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WORLD WAR I Chapter 11. Countries - 1914  Great Britain – King George V; Constitutional Monarchy; strong imperial power  Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (William)

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I Chapter 11. Countries - 1914  Great Britain – King George V; Constitutional Monarchy; strong imperial power  Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (William)"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR I Chapter 11

2 Countries - 1914  Great Britain – King George V; Constitutional Monarchy; strong imperial power  Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (William) II; near absolute monarchy; strong military  France – democracy; lost Franco-Prussian War; Germany took Alsace and Lorraine  Russia – Czar Nicolas II; absolute monarchy; lost Russo- Japanese War; struggling economically large population  Austria-Hungary – dual monarchy; made up of many different ethnic groups (Austrians, Hungarians, Serbs, Slavs, Romanians, etc).  Serbia – Newly independent nation; struggling to stay independent from AH and Russia  United States – Woodrow Wilson; isolationist

3 Great Britain France Germany Russia Austria- Hungary Serbia

4 Long Term Causes Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation Most visible in Balkan Peninsula Led to formation of new countries, struggles for power Serbian leaders wanted to expand borders, unite people in “greater Serbia” Austria-Hungary opposed expansion Imperialism Countries compete and rival one another for Power Raw materials Militarism The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy Original purpose was to build and defend empires Alliances Two major defense alliance in Europe Triple Entente – France, GB, and Russia Triple Alliance – Germany, A-H, and Italy Provided security because they were afraid to disturb the balance of power Causes of WWI


6 Princip assassinates Archduke Ferdinand and wife Austria-Hungary send demands to Serbia and declared war. Russia mobilizes troops in support of Serbia Germany views as a threat and declares war on Russia Germany declares war on Russia’s ally France Germany carries out Schlieffen Plan. Attacks France through neutral Belgium. Great Britain declares war on Germany. War Breaks Out

7 Great Britain France Germany Russia Austria- Hungary Serbia Italy Ottoman Empire Belgium


9 Trench Warfare  Schlieffen Plan lead to the formation of the Western Front  Both armies dug trenches for protection, spanning from the English Channel to the Swiss Alps  Little movement for nearly 3 years  No man’s land – barren and desolate wasteland between the trenches

10 Life in the Trenches  Germans were the first to build trenches & had best land above sea level  Rat infested  Lice infested  Constant bombardment  Often flooded  Dysentery and other disease spread quickly

11 Life in the Trenches  Waterlogged trenches led to Trench foot  Caused by cold, wet, unsanitary conditions.  Only way to prevent- change socks often & keep feet dry.  Also told to coat feet in whale oil  Fun Fact: The British Army treated 20,000 soldiers for trench foot during the winter of 1914-15.

12 Mechanized Warfare  First used for scouting  Dogfights (individual air combats)  Used pistols  Later incorporated machine guns and bombs  Invented and first used by the British  Made of steel so bullets bounced off  Useful in charging through barbed wire clearing a path for infantry AirplaneTanks  war relied on machines powered by gasoline and diesel engines

13 America Questions Neutrality  Many American’s didn’t see the need to get involved  America was divided How did each group feel about U.S. participation in WWI? Naturalized Citizens (immigrants included) PacifistsSocialistsParentsEconomists  In the end, most Americans favored the Allies.

14 British Blockade  British used in naval force to blockade the German coast  Weapons and military supplies  Later food  Resulted in famine in Germany  Americans didn’t approve of the blockade because it threatened freedom of the seas  More angry over German response to the blockade

15 German U-Boat Response  Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare  Any British or Allied ship around Britain would be sunk  Lusitania – British ocean liner sunk because it supposedly carried ammunition  128 Americans killed  Many Americans outraged  Deal stuck: Germany abandon the tactic of unrestricted submarine warfare, but would go back if U.S. didn’t persuade G.B. to list the blockade of food and fertilizers





20 Overt Acts of War  Resuming of unrestricted submarine warfare  4 unarmed merchant ships sunk  Zimmerman Note - German foreign minister to German ambassador in Mexico that proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico  Russian monarchy replaced with a rep. gov. (now a true war of democracies)

21 U.S. Declares War  April 1917, Congress voted to declare war  Make the world “safe for democracy”  50 members voted “no”


23 Propaganda  Used by the government to popularize the war  Gain support for government agencies  Committee on Public Information  Paintings, posters, cartoons, sculptures  Four-Minute Men




27 German Offensive Germany wanted one more chance to beat the Allies before the U.S. came over.  Russia withdrawals  March 1918 – last major assault on the western front 2 downsides  High cost  U.S. aid arrived

28 German Collapse Second Battle of Marne  Allies stopped German advances  Allies used tanks and aircrafts for help  Went on the offensive  Broke through the Hindenburg lines Armistice (truce or cease fire) “the 11 th hour, of the 11 th day, of the 11 th month”

29 Section 4 Wilson Fights for Peace


31 The Big Four  Georges Clemenceau – prevent future attacks from Germany  David Lloyd George – “make Germany pay”  Vittorio Orlando – Wanted control of Austrian- Hungary territory  Woodrow Wilson – Lasting peace

32 Wilson’s Fourteen Points 1. No secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Tariffs should be lowered or abolished to foster free trade 4. Arms should be reduced to “the lowest point consistent with domestic safety” 5. Colonial policies should consider those of the colonized people 6-13. boundary changes  self-determination  Established along nationalistic lines 14. Establish the League of Nations

33 Treaty of Versailles Germany Provisions  Not allowed a standard army  Return Alsace and Lorraine to France  Pay $33 Billion in war reparations  Stripped of Pacific colonies  Demilitarized zone  War Guilt Clause Other Provisions  9 new nations  Ottoman Empire divided into mandates  Austria-Hungary dissolved into new nations  Russia lost more land than Germany  League of Nations created

34 Opposition to the Treaty  Senate opposed the League of Nation because it went against U.S. isolationism policy  Henry Cabot Lodge – opposed due to joint economic and military action  Wanted to keep declaration of war powers with Congress  Wilson ignored Congress’s attempts to amend the treaty and compromise on the League of Nations








42 Costs of WWI  Economic Costs - $338 Billion  Human Costs –  22 million casualties  20 million wounded  10 million refugees  Political costs  New countries  New governments  Strained relationships

43 Domestic Consequence of WWI  America emerged as the world’s greatest industrial power  Contributed to the Great Migration  Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical sentiments  One million women entered the workforce

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