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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay 7-1 Exponential Functions, Growth and Decay Holt Algebra 2 Warm Up Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz Lesson Quiz

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Warm Up Evaluate (1.08) (0.95) (1 – 0.02) ( ) –10 ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ 46.32

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Write and evaluate exponential expressions to model growth and decay situations. Objective “I can…”

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay exponential function base asymptote exponential growth exponential decay Vocabulary

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Moore’s law, a rule used in the computer industry, states that the number of transistors per integrated circuit (the processing power) doubles every year. Beginning in the early days of integrated circuits, the growth in capacity may be approximated by this table.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Growth that doubles every year can be modeled by using a function with a variable as an exponent. This function is known as an exponential function. The parent exponential function is f(x) = b x, where the base b is a constant and the exponent x is the independent variable.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay The graph of the parent function f(x) = 2 x is shown. The domain is all real numbers and the range is {y|y > 0}.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Notice as the x-values decrease, the graph of the function gets closer and closer to the x-axis. The function never reaches the x-axis because the value of 2 x cannot be zero. In this case, the x-axis is an asymptote. An asymptote is a line that a graphed function approaches as the value of x gets very large or very small.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay A function of the form f(x) = ab x, with a > 0 and b > 1, is an exponential growth function, which increases as x increases. When 0 < b < 1, the function is called an exponential decay function, which decreases as x increases.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Negative exponents indicate a reciprocal. For example: Remember! In the function y = b x, y is a function of x because the value of y depends on the value of x. Remember!

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Tell whether the function shows growth or decay. Then graph. Example 1A: Graphing Exponential Functions Step 1 Find the value of the base. The base,,is less than 1. This is an exponential decay function.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Example 1A Continued Step 2 Graph the function by using a table of values. x f(x)

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Tell whether the function shows growth or decay. Then graph. Example 1B: Graphing Exponential Functions Step 1 Find the value of the base. g(x) = 100(1.05) x The base, 1.05, is greater than 1. This is an exponential growth function. g(x) = 100(1.05) x

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Example 1B Continued Step 2 Graph the function by using a graphing calculator.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Tell whether the function p(x) = 5(1.2 x ) shows growth or decay. Then graph. Step 1 Find the value of the base. Check It Out! Example 1 p(x) = 5(1.2 x ) The base, 1.2, is greater than 1. This is an exponential growth function.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Step 2 Graph the function by using a table of values. x–12–8– f(x) Check It Out! Example 1 Continued

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay You can model growth or decay by a constant percent increase or decrease with the following formula: In the formula, the base of the exponential expression, 1 + r, is called the growth factor. Similarly, 1 – r is the decay factor.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay X is used on the graphing calculator for the variable t: Y1 =5000 * ^X Helpful Hint

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Clara invests $5000 in an account that pays 6.25% interest per year. After how many years will her investment be worth $10,000? Example 2: Economics Application Step 1 Write a function to model the growth in value of her investment. f(t) = a(1 + r) t Exponential growth function. Substitute 5000 for a and for r. f(t) = 5000( ) t f(t) = 5000(1.0625) t Simplify.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Example 2 Continued Step 2 When graphing exponential functions in an appropriate domain, you may need to adjust the range a few times to show the key points of the function. Step 3 Use the graph to predict when the value of the investment will reach $10,000. Use the feature to find the t-value where f(t) ≈ 10,000.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Example 2 Continued Step 3 Use the graph to predict when the value of the investment will reach $10,000. Use the feature to find the t-value where f(t) ≈ 10,000. The function value is approximately 10,000 when t ≈ The investment will be worth $10,000 about years after it was purchased.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay In 1981, the Australian humpback whale population was 350 and increased at a rate of 14% each year since then. Write a function to model population growth. Use a graph to predict when the population will reach 20,000. P(t) = a(1 + r) t Substitute 350 for a and 0.14 for r. P(t) = 350( ) t P(t) = 350(1.14) t Simplify. Exponential growth function. Check It Out! Example 2

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Graph the function. Use to find when the population will reach 20,000. It will take about 31 years for the population to reach 20,000. Check It Out! Example 2 Continued

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay A city population, which was initially 15,500, has been dropping 3% a year. Write an exponential function and graph the function. Use the graph to predict when the population will drop below Example 3: Depreciation Application f(t) = a(1 – r) t Substitute 15,500 for a and 0.03 for r. f(t) = 15,500(1 – 0.03) t f(t) = 15,500(0.97) t Simplify. Exponential decay function.

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Example 3 Continued Graph the function. Use to find when the population will fall below It will take about 22 years for the population to fall below ,

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay A motor scooter purchased for $1000 depreciates at an annual rate of 15%. Write an exponential function and graph the function. Use the graph to predict when the value will fall below $100. f(t) = a(1 – r) t Substitute 1,000 for a and 0.15 for r. f(t) = 1000(1 – 0.15) t f(t) = 1000(0.85) t Simplify. Exponential decay function. Check It Out! Example 3

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Graph the function. Use to find when the value will fall below 100. It will take about 14.2 years for the value to fall below 100. Check It Out! Example 3 Continued

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Holt Algebra Exponential Functions, Growth, and Decay Lesson Quiz In 2000, the world population was 6.08 billion and was increasing at a rate 1.21% each year. 1. Write a function for world population. Does the function represent growth or decay? P(t) = 6.08(1.0121) t 2. Use a graph to predict the population in ≈ 7.73 billion The value of a $3000 computer decreases about 30% each year. 3. Write a function for the computer’s value. Does the function represent growth or decay? 4. Use a graph to predict the value in 4 years. V(t)≈ 3000(0.7) t ≈ $720.30

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