Presentation on theme: "Military Challenges to the US Session 8. Table of Contents I. America before WWII II. Americans in WWII III. Atomic Attack and Its Consequences IV. Effect."— Presentation transcript:
Military Challenges to the US Session 8
Table of Contents I. America before WWII II. Americans in WWII III. Atomic Attack and Its Consequences IV. Effect of WWII on the US V. Conclusion
I. America before WWII 1. Negative impact of WWI on Americans 2. Treaty of Versailles: a unfair treaty between Germany and the Allied countries. to disarm Germany, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations (then $31.4 billion=US $442 billion of 2012). Allied countries like France, Japan took advantage of the victory to seek their own interest, which planted seeds of WWII.concessions reparations 3. The League of Nations was rejected by the Senate
I. America before WWII The American isolationist mentality: no more war 1. Walter Millis Road to War: America, H.C. Engelbrecht and F.C. Hanighen Merchants of Death (international arms traffic) 3. The Nye Committee Hearings: the U.S. entry into World War I had been orchestrated by bankers and arms dealers for profit reasons World War I 4. A Gallup poll in 1937: 70 % of Americans regarded Americas entrance of WWI was wrong 5. American Students Unions peace movement from Neutrality Acts in 1935, 36, 37 and 39
Presentation Americas isolationism before WW II (6 minutes) 8cTNo9Q
II. Americans in WWII Japanese Imperialist Expansion Commodore Matthew C. Perry opened Japan in 1854 CommodoreMatthew C. Perry Meiji Restoration/Reform from 1868 Enrich the country, strengthen the military The Sino-Japanese War in The Russo-Japanese War in 1905 Invasion of China in 1931 FDRs embargo and sanction against Japanese invasion of China and east Asian countries.
Continue Pearl Harbor Attack in Dec. 7 th 1941 US West Virginia, Tennessee and Arizona, along with the battleships Shaw, California, Oklahoma and Nevada sank. 188 aircraft were destroyed and 155 aircraft damaged Pearl Harbor was a "woefully small military return for the political risk of attacking an enormous, Intensely moralistic nation like the United States.- Paul Johnson
The Pearl Harbor Attack Harbor attack (7) zj8SVIA&feature=related 0E&feature=related Roosevelts address after the pearl harbor attack (9 minutes)
The U.S. embarked on a mobilization of human, physical, and financial resources that was without precedent in history. - Paul Johnson More than 15 million people were trained and equipped for armed forces by the end of the war. More than 300,000 American soldiers died in the war. A world manufacturer of armaments: 300,000 aircrafts 86,000 tanks 372,000 artillery pieces 2.6 million machine guns 86,000 warships
Preparations to Invade Japan The surrender of Nazi Germany on 8 May 1945surrender of Nazi Germany Operation Olympic: Invade Kyushu, to capture the southern third of the southernmost main Japanese island by the U.S. Sixth Army U.S. Sixth Army Operation Coronet, the capture of the Kantō Plain, near Tokyo, by US First, Eighth and Tenth Armies. Kantō PlainTokyoFirst EighthTenth
Continue In all, there were 2.3 million Japanese Army troops prepared to defend the Japanese home islands, another 4 million Army and Navy employees, and a civilian militia of 28 million men and womencivilian militia
Continue It was estimated that the invading Allies would suffer between 1.7 and 4 million casualties in such a scenario, of whom between 400,000 and 800,000 would be dead, while Japanese casualties would have been around 5 to 10 million
Atomic Bomb Little BoyLittle Boy was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, followed by the Fat Man over Nagasaki on 9 August. HiroshimaFat ManNagasaki The acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people In Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki. On 15 August, Japan announced its surrender to the Allies, signing the Instrument of Surrender on 2 September, officially ending World War II.its surrender Instrument of Surrender
Continue Two objectives (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released. The US was more powerful yet more insure than ever before because of nuclear weapons.
Movie Nuclear attack of Japan in RB4Hhg&feature=related
Discussion Is it necessary or immoral/illegal to make use of atomic bomb during the war? What are its consequences?
Effect of WW II on the US The isolationist posture of the majority of American citizens and leaders, were erased in a single day after the Pearl Harbor attack. A major effect o World War II in the United States was to concentrate within the national government a great deal of power and influence -influence that would continue to be wielded long after the War ended. The GNP grew from $88.6bn in 1939 to $135bn in 1944, an 8.8% annual increase. The eradication of unemployment as war production finally conquered the Depression - by the end of 1944, unemployment shrank to 1.2% of the civilian labor force
Continue The Lend-Lease Act allowed the US sell, exchange, lease or lend to its allies military equipment worth US 50bn (equivalent to $700bn at 2007 prices). Britain made the final payment of its Lend-Lease loan of $83.83m on the last day of Both the Lend-Lease Act & the Marshall Plan made the US the best-in-class manufacturer in the world.
Continue Creating job opportunities for hundreds of thousands of women, most of whom had formerly been prohibited from work in the manufacturing sector by social conventions. The GI Bill would send thousands of Americans to colleges and universities who would otherwise not have attended; is not only created a new class of professional, highly educated workers, but it also fostered social and economic mobility as well
Continue Many products were also transformed into civilian use as well: jet engines, rocket propulsion, gas-turbine engines, synthetic rubber, plastics, and electronics (especially television and radar).Medical breakthroughs included penicillin, synthetic quinine, and sulfa drugs.
Continue The War justified a new and dominant role for the United States as a major world power in terms of its military might, political and diplomatic influence, and economic dominance.
The American Century The term was coined by Time publisher Henry Luce to describe what he thought the role of the United States would be and should be during the 20th century. Henry Luce, the son of a missionary, in a February 17, 1941 Life magazine urged the United States to forsake isolationism for a missionary's role to spread democracy. He called upon the U.S. to enter World War II to defend democratic values.Time Henry LuceUnited StatesLifeisolationismdemocracyWorld War II
Continue It is in this spirit that all of us are called, each to his own measure of capacity, and each in the widest horizon of his vision, to create the first great American Century. Americans are ready "to exert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such purposes as we see fit and by such means as we see fit."
Conclusion Not only the US, but also the world was in a critical crisis when the Fascist countries like Germany, Japan and Italy jointed together as the Tripartite Pact and launched their imperialist expansion. Americas entrance of WWII, with its determination, man power, enormous industrial capacity and advanced technology, turned this critical crisis into an opportunity. This war ended the Great Depression. Moreover, this war made the US the leader of the West and created a century of America.