2Spain’s Empire and European absolutism Chapter 5 Section 1
3A Powerful Spanish Empire Phillip II’s EmpirePhillip II inherits the Spanish Netherlands, American colonies, and most importantly Spain from his father Charles VHow does the book describe Phillip II? How does he prove his strength right away?Spain’s wealth came mostly from American mines…allowed Spain to support a large standing army, significance?Defender of CatholicismEurope and especially Spain were used to religious conflict…the Reconquista? The Spanish Inquisition?Phillip sends troop to defend Catholicism and the pope…defend them from who?Spain was defeated but was still able to keep up its image of wealth and power
4Golden age of Spanish art and literature El Greco and VelazquezWhy were the Spanish able to be patrons of the arts?El Greco wasn’t really Spanish…Paintings represented the deep Catholic faith of SpainVelazquez represented who in his paintings?Use of rich colors by eachDon QuixoteBirth of the modern _________ novelWhat’s the story?Mocking chivalry or being idealistic
9The Spanish Empire Weakens Inflation and TaxesDecline in the value of money because of the high demand for goods and services and _____________ flooded the market?Artisans and businessmen were expelled, why?Too high of taxes on the poor and no taxes on the nobility…ut oh!Making Spain’s Enemies RichWhy did the Spanish feel the need to buy goods elsewhere? Does this sound familiar?Spain borrows money from the Germans and Italians to pay for wars…bankrupt!The Dutch RevoltPhillips’s taxing and eventual slaughtering of Protestants in the Netherlands…boom new independent country!
10The Independent Dutch prosper The Dutch created a republic and tolerated different religions…weird!Dutch ArtBest banks, best artists… “Northern Renaissance”Rembrandt (not the toothpaste) was the most famous…light and shadowVermeer painted domestic indoor settings…importance of the ______ classDutch Trading EmpireLargest fleet in the world….Dutch East India Company dominated!Dutchies take over as the bankers of Europe
12Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism Absolute monarchs…whoa, we know this!Goal? Total control. Divine Right of course!Who did these leaders answer to?Growing Power of the MonarchsEnd of the Middle Ages-decline of ________Growing middle class tended to back monarchs, why?Religious authority decreases so who is getting all of their power?Crises Lead to AbsolutismMonarchs tried to create order by increasing their own power and controlling every part of society. Sound fun?
135.1 DAILY QuestionsExplain the economic weaknesses of the Spanish Empire.Explain the ways in which the Dutch Empire prospered following its independence from SpainHonors Only3. Do you think a wealthy society is necessary for the production of great art? Why or why not? Explain.
15Religious Wars and Power Struggles Henry of NavarreBecame Henry IV the first king of the Bourbon dynastyCatholics opposed Henry, why?With the Edict of Nantes Henry allows the Huguenots (French Protestants) to live and worship in FranceDevoted to rebuilding France and restoring the monarchyHow does Henry die?Louis XIII and Cardinal RichelieuLouis XIII’s minister (and leader of the Catholic Church in France) essentially rules France…problem?Moves against the Huguenots and weakened the power of the nobles (relied on middle class gov’t agents)France enters the 30 Years’ War to limit the power of the Hapsburgs
16Writers Turn Toward Skepticism Skepticism-nothing can be known for certain…began to doubt the churchMontaigne and DescartesThe development of the essay and the idea that humans could never have absolute knowledge of truthDescartes used __________ and ________ to answer arguments and create his own philosophy
17Louis XIV Comes to Power “L’etat, c’est moi.”-Louis XIVLouis, the Boy KingCardinal Mazarin takes over was Richelieu's successor but he was very unpopular, why?The French people rebelled but failed because:Leaders distrusted one anotherThe gov’t used violent repressionPeople grew tired of disorder and fightingLouis Weakens the Nobles’ AuthorityLouis comes to power at age 22, decreases the power of the nobility and increases the power of intendants (no one likes the tax man)Jean Baptiste Colbert attempts to make France self-sufficient (mercantilism), what does that mean?Gives money to businesses, imposes high tariffsLouis contradicts Colbert and cancels the Edict of Nantes which does what?
18The Sun King’s Grand Style Louis Controls the NobilityNobles at the palace increased Louis’s power, how?Louis’s Palace at Versailles was like a royal city…so extravagant! Anyone been there?Patronage of the ArtsArt was an important aspect of Louis’s reignArt was not to glorify ________ anymore, but instead to glorify the ________!Do you think Louis was an absolute monarch?
25Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Attempts to Expand France’s BoundariesEuropean alliances against France allowed for very little expansion…seeking a balance of power in EuropeEngland, Austria Hapsburg, Sweden, and Spain form an alliance against a weakened FranceWar of the Spanish SuccessionCharles II dies and leaves his throne to who?The War of Spanish Succession was fought to prevent the __________ from taking the _________ throne.Louis’s grandson was allowed to rule as long as France and Spain were not unitedWho was the ultimate winner here? (slaves and territory)
26Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Louis’s Death and LegacyBy the end of his reign Louis began to feel bad about the suffering of his peopleHe left a mixed legacyThe positives: art, literature, statesmanship, military, coloniesThe negatives: debt, taxes on the poor
275.2 DAILY QuestionsExplain Jean Baptiste Colbert’s plan for France’s economy. How did this strategy change after Colbert’s death?Explain the differences between Henry IV and his son Louis XIII in terms of ruling and economic policies.Honors Only3. How might political and religious leaders have reacted to the work of Montaigne? Did Descartes’s response to the challenges of skeptics such as Montaigne put an end to the skeptics’ argument?
28Central European Monarchs Clash Chapter 5 Section 3
29The Thirty Years’ War Peace of Westphalia Bohemian Protestants RevoltFerdinand II (a Catholic) rules Bohemia (in the Czech Kingdom, a widely Protestant place)The Thirty Years’ War was a conflict over __________ and _______ among European ruling familiesHapsburg TriumphsThe Hapsburg armies are able to crush uprisings…how does Ferdinand II pay his troops?Hapsburg DefeatsGustavus Adolphus runs the show until his death in 1632Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin join the Protestants even though they are Catholic, why?Peace of WestphaliaGermany is destroyed by the war and recovery would be long and difficultPeace of Westphalia ends the warWeakened Spain and AustriaStrengthened France how?German princes became independent from who?Ended religious warsChanged negotiation techniques, how?What was the most important result of the Thirty Years’ War?
30States form in Central Europe Poland, Holy Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire become strongEconomic Contrasts with the WestWhy was western Europe’s economy so different from eastern Europe?Several Weak EmpiresLack of a strong leader in PolandThe Ottoman Empire could not conquer anymore of EuropeH.R.E. was weakened by _____________Austria Grows StrongerHapsburg of Austria did three things:Wiped out Protestantism in the Czech territoryCentral gov’t, standing ________Took back Hungary
32States Form in Central Europe Maria Theresa Inherits the ThroneA diverse group of people lived under the Hapsburg…how would they all get along? How were they all “united”?Charles VI asks the rest of Europe to recognize his daughter Maria Theresa as the heir to the throne and ruler of all of their territoriesDid Maria Theresa have a peaceful reign?
34Prussia Challenges Austria The Rise of PrussiaFrederick William (The Great Elector) decides to build up the Prussian _______ to protect their landsHow is the monarchy in Prussia created?The landowning nobility pressure the monarchy…how does the monarchy respond?Frederick the GreatFrederick II was taught at an early age how to rule (militarily)A ruler should be like a ___________ to his peopleReligious toleration and legal reform…not as strict as dad
35Prussia Challenges Austria War of the Austrian SuccessionMaria Theresa and Frederick II battle over territory just outside of PrussiaAustria, Hungary, and GB vs. France and Prussia…who wins?With Silesia, Prussia becomes a major world powerThe Seven Years’ WarPrussia and Austria switch allies and Russia becomes a part of European affairsThe Seven Years war was fought on three different continents but resulted in no territorial changes (in Europe)Who was the real winner here, why?
365.3 DAILY QuestionsWhy was the Peace of Westphalia not only significant to the time (1628), but also significant to modern day Europe?Compare and contrast the leadership styles of Maria Theresa of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia.Honors Only3. How might Catholic Church officials have reacted to Richelieu’s and Mazarin’s actions during the ThirtyYears’ War?
38The First CZARIvan IV aka Ivan the ___________ came to the throne of Russia at what age?The landowning nobles attempted to control Ivan until he crowned himself czar and married Anastasia RomanovRule by TerrorWhy does Ivan turn against the boyars?What did Ivan do to earn him the name Ivan the Terrible?Ivan even killed his oldest and strongest son, the heir to the Russian throneRise of the RomanovsThe “Time of Troubles” occurs because Ivan’s son is incapable…imposters even try to take the throneMichael Romanov (Anastasia’s grandnephew) is chosen to rule…why is this significant?
39Peter the Great Comes to Power Peter the Great, another absolute ruler restores order and strengthens the gov’t in RussiaRussia Contrasts with EuropeSerfdom continued through the 1800s, why?Boyars knew little about Western Europe…the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration, significance?How was Russia geographically isolated?Many Russians were Eastern Orthodox, not Catholic or ProtestantPeter Visits the WestWhat did Peter focus on in terms of advancing Russia technologically?Peter learns about western culture and brings back ideas of the rest of Europe
40Peter Rules Absolutely Peter’s ultimate goal was the westernization of Russia to keep up with Europe both militarily and commerciallyPeter’s ReformsBrings the Russian Orthodox Church under state control with the SynodReduce the power of landowners and increased the power of who?Drilled the army with European tactics, a soldier’s job was his lifeWesternizing RussiaPotatoesNewspapersWomenFashionEducation
41Peter Rules Absolutely Establishing St. PetersburgPeter fights ___________ in order to obtain the “window on Europe” on the Baltic Coast…for what purpose?What kind of land did Peter build this port city upon? Easy or difficult?Terrible working conditions and diseases killed many Russian serfsRussian __________ were able to move to the new port city at St. PetersburgWas Peter successful at westernizing Russia?
425.4 DAILY QuestionsHow were serfs treated in Russia? Give specific details.What was the most significant way Peter the Great westernized Russia? Explain.Honors Only3. Why did Peter want to bring the Orthodox Church under state control?
43Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Chapter 5 Section 5
44Parliament Limits the English Monarchy James Stuart (King of Scotland) becomes King James I of ___________, why?James’s ProblemsStruggles with Parliament over moneyRefused to make Puritan reforms like?Charles I Fights ParliamentTakes over when James dies in 1625, at war and always needs $$$Petition of RightImprisonmentTaxesSoldiersMartial lawHow did Charles respond? Importance?
45English Civil WarCharles wanted both of his kingdoms to follow one religion (Anglican Church)In order to oppose the Scots Charles needs money from who?War Topples a KingThe English Civil War was fought between the __________ and the _________.The leader of the Puritans, Oliver Cromwell captured the king and put him on trial for treasonWhy was the death sentence for Charles revolutionary?
46English Civil War Cromwell’s Rule Cromwell establishes a republic but eventually becomes a ______________ dictatorshipCromwell takes over Ireland, how did he treat the Irish?Puritan MoralityCromwell and the Puritans hope to relieve England of sinful activities such as?Cromwell believed in religious toleration for most religions except ____________Jews were able to come back to England as well
47Restoration and Revolution The son of Charles is asked to rule as England grows tired of military ruleCharles II ReignsThe period of Charles II rules is called what?The idea of habeas corpus is introduced…what does this mean?Parliament debated who would be Charles’s heir…why didn’t they want his brother James? Whigs and Tories emerge, significance?James II and the Glorious RevolutionJames displays his Catholicism and the English are not happyWhy were William and Mary invited to take over the English throne?
48Limits on Monarch’s Power England changes from a ____________ monarchy to a ____________ monarchy under William and Mary, significance?Bill of Rights1689 document addresses Parliament’s laws, freedom of speech and petitions against the kingWill and Mary agree to significant checks on their powerCabinet System DevelopsThe cabinet serves as a mediator between Parliament and the monarchyUnder this system “the leader of the majority party in Parliament heads the cabinet and is called the prime minister” what does this mean?
495.5 Daily QuestionsExplain the idea of Habeas Corpus, why was it so significant for the people of England?How did the constitutional monarchy differ from the previous absolute monarchy in England?Honors Only3. Why might William and Mary have been willing to accept the limits placed on their authority?