Presentation on theme: "Propaganda: communications to the public that are designed to influence opinion. The information may be true or false, but it is always carefully selected."— Presentation transcript:
Propaganda: communications to the public that are designed to influence opinion. The information may be true or false, but it is always carefully selected for its persuasive effect.
Propaganda differs from persuasion in that Propaganda appeals to the emotions, while argument appeals to reason. Propaganda Propaganda Propaganda often has a negative connotation. Propaganda is often used in advertising and politics—any time someone is trying to convince another.
Negative Connotation of Propaganda “The receptivity of the masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan.” ― Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler
“I use emotion for the many and reserve reason for the few.” ― Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler
BANDWAGON: Think "getting on the bandwagon." This gives the idea that everyone is doing this, or everyone supports this person/cause, so should you.
BANDWAGON: EXAMPLE: Everyone in Lemmingtown is behind Jim Duffie for Mayor. Shouldn't you be part of this winning team?
TESTIMONIAL: This is the celebrity support of a philosophy, movement or candidate.
TESTIMONIAL: EXAMPLE: "Sam Slugger", a baseball Hall of Famer who led the pros in hitting for years, appears in a television ad supporting Mike Politico for U.S. Senate.
PLAIN FOLKS: The candidate or cause is identified with common people from everyday walks of life.
Plain Folks EXAMPLE: After a morning speech, Bill Clinton stops by McDonald's for a burger, fries, and photo-op.
TRANSFER: Use of symbols, quotes, or the images of famous people to convey a message not necessarily associated with them.
TRANSFER: An advertiser might use a flag to connect his product with patriotism.
GLITTERING GENERALITIES: Closely related to TRANSFER. A generally accepted virtue is used to stir up favorable emotions. The problem is that these words mean different things to different people and are often manipulated for the propagandist’s use.
GLITTERING GENERALITIES: EXAMPLE: An ad by a cigarette manufacturer proclaims to smokers: Don't let them take your rights away!
NAME-CALLING: This is the opposite of the GLITTERING GENERALITIES approach. Name-calling ties a person or cause to a largely perceived negative image.
NAME-CALLING: EXAMPLE: In a campaign speech to a logging company, the Congressman referred to his environmentally conscious opponent as a "tree hugger."
CARD STACKING: This device tells only part of the truth. It overemphasizes or underemphasizes to avoid issues and manipulate facts. Card stacking made include use of red herrings.
CARD STACKING: Example: CleanWhite toothpaste gets your teeth 50% cleaner. (Omitting the fact that the statistic means 50% cleaner than NOT brushing.)
Advertising Appeals Appealing to Emotions
Uses Advertising. Politics. Any place someone uses emotional appeals rather than logic to get something.
In Advertising: Claims about the product It will change your life! It will meet an essential need! It will solve your problems!
Appeal to emotions: Especially for Instinctive Needs Survive Security Sex Altruism Curiosity Adventure Belonging Health
Instinctive needs Instinctive needs are feelings we have naturally; we don’t have to learn them.
Appeal to emotions: Cultural Values Youth/beauty Entertainment Value $ Succeed Status Easy and convenient
Cultural Values Our culture often makes us feel as if we need something that we really don’t need. We learn this through seeing culture around us.
Typical format: Parable Ad tells a story Person has problem/need Discovers product Problem solved
Instinctive and Cultural Appeals Youth/beauty Entertainment Value $ Succeed Status Easy and convenient Survive Security Sex Altruism Curiosity Adventure Belonging Health
values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions.
Appeal to the audience’s values regarding the sense of right and wrong. Shared values Honesty Fairness Value of life Equality Justice Trust Freedom of choice