Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5. 1700 fewer than 300,000 people (20,000 were black) By 1775; 2.5 million (1.25 were black) Average colonist age in 1775; 16 years old."— Presentation transcript:
1700 fewer than 300,000 people (20,000 were black) By 1775; 2.5 million (1.25 were black) Average colonist age in 1775; 16 years old.
1700- 20 English for every American colonist. 1775- 3 English for every colonist (power balance is shifting) Most populous colonies; Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Maryland.
Germans: 6% of the population (150,000 by 1775) Most in Pennsylvania Scots-Irish: 7% of population (175,000 by 1775) Most in Pennsylvania Led the Regulators movement in North Carolina ( young Andrew Jackson) Europeans (French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders): 5% of population by 1775.
Christian minister was the most honored profession. Most physicians were poorly trained and not held in high regard (1 st medical school founded in 1765). If the physician was not available, the local barber was often summoned.
Agriculture involved about 90% of colonial America. Fishing was less important than agriculture, but it was found in all the colonies.
Triangular Trade A ship would leave the colonies w/ rum and sail to the Gold Coast of Africa They would trade the liquor w/ African chiefs for captured slaves They headed to the West Indies and traded the surviving slaves For molasses, which would be distilled into rum in the colonies
In 1733, British Parliament passed the Molasses Act, aimed at squelching North American trade with the French West Indies. This act, if successful, would have dealt a striking blow to the American economy and standard of living for Colonists.
American merchants responded to the act by bribing and smuggling their way around the law. This was a foreshadowing to the colonists revolting rather than submitting to colonial rule.
Not until the 1700s did roads connect even the major cities. News of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 reached Charleston from Philadelphia 29 days after the fourth of July. Population tended to cluster along the banks of navigable rivers.
Taverns sprang up along main routes and gave people the chance to enjoy bowling, pool, and gambling equipment. Taverns were also the de facto debate houses of the day for politics and the coming revolution. Samuel Adams often held court in Boston’s Green Dragon Tavern.
An inter-colonial postal system was established by the mid 1700s. Service was slow and infrequent, and mail carriers often passed the time by reading the letters entrusted to their care.
Two tax-supported churches were conspicuous in 1775; the Anglican Church (Church of England) and the Congregational Church (Puritan). The Church of England became the official faith in GA, NC, SC, VA, and MD. The Congregation Church was established in all New England colonies except RI.
Liberal ideas began to challenge the old-time religion. Some worshippers now proclaimed that human beings were not necessarily predestined to damnation and might save themselves by leading a life of good works.
Arminianism was a threat to Calvinist predestination. Named after Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, it preached that individual free will, not divine decree, determined a person’s eternal fate and all humans, not just the ‘elect’ could be saved if they freely accepted God’s grace
The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s was ignited by Johnathan Edwards and George Whitfield who preached an emphasis on direct, emotional, spirituality.
A debate was sparked between the old lights- Orthodox clergymen, who were skeptical of the emotionalism and theatricality of the revivalists, and the new lights- who defended the Awakening for its role in revitalizing American religion.
The Great Awakening led to the founding of “new light” centers of learning such as Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth. It also broke down sectional boundaries as well as denominational lines and contributed to the growing sense that Americans had of themselves as a single people, united by a common history and shared experiences.
English education was seen as something reserved for the aristocratic few, and primary for leadership and males. In Puritan New England, education was seen as important in order to be a good Christian rather than a good citizen.
Primary and secondary schools were created in New England almost from the outset of the colonies. Elementary schools were present in the middle colonies and in the South, but because of geography, wealthy Southern families leaned on private tutors. College education, at least in New England, was geared toward preparing for ministry.
Diet; Americans probably ate more meat than any people in the Old World. Lacking basic comforts; Churches were not heated Homes poorly heated, No running water or indoor plumbing. Candles and whale oil lamps provided flickering illumination. Hogs roamed the streets to consume waste.
Lotteries were universally approved, even by the clergy, and were used to raise money for churches and colleges including Harvard. British North American by 1775 looked like a patchwork quilt- each part slightly different, but stitched together by common origins, common ways of life, and common beliefs in toleration, economic development, and, above all, self-rule.