Presentation on theme: "Developing and Argumentative or Persuasive Essay"— Presentation transcript:
1Developing and Argumentative or Persuasive Essay Senior EnglishMs. Hooper
2Getting StartedChoose something you have some knowledge of from your own experience or observations, from class discussions, or from reading, although you will need to do further research.The topic should be limited to something you can treat thoroughly in the space and time available to you.The topic should be something that you feel strongly about so that you can make a convincing case; however, you must be able to maintain some objectivity to avoid bias and close-mindedness.
3Things to consider: What is the purpose of your argument? Do you want the audience to agree with you? Are you simply trying to when it over?Are expecting audience members to take an action? Write a congressman? Boycott a product? Contribute funds? Volunteer time? Etc.Who is your audience? This will affect your diction, sentence structure, formality, etc.For this class, you will be writing a formal argument. Assume your audience is a group of intelligent professionals.
4After you’ve choses a subject you need to find evidence: Facts – verifiable through more than one source. Wikipedia, blogs, personal webpages, chat rooms, social media WILL NOT be acceptable.Statistics – like facts these must be verifiableExamplesExpert testimony – remember to consider credentials/credibility of the expertPersonal experience – anecdotes, personal testimony
5Forming your thesis/stating your claim Clear and specific preliminary thesis statement can help clarify your ideasExamples of the ugly, the bad, and the good:VAGUE: Computer instruction is important.NONDEBATABLE: Our school’s investment in computer instruction is less than the average investment in the nation’s public schools.PRECISE: Money designated for new athletic facilities should be diverted to constructing computer facilities and hiring first-rate computer staff.
6Another example: VAGUE: Cloning research is promising. NONDEBATABLE: Scientists have been experimenting with cloning procedures for many years.PRECISE: Those who oppose cloning research should consider its potentially valuable medical applications.
7Organizing Introduction Should draw readers in Frame your argument Include thesis statement (if using deduction)May include an anecdote, interested catching quote or startling statisticBodyPresent evidence to support your claimAcknowledge and refute counter-claimsConclusionMay summarize main pointIncluded thesis statement (if using induction)Use an effective quotationAn appropriate emotional appealA call to action
8DraftingOutline – will help organize your notes (you will be required to use note cards and complete an outline)Remember topic sentences, transitionsDefine specialized terms or those you use in a special senseYou may choose to compare/contrast or present a cause and effect formatFind what works for you and your subject
9Revising & Editing Ask the following: Is the thesis debatable, precise and clear?Is the argument unified (does it hold together)?Is the structure of the argument clear and compelling?Is the evidence specific, representative and adequate?Are any logical fallacies present?
10Next: Let’s talk TONEAudiences are most likely to be persuaded by an argument that isReasonableTrustworthySincereTo do this the argument needsRational appealStrong evidenceAcknowledgement of opposing viewsbut TONE, the attitude implied by the word choice and sentence structure is just as important.
11State opinions and facts calmly OVEREXCITEDOne clueless administrator was quoted in the newspaper as saying she thought many students who claim learning disabilities are “faking” their difficulties to obtain special treatment! Has she never heard of dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, and other well-established disabilities?CALMParticularly worrisome was one administrator’s statement, quoted in the newspaper, that many students who claim learning disabilities may be “faking” their difficulties to obtain special treatment.
12Replace arrogance with deference ARROGANTI happen to know that many parents would rather relax or just bury their heads in the sand than get involved in a serious, worthy campaign against the district’s unjust learning-disabled policies.DEFERENTIALTime pressures and lack of information about the issues may be what prevent parents from joining the campaign against the district’s unjust learning-disabled policies.
13Replace sarcasm with plain speaking* SARCASTICOf course, the administration knows even without meeting students what is best for every one of them.PLAIN SPEAKINGThe administration should agree to meet with each learning-disabled student to understand his or her needs.
14Convey Reasonableness instead of Hostility HOSTILEThe administration coerced some parents into dropping their lawsuits. [coerced implies the use of threats or violence]REASONABLEThe administration convinced some parents to drop their lawsuits. [convinced implies the use of reason]
15Works CitedCooley, Thomas. Back to the Lake: A Reader for Writers. New York: W. W. Norton, Repetto, Ellen Kuhl and Jane E. Aaron. Common Threads: Core Readings by Method and Theme. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014.