Presentation on theme: "Plagiarism and how to avoid it!. What is plagiarism? With a partner, write what you believe it is."— Presentation transcript:
Plagiarism and how to avoid it!
What is plagiarism? With a partner, write what you believe it is.
Plagiarism is… When the writer directly quotes a passage or passages from an author's work without the use of proper quotation marks. (Any three words in the same order.) When the writer uses information that is not common knowledge and does not give the source credit.
Real life consequences: Damaged the reputation of two prominent historians, Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns Goodwin, –Kearns left television position and stepped down as Pulitzer Prize judge for “lifting” 50 passages for her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (Lewis) Senator Joseph Biden dropped his 1987 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. (Sabato) –Copied in law school and borrowed from campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy Boston Globe journalist Mike Barnicle forced to resign for plagiarism in his columns (“Boston Columnist...”) Probe of plagiarism at UVA--45 students dismissed, 3 graduate degrees revoked –CNN Article AP. 26 Nov. 2001CNN Article –Channel One Article AP. 27 Nov. 2002Channel One Article
Consequences (cont’d) Controversial New Jersey valedictorian denied her seat as a Harvard freshman when it discovered she plagiarized in a local newspaper.
Possible school consequences: “0” on the assignment Parent notification Referral to administrators Suspension or dismissal from school activities--sports and extracurricular Note on student record
Is this important? What if: –Your architect cheated his way through math class. Will your new home be safe? –Your lawyer paid for a copy of the bar exam to study. Will the contract she wrote for you stand up in court? –The accountant who does your taxes hired someone to write his papers and paid a stand-in to take his major tests? Does he know enough to complete your tax forms properly? (Lathrop and Foss 87)
So… You must always distinguish your own words and ideas from the words and ideas of others. If you fail to cite your sources, whether deliberately or inadvertently, you will still be found responsible for the act of plagiarism. When in doubt, cite.
Original Source Material: The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated -- and interesting -- is how those parts are connected or related to each other. How is the following plagiarized from the Original Material? A system has parts that fit together to make a whole, but the important aspect of systems is how those parts are connected or related to each other (Frick, 1991).
Original Source Material: The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated -- and interesting -- is how those parts are connected or related to each other. Why is the following acceptable? Frick states that "... a system has parts that fit together to make a whole..." but the important aspect of systems is "... how those parts are connected or related to each other" (17).
Original Source Material: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. Why is the following unacceptable? The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America.
What makes this sentence plagiarism? The preceding sentence is considered plagiarism for two reasons: the writer has only changed around a few words and phrases, or changed the order of the original’s sentences. the writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts.
How to avoid plagiarism…
1. Quotation Information taken from a source, no matter how large or small the quotation, must be placed in quotation marks or, if longer than three lines, clearly indented beyond the regular margin. The quotation must be accompanied by source information (author or title and possible page number). Even if you use only a short phrase, or even one key word, you must use quotation marks in order to set off the borrowed language from your own, and you must cite the source.
2. Paraphrase. Paraphrase is a restatement of another person’s thoughts or ideas in your own words, using your own sentence structure. A paraphrase is normally about the same length as the original. Don’t use quotes in a paraphrase- but you still must give credit.. If another author’s idea is particularly well put, quote it and use quotation marks to distinguish his or her words from your own. Paraphrase your source if you can restate the idea more clearly or simply, or if you want to place the idea in the flow of your own thoughts—though be sure to announce your source in your own text (“Albert Einstein believed that…”) and always include a citation. Paraphrasing does not relieve you of the responsibility to cite your source.
3. Summary Summary is a concise statement of another person’s thoughts or ideas in your own words. A summary is normally shorter than the original — a distillation of the source’s ideas. When summarizing other people’s ideas, arguments, or conclusions, you must cite your sources
4. Facts, Information, Data Often you’ll want to use facts or information to support your own argument. If the information is found exclusively in a particular source, you must clearly acknowledge that source. But if the fact or information is generally known and accepted — for example, that Woodrow Wilson served as president of the United States. Note that facts are different from ideas: facts may not need to be cited, whereas ideas must always be cited.
How to give credit to your sources… How to do an intext citation.