what do you Know about WWII?what do you Want to know?
Totalitarianism – government that tries to exert complete control over its citizens by denying them rights and suppressing opposition Fascism – a government that stresses nationalism and interests of the state above individual interests. Nazism – German fascist government based on extreme nationalism Communism – economic and political system based on one-party gov. and state ownership of property
Appeasement – belief that if the demands of dissatisfied powers were met, they would be content and peace would be achieved Munich Conferences France and Britain gave into Hitler’s demands for the Sudetenland in order to avoid war League of Nations did not act against Axis aggression towards surrounding nations
Resulted in high unemployment, high inflation, home and farm foreclosures, and business failures Spread world-wide; hit European nations hard Caused them to focus on internal problems and ignore Axis aggression Countries look for strong leaders to solve economic problems
Axis Powers used aggressive measures to expand their borders Created tension and conflict with other nations Germany annexed Austria (Anschluss), Sudetenland, & Czechoslovakia invaded Poland, Norway, Denmark, and eventually France (through Belgium and Netherlands) using the blitzkrieg Italy attacked Ethiopia and parts of N. Africa Japan expanded into Manchuria and China
Rome-Berlin Axis – the alliance between Germany and Italy recognized their common political and economic interests Anti-Comintern Pact – alliance between Japan and Germany combat communism Tripartite Pact – mutual defense treaty between Germany, Italy, and Japan If attacked, each would come to the defense of the other Aimed at keeping the U.S. out of the war
Humiliated the Axis Powers and caused anger and resentment. Germany resented the provisions of the treaty and eventually violated the terms Rebuilt air force (Luftwaffe) Reinstituted military draft Reoccupied the Rhineland ( demilitarized zone) Japan angry they didn’t get a “racial equality” clause Italy resented their treatment and not getting the land they were “promised”.
Soviet Union Spain France Italy Austria Belgium Germany Poland Czechoslovakia United Kingdom Bulgaria Albania Greece Hungary Portugal Romania Switz. Turkey Yugoslavia Moscow Stalingrad Leningrad Rome Paris London Berlin East Prussia Rhineland Sudetenland Sweden Finland Norway Estonia Latvia Lithuania Denmark Netherlands Ireland Syria MoroccoAlgeria Tunisia Iraq Casablanca Algiers Libya Egypt Palestine Lebanon
Rise of totalitarian dictators Germany: Hitler Italy: Mussolini Spain: Franco USSR: Joseph Stalin Stressed extreme nationalism and militarism, leading to aggression Demanded total obedience of its citizens, giving them total power Strong racism
General Hideki Tojo took control after the military seized political power. Japan used military aggression to conquer Pacific territory Conquered Manchuria (renamed Manchukuo), Indochina, and parts of China Used extreme brutality against enemies U.S. imposed economic sanctions to protest Japanese aggression in S.E. Asia
U.S. foreign policy in the 1920’s and 30’s Congress passed the Neutrality Acts that prevented the U.S. from aiding countries threatened by aggressors Lead to other forms of action (sanctions) Did not join League of Nations, making it weak and ineffective. Axis Powers viewed U.S. as weak (Japan) Tripartite Pact Axis countries believed the U.S. would not respond militarily to their aggression
Wanted more land to support larger population saw Soviet Union and eastern European states as extra space Jews, Slavs, and all nonwhite were inferior (used as slave labor or killed) Aryan race would dominate
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact – agreement between Hitler and Stalin Hitler wanted Poland, but not ready to begin a two front war Protected by France and G.B. Not ready to fight USSR Promised not to attack each other Exchanged control of regions in Poland (you invade eastern half, I invade western half)
BEFORE 19391940-41 Neutrality Acts – outlawed arm sales or loans to nations at war U.S. began a “cash-and- carry” provision – other countries could purchase weapons Had to pay cash and transport on their own ship Implemented too late Lend-Lease Act U.S. would lend or lease supplies to any country whose defense was vital to the U.S. Britain and Soviet Union Atlantic Charter U.S. and Britain pledged cooperation and security Creation of United Nations
Japan continued expanding into Indochina U.S. embargoed oil Japan prepared to attack while representatives “negotiated” U.S. broke Japanese codes and learned of attack, but uncertain of where or when Japan cut off talks on Dec. 6 th Next morning, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor – the largest U.S. naval base in the Pacific Dec. 8 th, FDR addressed Congress and requested a declaration of war against Japan.
Do you think that the United States should have waited to be attacked before declaring war? Think About: the reputation of the United States the influence of isolationists the events at Pearl Harbor Axis Aggression Answers: waited – Not waited -
1. What persuasive images and slogans are featured in this poster? 2. To what emotions does this poster appeal? 3. Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was determined to avoid war and remain neutral. In what ways does this poster attempt to change public opinion? 4. How successful do you think its appeal for support is? Bell Ringer – 4/25
1.Selective Service System Instituted draft Provided the country with about 10 million soldiers 2.Office of Scientific Research and Development Improvements in radar and sonar Encouraged use of pesticides to fight insects (lice) Helped development of “miracle drugs” that saved lives of soldiers (morphine; penicillin) Development of the atomic bomb 3.Women and Minorities Women served in WAAC and other auxiliary branches Worked in war industries Enlisted in armed forces (Mexican Americans, African Americans, Native Americans, and Asian Americans) 4.Entertainment industry Created war-oriented propaganda films Created an escape from the realities of war for a few hours
5.Manufacturers Converted factories to production of war goods Build and expanded shipyards and defense plants 6.Office of Price Administration Fought inflation by freezing prices, rents, and wages Set up a system for rationing Production of war bonds 7.War Production Board Oversaw the conversion from peacetime to wartime production Allocated raw materials to industries that needed them Organized scrap drives (rubber, aluminum, newspaper, etc) 8.Rationing Reduced consumption of energy, goods, and supplies essential for the military Ration books/coupons
Name of Battle D-Day Cartoon or Propaganda poster about the Battle Poster should be from the perspective of or directed to the United States Date of Battle June 6 – August, 1944 Location of Battle Shores of Normandy, France Europe Countries involved Allies – U.S., Great Britain, Canada Axis - Germany Description of Battle Allied paratroopers were dropped behind the beach line of defense early in the morning to help take out some resistance. Other forces landed early morning on French shores, which were heavily guarded by German troops. Allied took 5 beaches: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. Outcome of the Battle Allied managed defeat German defenses and secure the beaches within a few days. Significance Allies opened a second front in Europe. Allies able to bring additional troops and supplies into Europe. Liberated France within a few months.
Soviet Union Spain France Italy Austria Belgium Germany Poland Czechoslovakia United Kingdom Bulgaria Albania Greece Hungary Portugal Romania Switz. Turkey Yugoslavia Moscow Stalingrad Leningrad Rome Paris London Berlin East Prussia Sweden Finland Norway Estonia Latvia Lithuania Denmark Netherlands Ireland Morocco Algeria Tunisia LibyaEgypt Casablanca
China Manchukuo Soviet Union Japan French Indochina Australia Burma Thailand Dutch East Indies Solomon Islands Hawaii Korea Philippines Tokyo Hiroshima Nagasaki Pearl Harbor Beijing Manila Hong Kong
Germany first split uranium atom U.S. gov. encouraged to begin their own research Manhattan Project began in late 1941 First nuclear chain reaction in Dec.1942 under Stagg Field in Chicago Main test and assembly site – Los Alamos, NM Headed by Robert Oppenheimer Trinity Test – July 16, 1945 First atomic bomb, “Gadget”
PROCON Harry Truman, President of the United States Henry Stimson, Secretary of War Historians Dwight Eisenhower, supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe Douglas McArthur, supreme commander of Allied forces in the Pacific Albert Einstein, informant Robert J. Oppenheimer, lead scientist of Manhattan Project
Decided to use the atomic bomb Japan still had a large army Land invasion would cost more American lives and money
Stalin Harsh punishment of Germany Keep Germany divided into zones Roosevelt Wanted Soviet Union to help out in the Pacific Wanted United Nations ROOSEVELT, CHURCHILL AND STALIN DISCUSSED POSTWAR ISSUES AGREEMENTS TEMPORARY DIVISION OF GERMANY INTO 4 ZONES (TO BE REUNITED LATER) FREE AND UNFETTERED ELECTIONS IN POLAND SOVIET UNION HELP OUT AGAINST JAPAN AGREED TO JOIN THE UNITED NATIONS
Nuremburg Trials held for Nazi leaders Japanese leaders were arrested, tried, and executed Douglas MacArthur reshaped Japan during the American occupation
GI Bill of Rights – a bill passed by Congress that provided education and training for veterans, paid for by the gov. James Farmer – a civil rights leader who founded CORE Congress of Racial Equality – an interracial organization that confronted urban segregation in the north Internment – confinement; camps were created to confine the Japanese Americans during WW II Japanese American Citizens League – an organization that pushed the gov. to compensate Japanese Americans who were in the internment camps for their loss of property
AdvancesProblems Economy Civil Rights low unemployment rising crop prices opportunities for women Higher wages shortage of housing shortage of food rationing more equality in the military more job opportunities founding of CORE Segregation discrimination race riots in Det. and L.A. Internment of Japanese Americans