2The 5 Components of Fitness 1. Cardiovascular or Aerobic Capacity2. Flexibility3. Muscular Strength4. Muscular Endurance5. Body Composition
31. CardiovascularThe body’s ability to continuously provide oxygen to muscles as work is performed over an extended period of time.Ex: Running
4Purpose Of The Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise Program To develop the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to the working muscles of the body and other tissues.CRE is the best indicator of overall healthThe most important component of physical fitness and health-related fitness
5Acceptable levels of aerobic capacity (cardio) are associated with a reduced risk of the following: high blood pressureCoronary heart diseaseObesityDiabetesSome forms of cancer
6Training Heart Rate Range [(220-age)-resting pulse] x ____% + resting pulse = target zone
7FIT Principle F= Frequency (How often) I= Intensity (How hard) 3-5 days a weekI= Intensity (How hard)60%-90%T=Time (How long)1 hour
8Components of the CR Exercise Prescription ModalityWhat form of activity will you chooseFrequency“How often”Intensity“How hard”Duration“How long”Progression
9Choose an activity that: Modality [Type]Choose an activity that:Involves a large proportion of muscle massMaximizes the use of large musclesMinimizes the use of small musclesInvolves whole-body, is repetitive, minutes duration
11Frequency 3 - 5 days/week (normal) Frequency is based on current fitness levels, age health status, and exercise objectives.Low Fitness Level or Cardiovascular PatientsSeveral brief activities per dayHigh Fitness3-5 times/weekMore than 5 days/week allows for little gain in VO2max. Gains???
12Intensity [How Hard]How hard a person exercises is possibly the most important component of cardiorespiratory exercise prescription.How hard a person exercises is directly related to the level of cardiorespiratory improvement.
13Intensity #2 Typically, 50 - 85% of one’s capability Must tailor intensity to the individualLow fit individuals may benefit from low intensities.Highly conditioned individuals will require higher levels of intensity to illicit physiological change.
14Procedures for Establishing Intensity Percentage of Maximum Heart RatePercentage of Heart Rate ReserveRate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)Percent of VO2 Maximum
15Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate Maximum heart rate is:220-age for males226-age for femalesFor a 20 year old male maximum heart rate would be =20050% of (MHR) : .50 x 200 = 100
16Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve Steps using this method:Determine maximum heart rateDetermine resting heart rateDetermine heart rate reserve(HRR)HRR = MHR – RHRDetermine appropriate training intensity.50% of HRR ; .5 x HRR Example …
17Example 20 year old male. MHR = 220 – 20 200 RHR = Heart rate at total restHRR = 200 –Training intensity of 50%= [.50 x 140]+RHR
18DurationminutesSpecific guidelines vary depending on individual fitness levels and objectives.Duration is inversely related to intensity ???
19Determination of Heart Rate ElectronicallyPalpation
20Electronic Heart Rate Determination Requires specialized equipment (i.e., heart monitors)Advantages include accuracy and continuous display.
21Pulse Palpation Palpation sites Carotid artery (neck)Radial artery (wrist)Apply light pressure to avoid vagal effect when using carotid artery.Resting heart rate – 30 seconds x 2Exercising heart rate – 15 seconds x 4 ?
22Aerobic Capacity Tests 1. The Pacer Test2. One Mile Run3. The Walk Test
23PACER: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone AGEMALES: # of lapsFemales: # of laps1441-8323-511551-941661-9432-611741-6117+
24One Mile Run: Standards for Healthy Zone AGEMales: 1 mile run (Min:sec)Females: 1 mile run147:00-9:309:00-11:30157:00-9:008:30-11:00167:00-8:308:00-10:30178:00-10:0017+
252. FlexibilityThe ability to move joints through a full range of motionEx: Stretching
26What is Flexibility?Definition: The range of motion (ROM) of a single joint (i.e., knee) or a series of joints (i.e., spine)
27Two Subdivisions of flexibility Active FlexibilityPassive Flexibility
28Active Flexibility Also known as dynamic flexibility Definition: The degree to which the force of a muscle contraction can move a joint.
29Passive Flexibility Also known as static flexibility The range of motion of a joint resulting from some external force.Passive flexibility is typically greater than active flexibility.
30Benefits of Flexibility Assists in establishing and maintaining mobilityReduce muscle sorenessReduce risk of low back painImproves posture
31Benefits of Flexibility #2 Improves muscle coordinationReduces risk of injuryMay allow for improved performanceRelieves stress and tension
32Factors that influence flexibility GeneticsJoint StructureSedentary livingSoft Body TissueAgeGenderMuscle Temperature
33Joint Structure Movement varies depending on joint structure. Limited ROM: example, sutures of the scullExtensive ROM: example, shoulder
34Inactivity leads to low flexibility levels Sedentary LivingInactivity leads to low flexibility levels
35Soft Body Tissue Muscle tissue Connective tissue Skin, fat Excessive bulk (rarely)Connective tissueSkin, fatScar tissueFat tissue (adipose) acts as a wedge
36Age Aging is negatively related to flexibility Increased sedentary lifestylePhysical changes in tissuesChemical structure of the tissuesLoss of fluid in the tissuesIncreased calcium deposits
37Gender Females, in general, are more flexible than males Gender differences appear to be joint specific
38Muscle TemperatureAs muscle temperature rises, connective tissue becomes softer, allowing for more elongation.Soft tissue temperature changes can increase or decrease flexibility by as much as 20%Optimal temperature for muscle elongation: FWarm - up before stretching seems warranted
39Procedures of Flexibility Training or Stretching Static Stretching (Slow Sustained Stretching)Dynamic or Ballistic StretchingProprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
40Static Stretching (slow sustained stretching) Most common and recommended procedureAssociated with limited muscle sorenessMay assist in reducing muscle sorenessStretch the muscle to the point of slight discomfort (overload)Hold each stretch for 10 to 30 secondsRepeat the stretch 2 to 3 timesFlexibility exercise sessions should occur 3 to 5 times per week
41Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching Most dangerous of the stretching procedures.Involves the use of repetitive, bouncing.Virtually abandonedMay lead to soreness and muscle injury.
42Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Involves:Isometric contractionContraction and relaxation phasesNormally performed with a partnerHold the isometric contraction 4 to 5 secondsRepeat 2- 3 times; 3-5 times per week
44Sit and Reach: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone AgeBOYS: sit and reachGIRLS: sit and reach148101512161717+
45Shoulder stretch: Standards for healthy zone Passing = touching fingertips together behind the back
463. Muscular StrengthThe ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one timeBench Press150lbs 1 time
474. Muscular EnduranceThe ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time.Arm curls3 x 15 reps
48Three Types of Muscle Tissue SmoothHollow organs of the bodyStomach, blood vesselsCardiacFound only in the heartSkeletalAllows for movement
49An increase in muscle mass HypertrophyAn increase in muscle massAtrophyLoss of muscle mass
50Benefits of Resistive Training Improved appearanceIncreased strength and enduranceHypertrophy (ncrease in lean muscle mass)Increased flexibility (ROM)
51Benefits of Resistive Training #2 Appropriate body compositionIncreased performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skillsIncreased metabolic rate
52MetabolismIncludes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain lifeIn short, the way the body produces energyMetabolism slows with ageSlowed metabolism is primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle
53Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Basically, the number of calories required to sustain life in the resting stateAs lean body mass increases, BMR increasesEach pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hoursEach pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours
54Types of Skeletal Muscular Contraction Isometric (no change in muscle length)Isotonic (“weight room” lifting)Concentric contractions (positive)Involves shortening of muscleEccentric contractions (negative)Involves lengthening of muscle
55Isometric Contractions Contractions that involve no change in length of the muscle (a static contraction)Involves no skeletal movementInvolves no joint movementThe resistance force is greater than the contracting force of the muscle.Example: Pushing outward on the frame of a door.
56Isotonic Contractions Dynamic in nature and involve a muscle length changeMay be either Concentric or Eccentric
57Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training Muscle SizeGenderAge
58Muscle SizeThe strength that a skeletal muscle can produce is related to the cross sectional area of that particular muscle.Increases in strength results from an increase in the size and number of myofilaments (actin and myosin)“Use it or loss it”
59GenderWomen will experience less hypertrophy as a result of lower testosterone levelsWomen need not be concerned with appearing like a female “body builder”Males, present greater strength, only if they have greater muscle mass.
60AgeA loss of skeletal muscle tissue is associated with aging but primarily due to sedentary lifestyleLoss is somewhat preventable and/or reversible
61Muscle SorenessResults from structural damage of the muscle tissue or connective tissues.It is desirable to have small, microscopic tears in muscle tissueAs the muscle repairs or rebuilds itself, the end result is a stronger muscle
62Avoiding Muscle Soreness Eliminate or minimize eccentric trainingEliminate or minimize isometric trainingBegin training using low intensitiesInclude stretching in warm-up and cool down activityProgress slowly
63Repetitions and Sets One set is made up of a number of repetitions Example: One set of 10 repetitions
64NEVER hold your breath while exerting force when weight lifting Precaution!NEVER hold your breath while exerting force when weight liftingExhale as you apply forceInhale as you recover
65Isometric Training Principles Increases strength at a given joint angleTrain at a variety of joint anglesUsed to be a preferred method of strength training for athletesUsed in rehab settings
66Isotonic Training Principles Constant resistance, variable speed of muscular contractionMost common method of isotonic training is known as progressive resistance training.All program variations are based on the Principle of OverloadMay use free weights or machines
67One Repetition Maximum (1RM) Determine your 1RMTake 60% of that value and begin with that amount of resistance60% will develop some strength but mostly enduranceThe closer you work to your 1RM, the greater the strength gains and the risk of injury
68Muscular Strength Training Requires heavier weights at fewer repetitionsHigh resistive loads (greater than 60% of 1RM)3-9 repetitionsMinimum of 3 sets (beginners may need to start with one set, progressing to 2, then 3 sets
69Muscular Endurance Training Requires less weight, higher repetitionsLower resistive loads (less than 60% of 1RM)15 or more repetitions (>12 reps, >16 reps)Minimum of 3 setNote: Muscular strength gains may accompany gains in muscular endurance.
70Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training Most popular form of resistive trainingIsotonic movements are used in most daily activityInvolves working through a full ROMResistive weight remains the same, speed of the contraction or movement is variable
71Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #2 Warm upAdjust equipmentExercise large muscle groups firstLegs or large muscles in the upper bodyBegin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities.Follow the tenets of the Principle of Overload and Specificity
72Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #3 Don’t hold your breath while exerting forceStrengthen your weak side by:Working arms and legs independentlyIsolate the muscle groupWork through a full range of motion (ROM)Protect the back!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
73Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #4 Total body workoutShould be done no more than times per weekMay alternate daysMay alternate equipment to save time
74Equipment Used For Isotonic Training Free weightsWeight machines
75Free Weights Use a spotter Increased chance of injury Lack of stability, although it will develop better balance and muscular controlMay build strength fasterWeight increments are easily changed
76Weight Machines Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds The machine controls the line of forceMachines offer stabilityFewer injuriesNo spotter required
77Isokinetic Training Principles Requires special equipment designed to control and maintain a constant predetermined rate of muscular contractionComputerized - relies on hydrolicsCharacterized by variable resistance and constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction
78Isokinetic Training Principles #2 Disadvantage: COSTSet rate of contraction based on goals and objectives.Example: Slow contraction speeds produce increases in strength at slow speeds of movement only.
79Other Strength Training Techniques Circuit TrainingPlyometricsCalisthenics
80Circuit Training Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations Rotate through the circuit 3 timesConsists of combinations:Weight trainingStretchingCalisthenicsBrief aerobic exercise
81Plyometrics Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contractionInvolves hops, bounds, depth jumpingHigh probability of injury
82Calisthenics The body and its extremities provide resistance Often used in aerobic dance routinesAb crunches and push ups are examplesBest suited as a supplement to strength training rather than as a substituteIs a good approach for a beginner
83Muscle PhysiologyAn electrical impulse must be present for a muscle to contractMotor unit is:An electrical impulse and all the muscle cells it innervatesAs more motor units are called in, the contraction increases1RM: All motor units are called in
84Muscle Physiology #2 All or none response Sliding filament theory Actin and myosin (myofilaments)Crossbridges
86Type I Or Slow Twitch Associated with aerobic activity Adapted to sustained contractionsSmaller than fast twitchAppear red under the microscopeDepend on oxidative metabolism
87Are resistant to fatigue Type I Or Slow Twitch #2Are resistant to fatigueEndurance athletes (long distance runners) have more slow twitch fibers
88Type II or Fast Twitch Appear white under a microscope Associated with anaerobic activityFatigue easilyProduce fast, powerful contractions
89Type II or Fast TwitchExplosive activitySuccessful sprinters have a greater percentage of fast twitch fibersAssociated with anaerobic activity
90What Determines Fiber Type Primarily geneticsGiven types of training will not develop more fast or slow twitch fibers
91Push-Ups: Standards for healthy fitness zone AGEFEMALESMALES147-1514-301516-351618-351717+
92Curl-Ups: Standards for healthy fitness zone AGEFEMALESMALES1418-3224-451518-3524-47161717+
935. Body CompositionLean Body Mass (muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones)VSBody Fat(fat is fat)
94Overweight vs. ObesityOverweight individuals are those who exceed desirable body weight by 10% according to height and weight charts.Obese people are those who have more body fat than they should have
95OVERWEIGHTOverweight refers to an excess of body weight compared to set standards. The excess weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water
96OBESITYObesity refers specifically to having an abnormally high proportion of body fat.PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM1 - Diabetes Hypertension 3 - High Cholesterol 4 - Orthopedic problems 5 - Cancers associated with it 6 - Increased risk during surgery 7 - Joint problems
97A measure of body weight relative to height. Body Mass Index
98Body Mass IndexTool used to screen the general population regarding their risk for chronic diseaseWeight (lbs) x 705 = BMIHeight (in)2
99BMI is another method to assess your body composition. BMI can be used to determine if people are at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese.
100Disease Risk According to BMI BMI Disease Risk< Moderate to HighLowVery LowLowModerateHigh> Very High
101BMI Resultsdescription / procedure: BMI is calculated from body mass (M) and height (H). BMI = M / (H x H), where M = body mass in kilograms and H = height in meters. The higher the score usually indicating higher levels of body fatscoring:underweight <20healthy range 20-25overweight 25-30obese >30
102Common Myths Myth: BMI Measures Body Fat Two people can have the same BMI, but a different percent body fat. A bodybuilder with a large muscle mass and a low percent body fat may have the same BMI as a person who has more body fat because BMI is calculated using weight and height only. These men have the same height, weight, and BMI, but may have different percent body fat.6'3"Height220 lbsWeight27.5BMI
104Skinfold Measurements Description: This method is the most widely used body composition testing method for assessing percent body fat. Equipment used for this assessment includes a skinfold caliper. A Skinfold Caliper is designed specifically for simple accurate measurement of subcutaneous tissue. Either a 7 or 3 site skinfold may be assessed.
1057 site skinfold: chest triceps subscapular axilla suprailiac abdomen thigh
1063 site skinfold(Men):chestabdomenthigh(Women)tricepsuprailiac
107Advantages Easy to use once skill has been mastered Does not require much timeNoninvasive methodInexpensive way of estimating percent body fat
108Disadvantages Technical sources of error Mostly concerned with subcutaneous fat (under the skin)May not be an ideal measurement for those who are obese and very lean
109Hydrodensitometry (Under water weighing) Used to be considered the most accurate+2.5% if done with experienced subjectsConsidered a lab technique Two-component Model
110Hydrodensitometry BD = BW/BV Body weight = measured on a regular scale Body volume = measured using hydrostatic (underwater) weighing accounting for water density and air trapped in lungs
111Procedures 1. Wear light clothing (swimsuit) 2. Use bathroom prior to weighing3. Calibrate scale4. Weight the chair or seat and equipment5. Measure water temp6. Remove all air from clothing
112Procedures 7. Sit in seat 8. Submerge 9. Blow all air out of lungs and remain stilltrials; average of the highest three11. Subtract weight of apparatus from average UWW