Chapter 9 Goals and Objectives: Upon completion, students should be able to: 1. Identify and explain the main goals of progressivism. 2. Evaluate the methods used by progressives to clean up government. 3. Identify progressive efforts to reform state government, protect workers and reform elections.
Timeline: What’s Going On – US and World United States: 1901 – William McKinley is assassinated 1909 – NAACP is founded 1919 – 18 th Amendment outlaws alcoholic drinks 1920 – 19 th Amendment grants women the right to vote. World: 1889 – Eiffel Tower opens for visitors 1910 – Mexican Revolution begins 1914 – WW I Begins in Europe
Origins of Progressivism: As America entered the 20 th century, middle class reformers at the municipal, state, and national levels addressed the problems of the Gilded Age, including: Economic inequities Environmental issues Social welfare Working conditions Rights for women and children
Four Goals of Reformers (Progressivism) 1. Protect social welfare 2. Promote moral development 3. Secure economic reform 4. Foster efficiency
Protect Social Welfare: Industrialization in the late 19 th century was largely unregulated. Employers felt little responsibility toward their workers. As a result, settlement houses and churches served the community and organizations like the YMCA and the Salvation Army took on service roles.
Promote Moral Development: Many reformers felt that the nation would be better off if they improved their personal behavior. – alcohol was undermining American morals. Prohibition – the banning of alcoholic beverages. Many groups fought this (saloons, and restaurants) Groups wishing to ban alcohol included the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Later in the 1920’s there would be a much bigger prohibition movement.
Secure Economic Reform: The Panic of 1893 prompted some Americans to question the capitalist economic system. As a result, some workers embraced socialism. Eugene Debs organized the American Socialist Party in 1901.
Fostering Efficiency: Many Progressive leaders put their faith in scientific principles to make society better. In industry, Frederick Taylor began using time and motion studies to improve factory efficiency. Taylorism became an industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly.
Cleaning Up Local Government: Efforts at reforming local government stemmed from the desire to make government more efficient and responsive to citizens. Some believe it also was meant to limit immigrants’ influence on local governments.
Regulating Big Business: Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business and implementing the… Wisconsin Idea – a partnership between government and the experts at the University of Wisconsin.
Protecting Working Children: As the number of child workers rose, reformers worked to end child labor. Children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue. Nearly every state limited or banned child labor by 1918
Efforts to Limit Hours: The Supreme Court and the states enacted or strengthened laws reducing women’s hours of work. Progressives also succeeded in winning worker’s compensation to aid families of injured workers.
Election Reform: Citizens fought for and secured such measures as secret ballots, referendums, and recalls. Citizens could petition and get initiatives on the ballot. In 1899, Minnesota passed the first statewide primary system.
Direct Election of Senators: Before 1913, each state’s legislature had chosen U.S. senators. To force senators to be more responsive to the public, Progressives pushed for the popular election of senators. As a result, Congress passed the 17 th Amendment in 1913.
Section 2:Goals and Objectives Upon completion, students should be able to: 1. Describe the growing presence of women in the workforce at the turn of the 20 th Century. 2. Identify leaders of the woman suffrage movement 3. Explain how woman suffrage was achieved.
Women in Public Life: Before the Civil War, American women were expected to devote their time to home and family. By the late 19 th and early 20 th century, women were visible in the workforce.
Domestic Workers: Before the turn-of-the- century women without formal education contributed to the economic welfare of their families by doing domestic work. Altogether, 70% of women employed in 1870 were servants.
Women in the Workforce: Opportunities for women increased especially in the cities. By 1900, one out of five women worked. The garment industry was popular as were office work, retail, and education.
Women Lead Reform: Many of the leading Progressive reformers were women. Middle and upper class women entered the public sphere after graduating from the new women’s colleges.
Higher Education: By the late 19 th Century, marriage was not longer a woman’s only alternative. Smith, Wellesley, and Vassar Colleges accepted women. Columbia, Brown, and Harvard did not. Many women that graduated from these schools never married – they wanted to retain their independence.
Women and Reform: Women reformers strove to improve conditions at work and home. In 1896, black women formed the National Association of Colored Women (NACW). Suffrage was another important issue for women. What do you think is going through these guy’s minds?
Susan B. Anthony: Susan B. Anthony was a leading advocate of women’s suffrage – the right to vote. In 1869 Anthony and Cady Stanton founded the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) This later became the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Many men feared the changing role of women in society. WHY?
A 3-Part Strategy For Suffrage: Suffragist leaders tried three approaches to winning the vote: 1. Convincing state legislatures to adopt the vote. 2. Pursuing court cases to test 14 th Amendment. 3. Pushing for national Constitutional amendment.
What Was The Outcome? In 1875, The Supreme Court ruled that women were indeed citizens but denied that citizenship automatically allowed the right to vote. For the next 40 years, other measures were voted down time and time again. If wont be until Theodore Roosevelt supports new progressive reforms that women will be granted the right to vote.
Section 3: Goals and Objectives Upon completion, students should be able to: 1. Describe the events of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency 2. Explain how Roosevelt used the power of the presidency to regulate business 3. Identify laws passed to protect public health and the environment 4. Summarize Roosevelt’s stand on civil rights.
Upton Sinclair: The Jungle People were working hard during these hard times. Profits were soaring…but at what expense? Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906. The book focused on the sickening conditions of the meatpacking industry. The book made quite the impression on Theodore Roosevelt. He promised to fix the problems of mass production in the US.
Teddy Roosevelt: the 1 st progressive president
Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal: Teddy Roosevelt was not supposed to be the president…. But when President William McKinley was assassinated six months into his second term, Theodore Roosevelt became the nation’s 26 th president Roosevelt had always been considered by the political bosses as “impossible” to control. They hadn’t seen anything yet.
Teddy Roosevelt: Background Information Born into a wealthy family. He had severe asthma, but vowed to not let it stop him – he took up horseback riding and shooting. At Harvard, he boxed and wrestled.
Teddy Roosevelt: The Rough Riders Roosevelt captured national attention by advocating war with Spain in 1898. His volunteer cavalry brigade, the Rough Riders, won public acclaim for its role in the battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba. Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of NY and later McKinley’s vice-president.
The Modern Presidency: When Roosevelt was thrust into the presidency in 1901, he became the youngest president ever at age 42. He quickly established himself as a modern president who could influence the media and shape legislation.
The Teddy Bear: When the president spared a bear cub on a hunting expedition, a toymaker marketed a popular new product – the teddy bear.
The Square Deal: Roosevelt saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” where he could influence almost anyone. He responded by created The Square Deal – The term is used as a blanket term to describe the various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration. Unlike past presidents, Roosevelt set a National Agenda.
Using Federal Power: Trust busting: By 1900, Trusts – legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies – controlled 80% of U.S. industries. Roosevelt filed 44 antitrust suits under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act The goal was to break up unfair business practices.
The 1902 Coal Strike: In 1902, 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for increased wages, a 9-hour work day, and the right to unionize. Mine owners refused to bargain. Roosevelt called in both sides and settled the dispute. Thereafter, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to step in and help.
Railroad Regulation: Roosevelt asked railroad companies to be more honest and transparent. Examples: Notifying people of rate changes, cease the use of unfair rebates for certain businesses, cease the use of free railroad passes for certain businesses.
Pure Food and Drug Act: Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. At the time, companies were promising their products to do everything from curing cancer, to growing more hair. Popular children’s medicines contained opium, cocaine, and alcohol. The Act also halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling. Expiration dates were also included on canned food.
Roosevelt and the Environment: Before Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government paid very little attention to the nation’s natural resources. Roosevelt made conservation a primary concern of his administration. Roosevelt was a big environmentalist because he spent so much time outside hunting, horseback riding, and camping.
Roosevelt’s Environmental Accomplishments: Roosevelt set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves, 1.5 million acres of water- power sites (Dams), 50 wildlife sanctuaries, and several national parks. Conservation – some wilderness areas would be preserved, while others would be developed for the common good. Yellowstone National Park - Wyoming
Roosevelt and Civil Rights: Roosevelt failed to support Civil Rights for African Americans. The Progressive Era ultimately focused on the needs of middle- class whites. However…
NAACP Formed to Promote Civil Rights: In 1909 a number of African Americans and prominent white reformers formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The goal of the NAACP organization was full equality among the races through the court system, a position supported by W.E.B. Du Bois. The NAACP had 6,000 members by 1914.
Section 4: Goals and Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Summarize the events of the Taft presidency. 2. Explain the division in the Republican party. 3. Describe the election of 1912.
After Roosevelt: Roosevelt was president for 8 years and accomplished a lot. Now it was time for someone new – Taft Some of Roosevelt’s policies came under scrutiny from various organizations. Gifford Pinchot head of the US Forest Service came under fire for conserving so much land for preservation. Others were starting to see the land as a great opportunity for development and growth.
Progressivism Under Taft: Republican William Howard Taft easily defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the 1908 presidential election. Among his accomplishments, Taft “busted” 90 trusts during his four years in office – more than Theodore Roosevelt during his eight years in office.
The Payne Aldrich Tariff: Payne Bill – Lowered rates on imported manufactured goods. Aldrich Bill – Made fewer cuts and increased many rates Payne-Aldrich Tariff – A compromise between the two – this tariff angered progressives because it was really no different than the Aldrich Bill. Taft stuck his foot in his mouth by saying it was: “the best tariff bill the Republican Party ever passed.”
Disputing Public Lands: Taft deregulated 1 million acres of preserved land and returned it to the public. He and his officials were accused (by some of his own people – Pinchot) of letting commercial interests exploit the natural resources that rightfully belonged to the public. Taft fired Gifford Pinchot from his spot at the head of the US Forest Service.
The Republican Party Splits: Taft couldn’t hold the two wings (conservatives and reformers) of the Republican Party together. Voters started to blame Taft for the rising costs of living and loss of conservation of land. The Democrats would soon regain control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 18 years.
The Bull Moose Party: 1912 Election Republicans split in 1912 between Taft and Roosevelt (who returned after a safari to Africa). Convention delegates nominated Taft and discontented Republicans formed a third party, the Progressive Party (nicknamed the Bull Moose Party), and nominated Roosevelt. The Democrats put forward a reform-minded New Jersey governor, Woodrow Wilson. (who would later win the presidency)
More About: The Bull Moose Party The Bull Moose Party (called this because they thought Roosevelt was as strong as a Bull Moose) supported: 1. Women’s suffrage 2. Worker’s compensation 3. An 8-hr. work day 4. A minimum wage for women 5. A federal law against child labor 6. A federal trade commission to regulate business.
So, How Did Wilson Win? The split between Taft and Roosevelt turned nasty. (name calling) – they divided themselves. Wilson endorsed a progressive platform called the “New Freedom”, it demanded: 1. Stronger Antitrust legislation 2. Banking reform 3. Reduced Tariffs Wilson won with a 42% popular vote.
Section 5 Goals and Objectives Upon completion, students should be able to: 1. Describe Woodrow Wilson’s background and the progressive reforms of his presidency. 2. List the steps leading to women suffrage. 3. Explain the limits of Wilson’s progressivism.
Woodrow Wilson: The last Progressive era president
Wilson Wins Financial Reforms: Wilson was a progressive president He aimed to give greater power to average citizens He grew up in the South, which unfortunately affected his ability to use federal power to help civil rights.
Key Antitrust Measures: In 1914 Congress enacted the Clayton Anti-Trust Act that strengthened the Sherman Act. It had an anti-trust provision that prevented companies from acquiring stock from another company and supported workers’ unions.
Key Antitrust Measures: Part 2 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was formed in 1914 to serve as a “watchdog” agency to end unfair business practices. The FTC protects consumers from business fraud.
A New Tax System: Wilson worked hard to lower tariffs, however, the lost revenue had to be made up and was when the 16 th Amendment instituted a graduated federal income tax.
Federal Income Tax: Larger incomes were taxed at higher rates than smaller incomes. Ranged from 1-6% Today, income taxes from businesses and individuals represent the federal government’s main source of revenue.
Federal Reserve System: Now financial reform was on the table Credit and money supply had to keep pace with the economy. The Federal Reserve System was put into action. It created a network of banks that could loan money to one another and even issue new currency if needed. This system still serves as the basis of our nation’s banking system. Federal Reserve Building
Women Win Suffrage: The suffrage movement was given new strength by the growing numbers of college- educated women. So, how did they finally achieve success? Catt Chapman succeeded Susan B. Anthony for the head of the NAWSA. She concentrated on FIVE tactics.
Five Tactics of NAWSA: 1. Painstaking organization 2. Close ties between local, state, and national workers 3. Establishing a wide base of support 4. Cautious lobbying 5. Gracious, ladylike behavior
How the War Helped: America became involved in WW I. Patriotic women headed committees They knitted socks for soldiers Sold liberty bonds In 1919, Congress finally passed the 19 th Amendment – granted women the right to vote. It had only taken 72 yrs (Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was when they first tried)
Limits of Progressivism: While the Progressive era was responsible for many important reforms, it failed to make gains for African Americans. Like Roosevelt and Taft, Wilson retreated on Civil Rights when he entered office. The KKK reached a membership of 4.5 million in the 1920s