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Chapter 5.  1700 fewer than 300,000 people (20,000 were black)  By 1775; 2.5 million (1.25 were black)  Average colonist age in 1775; 16 years old.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5.  1700 fewer than 300,000 people (20,000 were black)  By 1775; 2.5 million (1.25 were black)  Average colonist age in 1775; 16 years old."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5

2  1700 fewer than 300,000 people (20,000 were black)  By 1775; 2.5 million (1.25 were black)  Average colonist age in 1775; 16 years old.

3  1700- 20 English for every American colonist.  1775- 3 English for every colonist (power balance is shifting)  Most populous colonies; Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Maryland.

4  Germans: 6% of the population (150,000 by 1775) Most in Pennsylvania  Scots-Irish: 7% of population (175,000 by 1775) Most in Pennsylvania Led the Regulators movement in North Carolina ( young Andrew Jackson)  Europeans (French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders): 5% of population by 1775.

5  Christian minister was the most honored profession.  Most physicians were poorly trained and not held in high regard (1 st medical school founded in 1765).  If the physician was not available, the local barber was often summoned.

6  Agriculture involved about 90% of colonial America.  Fishing was less important than agriculture, but it was found in all the colonies.

7 Triangular Trade A ship would leave the colonies w/ rum and sail to the Gold Coast of Africa They would trade the liquor w/ African chiefs for captured slaves They headed to the West Indies and traded the surviving slaves For molasses, which would be distilled into rum in the colonies

8  In 1733, British Parliament passed the Molasses Act, aimed at squelching North American trade with the French West Indies.  This act, if successful, would have dealt a striking blow to the American economy and standard of living for Colonists.

9  American merchants responded to the act by bribing and smuggling their way around the law.  This was a foreshadowing to the colonists revolting rather than submitting to colonial rule.

10  Not until the 1700s did roads connect even the major cities.  News of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 reached Charleston from Philadelphia 29 days after the fourth of July.  Population tended to cluster along the banks of navigable rivers.

11  Taverns sprang up along main routes and gave people the chance to enjoy bowling, pool, and gambling equipment.  Taverns were also the de facto debate houses of the day for politics and the coming revolution.  Samuel Adams often held court in Boston’s Green Dragon Tavern.

12  An inter-colonial postal system was established by the mid 1700s.  Service was slow and infrequent, and mail carriers often passed the time by reading the letters entrusted to their care.

13  Two tax-supported churches were conspicuous in 1775; the Anglican Church (Church of England) and the Congregational Church (Puritan).  The Church of England became the official faith in GA, NC, SC, VA, and MD.  The Congregation Church was established in all New England colonies except RI.

14  Liberal ideas began to challenge the old-time religion.  Some worshippers now proclaimed that human beings were not necessarily predestined to damnation and might save themselves by leading a life of good works.

15  Arminianism was a threat to Calvinist predestination.  Named after Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, it preached that individual free will, not divine decree, determined a person’s eternal fate and all humans, not just the ‘elect’ could be saved if they freely accepted God’s grace

16  The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s was ignited by Johnathan Edwards and George Whitfield who preached an emphasis on direct, emotional, spirituality.

17  A debate was sparked between the old lights- Orthodox clergymen, who were skeptical of the emotionalism and theatricality of the revivalists, and the new lights- who defended the Awakening for its role in revitalizing American religion.

18  The Great Awakening led to the founding of “new light” centers of learning such as Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth.  It also broke down sectional boundaries as well as denominational lines and contributed to the growing sense that Americans had of themselves as a single people, united by a common history and shared experiences.

19  English education was seen as something reserved for the aristocratic few, and primary for leadership and males.  In Puritan New England, education was seen as important in order to be a good Christian rather than a good citizen.

20  Primary and secondary schools were created in New England almost from the outset of the colonies.  Elementary schools were present in the middle colonies and in the South, but because of geography, wealthy Southern families leaned on private tutors.  College education, at least in New England, was geared toward preparing for ministry.

21  Diet; Americans probably ate more meat than any people in the Old World.  Lacking basic comforts; Churches were not heated Homes poorly heated, No running water or indoor plumbing. Candles and whale oil lamps provided flickering illumination. Hogs roamed the streets to consume waste.

22  Lotteries were universally approved, even by the clergy, and were used to raise money for churches and colleges including Harvard.  British North American by 1775 looked like a patchwork quilt- each part slightly different, but stitched together by common origins, common ways of life, and common beliefs in toleration, economic development, and, above all, self-rule.

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