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WORLD WAR I Chapter 11. Countries - 1914 Great Britain  King George V  Constitutional Monarchy  Largest empire  Protector of weaker/defenseless European.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I Chapter 11. Countries - 1914 Great Britain  King George V  Constitutional Monarchy  Largest empire  Protector of weaker/defenseless European."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR I Chapter 11

2 Countries Great Britain  King George V  Constitutional Monarchy  Largest empire  Protector of weaker/defenseless European nations (Belgium)

3 Countries Germany  Kaiser Wilhelm (William) II  Nearly absolute Monarchy  Strongest military in Europe  Recently unified as an empire (Second Reich)  Austro-Prussian War – 1866  Franco-Prussian War –  Took Alsace and Lorraine from France

4 Countries France  Parliamentary democracy  lost to Prussia (Germany) in Franco-Prussian War  Gave up Alsace and Lorraine to Germany  Felt continuously threatened on border with Germany

5 Countries Russia  Czar Nicolas II  Absolute monarchy  lost Russo-Japanese War  Large population, but weak army  struggling economically  Recently instituted legislative body for the people, but ineffective  Protector of the Serbs

6 Countries Austria-Hungary  Dual Monarchy (1867)  made up of many different ethnic groups  Austrians  Hungarians  Serbs  Slavs  Romanians  Serbia recently granted independence

7 Long Term Causes NationalismImperialism Militarism Alliances Causes of WWI

8 Nationalism increased in late 1800s Led to formation of new countries, struggles for power  Serbian leaders wanted to expand borders, unite people in “greater Serbia”  Austria-Hungary opposed expansion  Feared growth might encourage ethnic groups there to rebel Most visible in Balkan Peninsula, southeastern Europe

9 Long Term Causes NationalismImperialism Militarism Alliances Causes of WWI

10 quest to build empires and gain resources Created rivalry among European nations Germany, France, Great Britain vied to become great imperial nations and didn’t want the others to gain power. Imperialism

11 Long Term Causes NationalismImperialism Militarism Alliances Causes of WWI

12 Massive military buildup in European countries Wanted to protect overseas colonies from other nations Growing power of armed forces left all sides ready to act at first sign of trouble Minor disagreements had potential to turn to armed conflict Militarism

13 Long Term Causes NationalismImperialism Militarism Alliances Causes of WWI

14 Alliances Nations formed partnerships to protect against opposing forces Triple Alliance united Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Great Britain joined France, Russia in Triple Entente

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16 Princip assassinates Archduke Ferdinand and wife Austria-Hungary send demands to Serbia and declared war. Russia mobilizes troops in support of Serbia Germany views as a threat and declares war on Russia Germany declares war on Russia’s ally France Germany carries out Schlieffen Plan. Attacks France through neutral Belgium. Great Britain declares war on Germany. War Breaks Out

17 Great Britain France Germany Russia Austria- Hungary Serbia Italy Ottoman Empire Belgium

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19 Trench Warfare  Schlieffen Plan lead to the formation of the Western Front  Both armies dug trenches for protection, spanning from the English Channel to the Swiss Alps  Little movement for nearly 3 years  No man’s land – barren and desolate wasteland between the trenches

20 Life in the Trenches  Germans were the first to build trenches & had best land above sea level  Rat infested  Lice infested  Constant bombardment  Often flooded  Dysentery and other disease spread quickly

21 Life in the Trenches  Waterlogged trenches led to Trench foot  Caused by cold, wet, unsanitary conditions.  Only way to prevent- change socks often & keep feet dry.  Also told to coat feet in whale oil  Fun Fact: The British Army treated 20,000 soldiers for trench foot during the winter of

22 Mechanized Warfare  First used for scouting  Dogfights (individual air combats)  Used pistols  Later incorporated machine guns and bombs  Invented and first used by the British  Made of steel so bullets bounced off  Useful in charging through barbed wire clearing a path for infantry AirplaneTanks  war relied on machines powered by gasoline and diesel engines

23 America Questions Neutrality  Many American’s didn’t see the need to get involved  America was divided  Groups varied on opinion  Naturalized citizens (immigrants)  Pacifists  Socialists  Parents  Economists

24 British Blockade  British used in naval force to blockade the German coast  Weapons and military supplies  Later food  Resulted in famine in Germany  Americans didn’t approve of the blockade because it threatened freedom of the seas  More angry over German response to the blockade

25 German U-Boat Response  Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare  Any British or Allied ship around Britain would be sunk  Lusitania – British ocean liner sunk because it supposedly carried ammunition  1198 casualties  128 Americans killed  Many more attacks  Many Americans outraged  Deal stuck: Germany abandon the tactic of unrestricted submarine warfare, but would go back if U.S. didn’t persuade G.B. to list the blockade of food and fertilizers

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30 Overt Acts of War  Resuming of unrestricted submarine warfare  4 unarmed merchant ships sunk  Zimmerman Note - German foreign minister to German ambassador in Mexico that proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico  Mexico go to war with U.S.  Germany would support them in acquisition of TX, NM, & AZ  Russian monarchy replaced with a rep. gov. (now a true war of democracies)

31 U.S. Declares War  April 1917, Congress voted to declare war  Make the world “safe for democracy”  50 members voted “no”

32 Section 2 American Power Tips the Balance

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35 Bell Ringer – 2/12  Army Budget – 377,941 > 4,869,955  Navy Budget – 239,633 > 1,278,840  What would you allocate the funds towards? Be specific

36 Building an Army and Navy  Selective Service Act –  met the gov. need for a larger army  Men required to register  African Americans served in segregated regiments  Women not allowed to fight, but served in Nurse Corps  Conscientious objectors refused to enlist  Rapidly expanded fleet to get men overseas

37 American Turns the Tide  Introduced the convoy system, cutting down shipping losses by half  Helped lay barrier mines to bottle U-Boats  Brought freshness and enthusiasm to tired troops at the front

38 War Economy  Congress grants more power to Wilson over much of the economy  War Industries Board  Railroad and Fuel Administrations  National War Labor Board  Food Administration  Liberty Loans

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40 Attacks on Civil Liberties  Explain the changes for each group due to WWI Immigrants Women African Americans Changes

41 German Offensive Germany wanted one more chance to beat the Allies before the U.S. came over.  Russia withdrawals  March 1918 – last major assault on the western front 2 downsides  High cost  U.S. aid arrived

42 German Collapse Second Battle of Marne  Allies stopped German advances  Allies used tanks and aircrafts for help  Went on the offensive  Broke through the Hindenburg lines Armistice (truce or cease fire) “the 11 th hour, of the 11 th day, of the 11 th month”

43 Section 4 Wilson Fights for Peace

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45 The Big Four  Georges Clemenceau – prevent future attacks from Germany  David Lloyd George – “make Germany pay”  Vittorio Orlando – Wanted control of Austrian- Hungary territory  Woodrow Wilson – Lasting peace

46 Wilson’s Fourteen Points 1. No secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Tariffs should be lowered or abolished to foster free trade 4. Arms should be reduced to “the lowest point consistent with domestic safety” 5. Colonial policies should consider those of the colonized people boundary changes  self-determination  Established along nationalistic lines 14. Establish the League of Nations

47 Treaty of Versailles Germany Provisions  Not allowed a standard army  Return Alsace and Lorraine to France  Pay $33 Billion in war reparations  Stripped of Pacific colonies  Demilitarized zone  War Guilt Clause Other Provisions  9 new nations  Ottoman Empire divided into mandates  Austria-Hungary dissolved into new nations  Russia lost more land than Germany  League of Nations created

48 Opposition to the Treaty  Senate opposed the League of Nation because it went against U.S. isolationism policy  Henry Cabot Lodge – opposed due to joint economic and military action  Wanted to keep declaration of war powers with Congress  Wilson ignored Congress’s attempts to amend the treaty and compromise on the League of Nations

49 Costs of WWI  Economic Costs - $338 Billion  Human Costs –  22 million casualties  20 million wounded  10 million refugees  Political costs  New countries  New governments  Strained relationships

50 Domestic Consequence of WWI  America emerged as the world’s greatest industrial power  Contributed to the Great Migration  Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical sentiments  One million women entered the workforce

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