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World War I Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I Chapter 11

2 Countries Great Britain – King George V; Constitutional Monarchy; strong imperial power Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (William) II; near absolute monarchy; strong military France – democracy; lost Franco-Prussian War; Germany took Alsace and Lorraine Russia – Czar Nicolas II; absolute monarchy; lost Russo- Japanese War; struggling economically large population Austria-Hungary – dual monarchy; made up of many different ethnic groups (Austrians, Hungarians, Serbs, Slavs, Romanians, etc). Serbia – Newly independent nation; struggling to stay independent from AH and Russia United States – Woodrow Wilson; isolationist

3 Great Britain Russia Germany Austria-Hungary France

4 Long Term Causes Nationalism
Causes of WWI Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation Most visible in Balkan Peninsula Led to formation of new countries, struggles for power Serbian leaders wanted to expand borders, unite people in “greater Serbia” Austria-Hungary opposed expansion Imperialism Countries compete and rival one another for Power Raw materials Militarism The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy Original purpose was to build and defend empires Alliances Two major defense alliance in Europe Triple Entente – France, GB, and Russia Triple Alliance – Germany, A-H, and Italy Provided security because they were afraid to disturb the balance of power


6 War Breaks Out Princip assassinates Archduke Ferdinand and wife
Austria-Hungary send demands to Serbia and declared war. Russia mobilizes troops in support of Serbia Germany views as a threat and declares war on Russia Germany declares war on Russia’s ally France Germany carries out Schlieffen Plan. Attacks France through neutral Belgium. Great Britain declares war on Germany.

7 Great Britain Russia Germany Belgium Austria-Hungary France Italy
Serbia Ottoman Empire


9 Trench Warfare Schlieffen Plan lead to the formation of the Western Front Both armies dug trenches for protection, spanning from the English Channel to the Swiss Alps Little movement for nearly 3 years No man’s land – barren and desolate wasteland between the trenches

10 Life in the Trenches Germans were the first to build trenches & had best land above sea level Rat infested Lice infested Constant bombardment Often flooded Dysentery and other disease spread quickly

11 Life in the Trenches Waterlogged trenches led to Trench foot
Caused by cold, wet, unsanitary conditions. Only way to prevent- change socks often & keep feet dry. Also told to coat feet in whale oil Fun Fact: The British Army treated 20,000 soldiers for trench foot during the winter of

12 Mechanized Warfare Airplane Tanks
war relied on machines powered by gasoline and diesel engines Airplane Tanks First used for scouting Dogfights (individual air combats) Used pistols Later incorporated machine guns and bombs Invented and first used by the British Made of steel so bullets bounced off Useful in charging through barbed wire clearing a path for infantry

13 America Questions Neutrality
Many American’s didn’t see the need to get involved America was divided How did each group feel about U.S. participation in WWI? Naturalized Citizens (immigrants included) Pacifists Socialists Parents Economists In the end, most Americans favored the Allies.

14 British Blockade British used in naval force to blockade the German coast Weapons and military supplies Later food Resulted in famine in Germany Americans didn’t approve of the blockade because it threatened freedom of the seas More angry over German response to the blockade

15 German U-Boat Response
Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare Any British or Allied ship around Britain would be sunk Lusitania – British ocean liner sunk because it supposedly carried ammunition 128 Americans killed Many Americans outraged Deal stuck: Germany abandon the tactic of unrestricted submarine warfare, but would go back if U.S. didn’t persuade G.B. to list the blockade of food and fertilizers





20 Overt Acts of War Resuming of unrestricted submarine warfare
4 unarmed merchant ships sunk Zimmerman Note - German foreign minister to German ambassador in Mexico that proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico Russian monarchy replaced with a rep. gov. (now a true war of democracies)

21 U.S. Declares War April 1917, Congress voted to declare war
Make the world “safe for democracy” 50 members voted “no”


23 Propaganda Used by the government to popularize the war
Gain support for government agencies Committee on Public Information Paintings, posters, cartoons, sculptures Four-Minute Men




27 German Offensive Germany wanted one more chance to beat the Allies before the U.S. came over. Russia withdrawals March 1918 – last major assault on the western front 2 downsides High cost U.S. aid arrived

28 German Collapse Second Battle of Marne Allies stopped German advances
Allies used tanks and aircrafts for help Went on the offensive Broke through the Hindenburg lines Armistice (truce or cease fire) “the 11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month”

29 Wilson Fights for Peace
Section 4


31 The Big Four Georges Clemenceau – prevent future attacks from Germany
David Lloyd George – “make Germany pay” Vittorio Orlando – Wanted control of Austrian- Hungary territory Woodrow Wilson – Lasting peace

32 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
No secret treaties Freedom of the seas Tariffs should be lowered or abolished to foster free trade Arms should be reduced to “the lowest point consistent with domestic safety” Colonial policies should consider those of the colonized people boundary changes self-determination Established along nationalistic lines Establish the League of Nations

33 Treaty of Versailles Germany Provisions Not allowed a standard army
Return Alsace and Lorraine to France Pay $33 Billion in war reparations Stripped of Pacific colonies Demilitarized zone War Guilt Clause Other Provisions 9 new nations Ottoman Empire divided into mandates Austria-Hungary dissolved into new nations Russia lost more land than Germany League of Nations created

34 Opposition to the Treaty
Senate opposed the League of Nation because it went against U.S. isolationism policy Henry Cabot Lodge – opposed due to joint economic and military action Wanted to keep declaration of war powers with Congress Wilson ignored Congress’s attempts to amend the treaty and compromise on the League of Nations








42 Costs of WWI Economic Costs - $338 Billion Human Costs –
22 million casualties 20 million wounded 10 million refugees Political costs New countries New governments Strained relationships

43 Domestic Consequence of WWI
America emerged as the world’s greatest industrial power Contributed to the Great Migration Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical sentiments One million women entered the workforce

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