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Fitness Components.

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Presentation on theme: "Fitness Components."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fitness Components

2 The 5 Components of Fitness
1. Cardiovascular or Aerobic Capacity 2. Flexibility 3. Muscular Strength 4. Muscular Endurance 5. Body Composition

3 1. Cardiovascular                             The body’s ability to continuously provide oxygen to muscles as work is performed over an extended period of time. Ex: Running

4 Purpose Of The Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise Program
To develop the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to the working muscles of the body and other tissues. CRE is the best indicator of overall health The most important component of physical fitness and health-related fitness

5 Acceptable levels of aerobic capacity (cardio) are associated with a reduced risk of the following:
high blood pressure Coronary heart disease Obesity Diabetes Some forms of cancer

6 Training Heart Rate Range
[(220-age)-resting pulse] x ____% + resting pulse = target zone

7 FIT Principle F= Frequency (How often) I= Intensity (How hard)
3-5 days a week I= Intensity (How hard) 60%-90% T=Time (How long) 1 hour

8 Components of the CR Exercise Prescription
Modality What form of activity will you choose Frequency “How often” Intensity “How hard” Duration “How long” Progression

9 Choose an activity that:
Modality [Type] Choose an activity that: Involves a large proportion of muscle mass Maximizes the use of large muscles Minimizes the use of small muscles Involves whole-body, is repetitive, minutes duration

10 Modality: Examples Walking/jogging Stair climbing Cycling
Swimming (skill specific) Selected game activities (i.e., basketball, soccer)

11 Frequency 3 - 5 days/week (normal)
Frequency is based on current fitness levels, age health status, and exercise objectives. Low Fitness Level or Cardiovascular Patients Several brief activities per day High Fitness 3-5 times/week More than 5 days/week allows for little gain in VO2max. Gains???

12 Intensity [How Hard] How hard a person exercises is possibly the most important component of cardiorespiratory exercise prescription. How hard a person exercises is directly related to the level of cardiorespiratory improvement.

13 Intensity #2 Typically, 50 - 85% of one’s capability
Must tailor intensity to the individual Low fit individuals may benefit from low intensities. Highly conditioned individuals will require higher levels of intensity to illicit physiological change.

14 Procedures for Establishing Intensity
Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Percent of VO2 Maximum

15 Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate
Maximum heart rate is: 220-age for males 226-age for females For a 20 year old male maximum heart rate would be =200 50% of (MHR) : .50 x 200 = 100

16 Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve
Steps using this method: Determine maximum heart rate Determine resting heart rate Determine heart rate reserve(HRR) HRR = MHR – RHR Determine appropriate training intensity. 50% of HRR ; .5 x HRR Example …

17 Example 20 year old male. MHR = 220 – 20 200
RHR = Heart rate at total rest HRR = 200 – Training intensity of 50%= [.50 x 140]+RHR

18 Duration minutes Specific guidelines vary depending on individual fitness levels and objectives. Duration is inversely related to intensity ???

19 Determination of Heart Rate
Electronically Palpation

20 Electronic Heart Rate Determination
Requires specialized equipment (i.e., heart monitors) Advantages include accuracy and continuous display.

21 Pulse Palpation Palpation sites
Carotid artery (neck) Radial artery (wrist) Apply light pressure to avoid vagal effect when using carotid artery. Resting heart rate – 30 seconds x 2 Exercising heart rate – 15 seconds x 4 ?

22 Aerobic Capacity Tests
1. The Pacer Test 2. One Mile Run 3. The Walk Test

23 PACER: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone
AGE MALES: # of laps Females: # of laps 14 41-83 23-51 15 51-94 16 61-94 32-61 17 41-61 17+

24 One Mile Run: Standards for Healthy Zone
AGE Males: 1 mile run (Min:sec) Females: 1 mile run 14 7:00-9:30 9:00-11:30 15 7:00-9:00 8:30-11:00 16 7:00-8:30 8:00-10:30 17 8:00-10:00 17+

25 2. Flexibility The ability to move joints through a full range of motion Ex: Stretching                 

26 What is Flexibility? Definition: The range of motion (ROM) of a single joint (i.e., knee) or a series of joints (i.e., spine)

27 Two Subdivisions of flexibility
Active Flexibility Passive Flexibility

28 Active Flexibility Also known as dynamic flexibility
Definition: The degree to which the force of a muscle contraction can move a joint.

29 Passive Flexibility Also known as static flexibility
The range of motion of a joint resulting from some external force. Passive flexibility is typically greater than active flexibility.

30 Benefits of Flexibility
Assists in establishing and maintaining mobility Reduce muscle soreness Reduce risk of low back pain Improves posture

31 Benefits of Flexibility #2
Improves muscle coordination Reduces risk of injury May allow for improved performance Relieves stress and tension

32 Factors that influence flexibility
Genetics Joint Structure Sedentary living Soft Body Tissue Age Gender Muscle Temperature

33 Joint Structure Movement varies depending on joint structure.
Limited ROM: example, sutures of the scull Extensive ROM: example, shoulder

34 Inactivity leads to low flexibility levels
Sedentary Living Inactivity leads to low flexibility levels

35 Soft Body Tissue Muscle tissue Connective tissue Skin, fat
Excessive bulk (rarely) Connective tissue Skin, fat Scar tissue Fat tissue (adipose) acts as a wedge

36 Age Aging is negatively related to flexibility
Increased sedentary lifestyle Physical changes in tissues Chemical structure of the tissues Loss of fluid in the tissues Increased calcium deposits

37 Gender Females, in general, are more flexible than males
Gender differences appear to be joint specific

38 Muscle Temperature As muscle temperature rises, connective tissue becomes softer, allowing for more elongation. Soft tissue temperature changes can increase or decrease flexibility by as much as 20% Optimal temperature for muscle elongation: F Warm - up before stretching seems warranted

39 Procedures of Flexibility Training or Stretching
Static Stretching (Slow Sustained Stretching) Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

40 Static Stretching (slow sustained stretching)
Most common and recommended procedure Associated with limited muscle soreness May assist in reducing muscle soreness Stretch the muscle to the point of slight discomfort (overload) Hold each stretch for 10 to 30 seconds Repeat the stretch 2 to 3 times Flexibility exercise sessions should occur 3 to 5 times per week

41 Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching
Most dangerous of the stretching procedures. Involves the use of repetitive, bouncing. Virtually abandoned May lead to soreness and muscle injury.

42 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
Involves: Isometric contraction Contraction and relaxation phases Normally performed with a partner Hold the isometric contraction 4 to 5 seconds Repeat 2- 3 times; 3-5 times per week

43 Flexibility Tests Sit and Reach Shoulder Stretch

44 Sit and Reach: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone
Age BOYS: sit and reach GIRLS: sit and reach 14 8 10 15 12 16 17 17+

45 Shoulder stretch: Standards for healthy zone
Passing = touching fingertips together behind the back

46 3. Muscular Strength The ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one time Bench Press 150lbs 1 time

47 4. Muscular Endurance The ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time. Arm curls 3 x 15 reps

48 Three Types of Muscle Tissue
Smooth Hollow organs of the body Stomach, blood vessels Cardiac Found only in the heart Skeletal Allows for movement

49 An increase in muscle mass
Hypertrophy An increase in muscle mass Atrophy Loss of muscle mass

50 Benefits of Resistive Training
Improved appearance Increased strength and endurance Hypertrophy (ncrease in lean muscle mass) Increased flexibility (ROM)

51 Benefits of Resistive Training #2
Appropriate body composition Increased performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skills Increased metabolic rate

52 Metabolism Includes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain life In short, the way the body produces energy Metabolism slows with age Slowed metabolism is primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle

53 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Basically, the number of calories required to sustain life in the resting state As lean body mass increases, BMR increases Each pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hours Each pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours

54 Types of Skeletal Muscular Contraction
Isometric (no change in muscle length) Isotonic (“weight room” lifting) Concentric contractions (positive) Involves shortening of muscle Eccentric contractions (negative) Involves lengthening of muscle

55 Isometric Contractions
Contractions that involve no change in length of the muscle (a static contraction) Involves no skeletal movement Involves no joint movement The resistance force is greater than the contracting force of the muscle. Example: Pushing outward on the frame of a door.

56 Isotonic Contractions
Dynamic in nature and involve a muscle length change May be either Concentric or Eccentric

57 Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training
Muscle Size Gender Age

58 Muscle Size The strength that a skeletal muscle can produce is related to the cross sectional area of that particular muscle. Increases in strength results from an increase in the size and number of myofilaments (actin and myosin) “Use it or loss it”

59 Gender Women will experience less hypertrophy as a result of lower testosterone levels Women need not be concerned with appearing like a female “body builder” Males, present greater strength, only if they have greater muscle mass.

60 Age A loss of skeletal muscle tissue is associated with aging but primarily due to sedentary lifestyle Loss is somewhat preventable and/or reversible

61 Muscle Soreness Results from structural damage of the muscle tissue or connective tissues. It is desirable to have small, microscopic tears in muscle tissue As the muscle repairs or rebuilds itself, the end result is a stronger muscle

62 Avoiding Muscle Soreness
Eliminate or minimize eccentric training Eliminate or minimize isometric training Begin training using low intensities Include stretching in warm-up and cool down activity Progress slowly

63 Repetitions and Sets One set is made up of a number of repetitions
Example: One set of 10 repetitions

64 NEVER hold your breath while exerting force when weight lifting
Precaution! NEVER hold your breath while exerting force when weight lifting Exhale as you apply force Inhale as you recover

65 Isometric Training Principles
Increases strength at a given joint angle Train at a variety of joint angles Used to be a preferred method of strength training for athletes Used in rehab settings

66 Isotonic Training Principles
Constant resistance, variable speed of muscular contraction Most common method of isotonic training is known as progressive resistance training. All program variations are based on the Principle of Overload May use free weights or machines

67 One Repetition Maximum (1RM)
Determine your 1RM Take 60% of that value and begin with that amount of resistance 60% will develop some strength but mostly endurance The closer you work to your 1RM, the greater the strength gains and the risk of injury

68 Muscular Strength Training
Requires heavier weights at fewer repetitions High resistive loads (greater than 60% of 1RM) 3-9 repetitions Minimum of 3 sets (beginners may need to start with one set, progressing to 2, then 3 sets

69 Muscular Endurance Training
Requires less weight, higher repetitions Lower resistive loads (less than 60% of 1RM) 15 or more repetitions (>12 reps, >16 reps) Minimum of 3 set Note: Muscular strength gains may accompany gains in muscular endurance.

70 Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training
Most popular form of resistive training Isotonic movements are used in most daily activity Involves working through a full ROM Resistive weight remains the same, speed of the contraction or movement is variable

71 Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #2
Warm up Adjust equipment Exercise large muscle groups first Legs or large muscles in the upper body Begin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities. Follow the tenets of the Principle of Overload and Specificity

72 Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #3
Don’t hold your breath while exerting force Strengthen your weak side by: Working arms and legs independently Isolate the muscle group Work through a full range of motion (ROM) Protect the back!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

73 Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #4
Total body workout Should be done no more than times per week May alternate days May alternate equipment to save time

74 Equipment Used For Isotonic Training
Free weights Weight machines

75 Free Weights Use a spotter Increased chance of injury
Lack of stability, although it will develop better balance and muscular control May build strength faster Weight increments are easily changed

76 Weight Machines Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds
The machine controls the line of force Machines offer stability Fewer injuries No spotter required

77 Isokinetic Training Principles
Requires special equipment designed to control and maintain a constant predetermined rate of muscular contraction Computerized - relies on hydrolics Characterized by variable resistance and constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction

78 Isokinetic Training Principles #2
Disadvantage: COST Set rate of contraction based on goals and objectives. Example: Slow contraction speeds produce increases in strength at slow speeds of movement only.

79 Other Strength Training Techniques
Circuit Training Plyometrics Calisthenics

80 Circuit Training Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations
Rotate through the circuit 3 times Consists of combinations: Weight training Stretching Calisthenics Brief aerobic exercise

81 Plyometrics Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness
Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction Involves hops, bounds, depth jumping High probability of injury

82 Calisthenics The body and its extremities provide resistance
Often used in aerobic dance routines Ab crunches and push ups are examples Best suited as a supplement to strength training rather than as a substitute Is a good approach for a beginner

83 Muscle Physiology An electrical impulse must be present for a muscle to contract Motor unit is: An electrical impulse and all the muscle cells it innervates As more motor units are called in, the contraction increases 1RM: All motor units are called in

84 Muscle Physiology #2 All or none response Sliding filament theory
Actin and myosin (myofilaments) Crossbridges

85 Types of Muscle Fibers Slow twitch Fast twitch

86 Type I Or Slow Twitch Associated with aerobic activity
Adapted to sustained contractions Smaller than fast twitch Appear red under the microscope Depend on oxidative metabolism

87 Are resistant to fatigue
Type I Or Slow Twitch #2 Are resistant to fatigue Endurance athletes (long distance runners) have more slow twitch fibers

88 Type II or Fast Twitch Appear white under a microscope
Associated with anaerobic activity Fatigue easily Produce fast, powerful contractions

89 Type II or Fast Twitch Explosive activity Successful sprinters have a greater percentage of fast twitch fibers Associated with anaerobic activity

90 What Determines Fiber Type
Primarily genetics Given types of training will not develop more fast or slow twitch fibers

91 Push-Ups: Standards for healthy fitness zone
AGE FEMALES MALES 14 7-15 14-30 15 16-35 16 18-35 17 17+

92 Curl-Ups: Standards for healthy fitness zone
AGE FEMALES MALES 14 18-32 24-45 15 18-35 24-47 16 17 17+

93 5. Body Composition Lean Body Mass (muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones) VS Body Fat (fat is fat)                 

94 Overweight vs. Obesity Overweight individuals are those who exceed desirable body weight by 10% according to height and weight charts. Obese people are those who have more body fat than they should have                                     

95 OVERWEIGHT Overweight refers to an excess of body weight compared to set standards. The excess weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water

96 OBESITY Obesity refers specifically to having an abnormally high proportion of body fat. PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM 1 - Diabetes Hypertension  3 - High Cholesterol  4 - Orthopedic problems  5 - Cancers associated with it  6 - Increased risk during surgery  7 - Joint problems

97 A measure of body weight relative to height.
Body Mass Index

98 Body Mass Index Tool used to screen the general population regarding their risk for chronic disease Weight (lbs) x 705 = BMI Height (in)2

99 BMI is another method to assess your body composition.
BMI can be used to determine if people are at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese.

100 Disease Risk According to BMI
BMI Disease Risk < Moderate to High Low Very Low Low Moderate High > Very High

101 BMI Results description / procedure: BMI is calculated from body mass (M) and height (H). BMI = M / (H x H), where M = body mass in kilograms and H = height in meters. The higher the score usually indicating higher levels of body fat scoring: underweight <20 healthy range 20-25 overweight 25-30 obese >30

102 Common Myths Myth: BMI Measures Body Fat Two people can have the same BMI, but a different percent body fat. A bodybuilder with a large muscle mass and a low percent body fat may have the same BMI as a person who has more body fat because BMI is calculated using weight and height only. These men have the same height, weight, and BMI, but may have different percent body fat.               6'3" Height 220 lbs Weight 27.5 BMI

103 Body Composition Methods
Skinfold Measurements * Underwater Weighing * Bioelectrical Impedence Bod Pod (Air Displacement) Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000

104 Skinfold Measurements
Description: This method is the most widely used body composition testing method for assessing percent body fat. Equipment used for this assessment includes a skinfold caliper. A Skinfold Caliper is designed specifically for simple accurate measurement of subcutaneous tissue. Either a 7 or 3 site skinfold may be assessed.

105 7 site skinfold: chest triceps subscapular axilla suprailiac abdomen

106 3 site skinfold (Men): chest abdomen thigh (Women) tricep suprailiac

107 Advantages Easy to use once skill has been mastered
Does not require much time Noninvasive method Inexpensive way of estimating percent body fat

108 Disadvantages Technical sources of error
Mostly concerned with subcutaneous fat (under the skin) May not be an ideal measurement for those who are obese and very lean

109 Hydrodensitometry (Under water weighing)
Used to be considered the most accurate +2.5% if done with experienced subjects Considered a lab technique Two-component Model

110 Hydrodensitometry BD = BW/BV Body weight = measured on a regular scale
Body volume = measured using hydrostatic (underwater) weighing accounting for water density and air trapped in lungs

111 Procedures 1. Wear light clothing (swimsuit)
2. Use bathroom prior to weighing 3. Calibrate scale 4. Weight the chair or seat and equipment 5. Measure water temp 6. Remove all air from clothing

112 Procedures 7. Sit in seat 8. Submerge
9. Blow all air out of lungs and remain still trials; average of the highest three 11. Subtract weight of apparatus from average UWW


114 Percent Body Fat MEN Women Excellent 10 - 12 Excellent 15 - 17
Good Average Overweight Obese > 27 Essential 3 Women Excellent Good Average Overweight Obese > 32 Essential 12

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