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WORLD WAR II Versailles Treaties Versailles Treaties –Primary Goals: Redraw map of Europe to account for ethnicity/self- determination Redraw map of Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II Versailles Treaties Versailles Treaties –Primary Goals: Redraw map of Europe to account for ethnicity/self- determination Redraw map of Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II Versailles Treaties Versailles Treaties –Primary Goals: Redraw map of Europe to account for ethnicity/self- determination Redraw map of Europe to account for ethnicity/self- determination –Extremely difficult to do (border disputes) Web of restraint around Germany (Attempt to solve German Question once and for all) Web of restraint around Germany (Attempt to solve German Question once and for all) –Successful? Not really – Several reasons why Not really – Several reasons why

2 Why does the treaty fail? Allies failed to achieve complete victory Allies failed to achieve complete victory –Extreme nationalism survives in Germany Peace terms unacceptable to German population Peace terms unacceptable to German population Germany still stronger than Fr. + G.B. Germany still stronger than Fr. + G.B. –Post-war weakness of allies –No U.S. there to stop nationalistic movements Economic crisis (depression) Economic crisis (depression) End Result...Rise of extremist groups End Result...Rise of extremist groups

3 Rise of Extremists Groups Why? Why? –Economic Catastrophe (Worldwide Depression) –Present Governments unable to solve crisis – people look to radical groups Communists or Fascists (both advocate state control) Communists or Fascists (both advocate state control) Russia - Lenin (Bolsheviks - Communists/Marxists) Russia - Lenin (Bolsheviks - Communists/Marxists) Italy - Mussolini (Fascists) Italy - Mussolini (Fascists) Japan – Hirohito (Militarists really in charge) Japan – Hirohito (Militarists really in charge) Germany – Hitler (Nazis) Germany – Hitler (Nazis) –1932 runs for president (loses) –1933 appointed chancellor Consolidates power after Reichstag building burned Consolidates power after Reichstag building burned

4 Aspects of Fascism Cult of the charismatic leader Cult of the charismatic leader –(Mussolini/Hitler) Propaganda (mass demonstrations and rallies) Propaganda (mass demonstrations and rallies)demonstrationsralliesdemonstrationsrallies Glorification of military and violence Glorification of military and violence Combination of elitism and appeal to masses Combination of elitism and appeal to masses –Promises many things to many different people Economics – NAZI (NSDAP = National Socialists German Workers Party) Economics – NAZI (NSDAP = National Socialists German Workers Party) –Dislike Communists (Rival Group) but economics are similar – both are Statists (believe in command economies) –NOT Capitalists (at least not free-market capitalists) the Nazis detest them too

5 CAUSES

6 Axis Expansion Japan- Manchuria (1931) Manchuria (1931) Manchuria (1931) Manchuria (1931) Japan withdraws from League of nations Japan withdraws from League of nations China (1937) China (1937) Italy Italy –Ethiopia (1935) –Albania (1939) Albania (1939)Albania (1939) Germany Germany –Rhineland (1936) –Austria (1938) – anschluss “connection” - annexation –Sudetenland (1938) Sudetenland (1938)Sudetenland (1938)

7 Axis expansion (cont.) Axis Expansion creates unstable environment Axis Expansion creates unstable environment –not supposed to be taking place but is permitted anyway –Why is this a problem? Aggressive nations will take advantage until someone stops them Aggressive nations will take advantage until someone stops them Munich Conference (1938) Munich Conference (1938) –WHAT TO DO WITH SUDETENLAND? -NO CZECHS INVITED TO CONFERENCE Allies Decide to appease hitler Allies Decide to appease hitler

8 APPEASEMENT Giving into aggression to avoid further hostility Giving into aggression to avoid further hostility –Why do the allies do this? Horrors of W.W.I. Horrors of W.W.I. Unstable economy in Europe Unstable economy in Europe Versailles treaty too harsh Versailles treaty too harsh Stalin considered a greater threat? Stalin considered a greater threat? Result = expansion allowed Result = expansion allowed effective strategy? effective strategy? –No – Actually makes situation worse Germany invades rest of Czechoslovakia (1939) Germany invades rest of Czechoslovakia (1939) –Allowed to do so

9 OTHER CAUSES UNITED STATES UNITED STATES –ISOLATIONISM –Tension (U.S. and Japanese Expansion = Sanctions) U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. –NAZI-SOVIET non-aggression PACT ALLOWS HITLER TO INVADE POLAND ALLOWS HITLER TO INVADE POLAND Hitler invades Poland (1939) Hitler invades Poland (1939) Hitler invades Poland (1939) Hitler invades Poland (1939) –Blitzkrieg – lightning war War declared on sept. 3 rd War declared on sept. 3 rd

10 European Theater Germans invade: Denmark and Norway in April 1940 Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and France in May 1940 Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and France in May 1940 France falls in June 1940 (Dunkirk)Dunkirk Battle of Britain begins in July/40 Battle of Britain Luftwaffe – “Air Weapon” North Africa (Italy invades September/40 – Britain counters in Dec./40 Germans reinforce Feb./41 (Erwin Rommel) North AfricaErwin Rommel Operation Barbarossa begins June/41 Operation Barbarossa Einsatzgruppe

11 Key Turning Points in European Theater(Mid 1942-43) Key Turning Points in European Theater(Mid 1942-43) –El Alamein (N. Africa) –Stalingrad (Battle of Kursk) (Battle of Kursk) Liberation of France (June 1944) Liberation of France (June 1944) –D-Day (June 6, 1944) Yalta Conference (February 1945) Yalta Conference (February 1945) Yalta Conference Yalta Conference VE Day (Fall of Berlin) 05/08/1945 VE Day (Fall of Berlin) 05/08/1945

12 Pacific Theater Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese invade several islands; establish extensive empire by 1942 Japanese invade several islands; establish extensive empire by 1942 Japanese invade several islands; establish extensive empire by 1942 Japanese invade several islands; establish extensive empire by 1942 Key Turning Points (Mid 1942) Key Turning Points (Mid 1942) –Coral Sea; Midway; Guadalcanal Coral SeaMidwayGuadalcanalCoral SeaMidwayGuadalcanal map map map –Island Hopping (Iwo Jima) Iwo JimaIwo Jima –Okinawa Okinawa Kamikazes Kamikazes Kamikazes –Hiroshima (8/6/45) and Nagasaki (8/9/45) –VJ Day (08/14/1945)

13 EFFECTS OF W. W. II Civilian and Military Losses Civilian and Military Losses –60+ Million Dead Widespread Devastation Widespread Devastation –Europe and Japan destroyed (major cities – Berlin, London, Tokyo, etc) –Loss of agriculture – famine, disease U.S. Occupation U.S. Occupation –Germany (Split btn. U.S., Britain, France, and U.S.S.R.) *Berlin Split btn. U.S., Britain, France, and U.S.S.R.Split btn. U.S., Britain, France, and U.S.S.R. –Japan

14 EFFECTS CONT. Atomic Age Atomic Age –Changes world and stakes of “world war” forever Cold War btn. Super Powers U.S. and U.S.S.R. (1945-1990) Cold War btn. Super Powers U.S. and U.S.S.R. (1945-1990) –Why? Ideological differences -Democratic government vs. Dictatorship (Totalitarian) -Capitalism (market) vs. Communism (Command)

15 EFFECTS CONT. Establishment of the United Nations Establishment of the United Nations Establishment of the State of Israel (1947) Establishment of the State of Israel (1947) Holocaust Holocaust –Est. 11 million murdered by Nazis (Est. 6 million Jews but many other groups with “undesirable” traits as well) Why the Jews? Why the Jews? –Deep seated hatred formed over several generations for a variety of reasons (have been persecuted for centuries) Religion, economic stereotypes, they killed Jesus???, etc... Religion, economic stereotypes, they killed Jesus???, etc... –How does the Holocaust start? Hitler’s original plan – emigration Hitler’s original plan – emigration 1935 Nuremberg Laws 1935 Nuremberg Laws 1938 Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass” 1938 Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass”

16 Holocaust cont. By 1939 nations stop letting Jews in By 1939 nations stop letting Jews in German expansion (Poland and other areas) German expansion (Poland and other areas) What to do about the Jewish Question What to do about the Jewish Question Ghettos (Early 1940’s) Ghettos (Early 1940’s) –Section of city where ethnic or economically depressed minority group is restricted “Final Solution” “Final Solution” –Established at Wannsee Conference (Jan. 20, 1942) Wannsee ConferenceWannsee Conference –Death Camps Death CampsDeath Camps Nuremberg Trials – Post W.W.II (War crimes against humanity) Nuremberg Trials – Post W.W.II (War crimes against humanity) Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg Trials


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