trail and moved the Indians to a reservation.This provided a temporary halt to warfareSitting Bull - the leader of the Sioux, didn’t sign the treaty.
16What was the best reason why the Indians didn’t want to give up their land? MoneyHuntingRoom for more homesNone of the above201234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
17OTHER CONFLICTS AND BATTLES Conflicts continued including; Fetterman Massacre and Red River WarCuster’s Last Stand occurred in early 1876 when Colonel George A. Custer reached Little Big HornLed by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the natives outflanked and crushed Custer’s troopsONE OF THE FEW NATIVE VICTORIES WAS LITTLE BIG HORN
18How did you like using the clickers? It was greatI liked itIt was okI didn’t like it201234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
20What was the main reason why Custer was beat by Sitting Bull? 20The Indians had superior weaponryCuster’s troops didn’t want to fightThe Indians had a tactical advantageCuster ran out of ammunition1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
22Did You Have a Nice Weekend? 32YesNoIt wasn’t bad20
23FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE THE DAWES ACTThe Dawes Act of 1887 attempted to assimilate nativesAssimilation – A plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become a part of the white culture.The Dawes Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American lifeBy 1932, 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been takenFAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE
25What was the point of the Dawes Act? To get the Indians to act more like the settlersTo allow the Indians to live in peaceTo force the Indians to work for the settlersTo give the Indians money for their troubles201234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
26THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffaloTourist and fur traders shot buffalo for sport1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains1890: less than 1000 remained
27The settlers killing the buffalo was: 32An insult to the IndiansHarmful to the Indians food supplyA way to control the IndiansAll of the above20
28HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEEOn December 29, 1890, the Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D.A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed NativesThis event brought the “Indian Wars”– and an entire era to a bitter endHUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND
30CATTLE BECOMES BIG BUSINESS Ranching became increasingly profitableTexas rangers learned how to handle the Texas Longhorns – sturdy horses accustomed to the dry grasslands - from Mexican rangersLots of vocabulary came from the Mexican Vaqueros
32GROWING DEMAND FOR BEEF After the Civil War the demand for beef surgedUrbanization (more people) and the rise of the railroad was instrumental in the increase of beef consumptionChicago Union Stock Yards was a famous market after 1865POSTCARD OF CHICAGO UNION STOCK YARDS
33COW TOWN & THE TRAILAbilene, Kansas became famous for being a place where the Chisholm Trail – Major cattle route -met the railroadsTens of thousands of cattle came from Texas through Oklahoma to Abilene via the famous Chisholm trailOnce in Abilene the cattle would board rail cars for destinations across the country
34What led to the growing demand for beef? The destruction of the IndiansThe growth of citiesThe amount of work the ranches were doingNone of the above20of32
35THE END OF THE OPEN RANGE Almost as soon as ranching became big business, the cattle frontier met its endOvergrazing, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire were responsible
37Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west.2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.4. Trace the development of the cattle industry.5. Describe both the myth and reality of the American cowboy and explain the end of the open range.
38Section 2: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading.2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
39Section 2: Settling On The Great Plains Main Idea: Settlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships.Why it Matters Now: The Great Plains region remains the breadbasket of the United States.Key Terms:Homestead ActExodusterSoddyKey Terms:Morrill ActBonanza Farm
40Spirit Week Makes Me Feel: 32Extremely HappyHappyNothing at allUnhappyExtremely Unhappy20
41SECTION 2: SETTLING ON THE GREAT PLAINS Federal land policy and the completion of the transcontinental railroad led to the rapid settlement of American west1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household”
43The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1868 The transcontinental railroad was completed in The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike
44The Homestead Act’s main goal was to: Provide settlers with food to liveProvide settlers with enough land to start their livesProvide settlers with nothing.None of the above200 of 32
45EXODUSTERS MOVE WESTAfrican Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas were called ExodustersMany exodusters took advantage of land deals
46OKLAHOMA SOONERSIn 1889, a major governmental land giveaway in what is now Oklahoma attracted thousandsIn less than a day, 2 million acres were claimed by settlersSome took possession before the government had officially declared it open – thus Oklahoma became known as the “Sooner State”
48What were the African American settlers called? SoonersExodustersSettlersNatives3220
49SETTLERS ENCOUNTER HARDSHIPS The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and banditsDespite hardships, the number of people living west of the Mississippi grew from 1% of the nation’s population in 1850 to almost 30% in 1900LOCUST SWARM
50DUGOUTS & SODDIES DUGOUT SODDY Most settlers built their homes from the land itselfPioneers often dug their homes out of the sides of ravines or hills (Dugouts)Those in the flat plains made freestanding homes made of turf (Soddies)DUGOUTSODDY
51Which one of these hardships did the settlers NOT face? DroughtsFloodsHurricanesLocust swarms20SecondsRemainingof32
52INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837 – John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil1847 – Cyrus McCormick mass-produced a reaping machineOther inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire, and corn binderJOHN DEERE’S STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE
53FARMER EDUCATION SUPPORTED The federal government financed agricultural educationThe Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to help finance agricultural colleges
54Which two inventions helped farmers? :20Tractor and plowLawn mower and scytheSteel plow and reaping machineBarbed wire and water purifier0 of 30
55ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 centsRailroads conspired to keep transport costs artificially highFarmers got caught in a cycle of debtThe farmers needed to produce more crops to keep up.A new type of farm emerged called a Bonanza farm.Bonanza Farm – huge single-crop farms of 15,000 – 50,000 acres.
56Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading.2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
57Section 3: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them.2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.
58Section 3: Farmers And The Populist Movement Main Idea: Farmers united to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.Why it Matters Now: Many of the Populist reform issues, such as income tax and legally protected rights of workers, are now taken for granted.Key Terms:GrangeFarmers’ AlliancesPopulismBimetallismGold StandardKey Names:Oliver Hudson KelleyWilliam McKinleyWilliam Jennings Bryan
59This weekend I am:32Staying homeGoing out of townNot sure:20
60What issue(s) were the farmers facing during this time period? Tough weatherDecrease in crop pricesTough legislation from the RailroadsDebtAll of the above200 of 30
61SECTION 3: FARMERS AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENT In the late 1800s, many farmers were strugglingCrop prices were falling, debt increasedMortgages were being foreclosed by banks
62FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE 1867 – Oliver Hudson Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers that became known as the GrangeBy 1870, the Grange spent most of their time fighting the railroadsSoon the Grange and other Farmer Alliances – (Those who sympathized with farmers) numbered over million members
63Why were the farmers fighting the Railroads? 2032They weren’t traveling to their townsThe seats were uncomfortableThey were charging high prices to use their services.None of the above
64THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR POPULIST PARTY IS BORNLeaders of the farmers organization realized they needed to build a base of political powerPopulism – the movement of the people – was born in 1892 with the founding of the Populist, or People’s PartyTHIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR
66What was the main goal of the populist party? 32To protect the people (farmers) from unjust business practicesTo enhance their own political powerTo try to run the Railroad companies out of businessTo build cities20
67POPULIST REFORMSProposed economic reforms included; increase of money supply, a rise in crop prices, lower taxes, a federal loan programProposed political reforms included; direct election of senators, single terms for presidentsPopulists also called for an 8-hour workday and reduced immigration
68POPULISTS MAKE GAINSIn the 1892 Presidential election, the Populist candidate won almost 10% of the voteIn the West, the party elected 5 senators, 3 governors and 1,500 state legislators
69Which reform was NOT a part of the populist party’s movement? 8 hour workdayDirect election of senatorsLower taxesMore landIncrease of money supply200 of 32
71THE STOCK MARKET CRASHED IN 1893 THE PANIC OF 1893Nationwide economic problems took center stage in America in 1893Railroads went bankrupt, the stock market lost value, 15,000 businesses and 500 banks collapsed,3 million people lost their jobs – putting unemployment at 20%THE STOCK MARKET CRASHED IN 1893
72SILVER OR GOLD?The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign was which metal would be the basis of the nation’s monetary systemBimetallism (those who favored using both) vs. those that favored the Gold Standards aloneWhy did it matter?People regarded paper money as worthless unless it could be exchanged for gold or silver.
73What was NOT part of the Panic of 1893? 32Falling stock pricesClosing of businessesJob losesMass riotingBank collapse20
74BRYAN AND THE “CROSS OF GOLD” Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinleyDemocrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings BryanDespite Bryan’s stirring words, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” McKinley won the 1896 electionBRYAN’S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH
77THE END OF POPULISMWith McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed, burying the hopes of the farmerPopulism left two important legacies:1) A message that the downtrodden can organize and be heard and2) An agenda of reforms, many of which would be enacted in the 20th centuryThe People’s Party Ended But Left An Important Legacy Leading to Progressivism
78Even though populism failed at this time, why was it important? So the people knew the government was more powerfulThe people realized that they had a voiceNone of the above20
79Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You?1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them.2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.