The 5 Components of Fitness 1. Cardiovascular or Aerobic Capacity 2. Flexibility 3. Muscular Strength 4. Muscular Endurance 5. Body Composition
1. Cardiovascular The body’s ability to continuously provide oxygen to muscles as work is performed over an extended period of time. Ex: Running
Purpose Of The Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise Program To develop the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to the working muscles of the body and other tissues. CRE is the best indicator of overall health The most important component of physical fitness and health-related fitness
Acceptable levels of aerobic capacity (cardio) are associated with a reduced risk of the following: high blood pressure Coronary heart disease Obesity Diabetes Some forms of cancer
Training Heart Rate Range [(220-age)-resting pulse] x ____% + resting pulse = target zone
FIT Principle F= Frequency (How often) 3-5 days a week I= Intensity (How hard) 60%-90% T=Time (How long) 1 hour
Components of the CR Exercise Prescription Modality – What form of activity will you choose Frequency – “How often” Intensity – “How hard” Duration – “How long” Progression
Modality [Type] Choose an activity that: – Involves a large proportion of muscle mass – Maximizes the use of large muscles – Minimizes the use of small muscles – Involves whole-body, is repetitive, 20-60 minutes duration
Frequency 3 - 5 days/week (normal) Frequency is based on current fitness levels, age health status, and exercise objectives. – Low Fitness Level or Cardiovascular Patients Several brief activities per day – High Fitness 3-5 times/week – More than 5 days/week allows for little gain in VO 2max. Gains???
Intensity [How Hard] How hard a person exercises is possibly the most important component of cardiorespiratory exercise prescription. How hard a person exercises is directly related to the level of cardiorespiratory improvement.
Intensity #2 Typically, 50 - 85% of one’s capability Must tailor intensity to the individual – Low fit individuals may benefit from low intensities. – Highly conditioned individuals will require higher levels of intensity to illicit physiological change.
Procedures for Establishing Intensity Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Percent of VO 2 Maximum
Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate – Maximum heart rate is: 220-age for males 226-age for females – For a 20 year old male maximum heart rate would be 220-20=200 – 50% of (MHR) :.50 x 200 = 100
Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve Steps using this method: – Determine maximum heart rate – Determine resting heart rate – Determine heart rate reserve(HRR) HRR = MHR – RHR – Determine appropriate training intensity. 50% of HRR ;.5 x HRR Example …
Example 20 year old male. – MHR = 220 – 20200 – RHR = Heart rate at total rest 60 – HRR = 200 – 60140 – Training intensity of 50%= [.50 x 140]+RHR
Duration 20 - 60 minutes Specific guidelines vary depending on individual fitness levels and objectives. Duration is inversely related to intensity ???
Determination of Heart Rate Electronically Palpation
Electronic Heart Rate Determination Requires specialized equipment (i.e., heart monitors) Advantages include accuracy and continuous display.
Pulse Palpation Palpation sites – Carotid artery (neck) – Radial artery (wrist) Apply light pressure to avoid vagal effect when using carotid artery. Resting heart rate – 30 seconds x 2 Exercising heart rate – 15 seconds x 4 ?
Aerobic Capacity Tests 1. The Pacer Test 2. One Mile Run 3. The Walk Test
PACER: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone AGEMALES: # of lapsFemales: # of laps 1441-8323-51 1551-9423-51 1661-9432-61 1761-9441-61 17+61-9441-61
One Mile Run: Standards for Healthy Zone AGEMales: 1 mile run (Min:sec) Females: 1 mile run 147:00-9:309:00-11:30 157:00-9:008:30-11:00 167:00-8:308:00-10:30 177:00-8:308:00-10:00 17+7:00-8:308:00-10:00
2. Flexibility The ability to move joints through a full range of motion Ex: Stretching
Definition: The range of motion (ROM) of a single joint (i.e., knee) or a series of joints (i.e., spine) What is Flexibility?
Active Flexibility Passive Flexibility Two Subdivisions of flexibility
Also known as dynamic flexibility Definition: The degree to which the force of a muscle contraction can move a joint. Active Flexibility
Also known as static flexibility The range of motion of a joint resulting from some external force. Passive flexibility is typically greater than active flexibility. Passive Flexibility
Assists in establishing and maintaining mobility Reduce muscle soreness Reduce risk of low back pain Improves posture Benefits of Flexibility
Improves muscle coordination Reduces risk of injury May allow for improved performance Relieves stress and tension Benefits of Flexibility #2
Genetics Joint Structure Sedentary living Soft Body Tissue Age Gender Muscle Temperature Factors that influence flexibility
Movement varies depending on joint structure. – Limited ROM: example, sutures of the scull – Extensive ROM: example, shoulder Joint Structure
Inactivity leads to low flexibility levels Sedentary Living
Muscle tissue – Excessive bulk (rarely) Connective tissue Skin, fat – Scar tissue – Fat tissue (adipose) acts as a wedge Soft Body Tissue
Aging is negatively related to flexibility Increased sedentary lifestyle – Physical changes in tissues Chemical structure of the tissues Loss of fluid in the tissues Increased calcium deposits Age
Females, in general, are more flexible than males Gender differences appear to be joint specific Gender
As muscle temperature rises, connective tissue becomes softer, allowing for more elongation. Soft tissue temperature changes can increase or decrease flexibility by as much as 20% Optimal temperature for muscle elongation: 102 -110 F Warm - up before stretching seems warranted Muscle Temperature
Static Stretching (Slow Sustained Stretching) Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Procedures of Flexibility Training or Stretching
Most common and recommended procedure Associated with limited muscle soreness May assist in reducing muscle soreness Stretch the muscle to the point of slight discomfort (overload) Hold each stretch for 10 to 30 seconds Repeat the stretch 2 to 3 times Flexibility exercise sessions should occur 3 to 5 times per week Static Stretching (slow sustained stretching)
Most dangerous of the stretching procedures. Involves the use of repetitive, bouncing. Virtually abandoned May lead to soreness and muscle injury. Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching
Involves: – Isometric contraction – Contraction and relaxation phases – Normally performed with a partner Hold the isometric contraction 4 to 5 seconds Repeat 2- 3 times; 3-5 times per week Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
Flexibility Tests Sit and Reach Shoulder Stretch
Sit and Reach: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone AgeBOYS: sit and reach GIRLS: sit and reach 14810 15812 16812 17812 17+812
Shoulder stretch: Standards for healthy zone Passing = touching fingertips together behind the back
3. Muscular Strength The ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one time Bench Press – 150lbs 1 time
4. Muscular Endurance The ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time. Arm curls – 3 x 15 reps
Three Types of Muscle Tissue Smooth – Hollow organs of the body – Stomach, blood vessels Cardiac – Found only in the heart Skeletal – Allows for movement
Hypertrophy An increase in muscle mass Atrophy Loss of muscle mass
Benefits of Resistive Training Improved appearance Increased strength and endurance Hypertrophy (ncrease in lean muscle mass) Increased flexibility (ROM)
Benefits of Resistive Training #2 Appropriate body composition Increased performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skills Increased metabolic rate
Metabolism Includes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain life In short, the way the body produces energy Metabolism slows with age Slowed metabolism is primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Basically, the number of calories required to sustain life in the resting state As lean body mass increases, BMR increases – Each pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hours – Each pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours
Types of Skeletal Muscular Contraction Isometric (no change in muscle length) Isotonic (“weight room” lifting) – Concentric contractions (positive) Involves shortening of muscle – Eccentric contractions (negative) Involves lengthening of muscle
Isometric Contractions Contractions that involve no change in length of the muscle (a static contraction) Involves no skeletal movement Involves no joint movement The resistance force is greater than the contracting force of the muscle. Example: Pushing outward on the frame of a door.
Isotonic Contractions Dynamic in nature and involve a muscle length change May be either Concentric or Eccentric
Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training Muscle Size Gender Age
Muscle Size The strength that a skeletal muscle can produce is related to the cross sectional area of that particular muscle. Increases in strength results from an increase in the size and number of myofilaments (actin and myosin) “Use it or loss it”
Gender Women will experience less hypertrophy as a result of lower testosterone levels Women need not be concerned with appearing like a female “body builder” Males, present greater strength, only if they have greater muscle mass.
Age A loss of skeletal muscle tissue is associated with aging but primarily due to sedentary lifestyle Loss is somewhat preventable and/or reversible
Muscle Soreness Results from structural damage of the muscle tissue or connective tissues. It is desirable to have small, microscopic tears in muscle tissue As the muscle repairs or rebuilds itself, the end result is a stronger muscle
Avoiding Muscle Soreness Eliminate or minimize eccentric training Eliminate or minimize isometric training Begin training using low intensities Include stretching in warm-up and cool down activity Progress slowly
Repetitions and Sets One set is made up of a number of repetitions Example: One set of 10 repetitions
Precaution! NEVER hold your breath while exerting force when weight lifting Exhale as you apply force Inhale as you recover
Isometric Training Principles Increases strength at a given joint angle Train at a variety of joint angles Used to be a preferred method of strength training for athletes Used in rehab settings
Isotonic Training Principles Constant resistance, variable speed of muscular contraction Most common method of isotonic training is known as progressive resistance training. – All program variations are based on the Principle of Overload May use free weights or machines
One Repetition Maximum (1RM) Determine your 1RM Take 60% of that value and begin with that amount of resistance 60% will develop some strength but mostly endurance The closer you work to your 1RM, the greater the strength gains and the risk of injury
Muscular Strength Training Requires heavier weights at fewer repetitions – High resistive loads (greater than 60% of 1RM) – 3-9 repetitions – Minimum of 3 sets (beginners may need to start with one set, progressing to 2, then 3 sets
Muscular Endurance Training Requires less weight, higher repetitions – Lower resistive loads (less than 60% of 1RM) – 15 or more repetitions (>12 reps, >16 reps) – Minimum of 3 set – Note: Muscular strength gains may accompany gains in muscular endurance.
Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training Most popular form of resistive training Isotonic movements are used in most daily activity Involves working through a full ROM Resistive weight remains the same, speed of the contraction or movement is variable
Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #2 Warm up Adjust equipment Exercise large muscle groups first – Legs or large muscles in the upper body Begin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities. Follow the tenets of the Principle of Overload and Specificity
Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #3 Don’t hold your breath while exerting force Strengthen your weak side by: – Working arms and legs independently Isolate the muscle group Work through a full range of motion (ROM) Protect the back!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Practical Guidelines for Isotonic Training #4 Total body workout – Should be done no more than 2 - 3 times per week – May alternate days – May alternate equipment to save time
Equipment Used For Isotonic Training Free weights Weight machines
Free Weights Use a spotter Increased chance of injury Lack of stability, although it will develop better balance and muscular control May build strength faster Weight increments are easily changed
Weight Machines Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds The machine controls the line of force Machines offer stability Fewer injuries No spotter required
Isokinetic Training Principles Requires special equipment designed to control and maintain a constant predetermined rate of muscular contraction Computerized - relies on hydrolics Characterized by variable resistance and constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction
Isokinetic Training Principles #2 Disadvantage: COST Set rate of contraction based on goals and objectives. – Example: Slow contraction speeds produce increases in strength at slow speeds of movement only.
Other Strength Training Techniques Circuit Training Plyometrics Calisthenics
Circuit Training Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations Rotate through the circuit 3 times Consists of combinations: – Weight training – Stretching – Calisthenics – Brief aerobic exercise
Plyometrics Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction Involves hops, bounds, depth jumping High probability of injury
Calisthenics The body and its extremities provide resistance Often used in aerobic dance routines Ab crunches and push ups are examples Best suited as a supplement to strength training rather than as a substitute Is a good approach for a beginner
Muscle Physiology An electrical impulse must be present for a muscle to contract Motor unit is: – An electrical impulse and all the muscle cells it innervates As more motor units are called in, the contraction increases 1RM: All motor units are called in
Muscle Physiology #2 All or none response Sliding filament theory – Actin and myosin (myofilaments) – Crossbridges
Type I Or Slow Twitch – Associated with aerobic activity – Adapted to sustained contractions – Smaller than fast twitch – Appear red under the microscope – Depend on oxidative metabolism
Type I Or Slow Twitch #2 – Are resistant to fatigue – Endurance athletes (long distance runners) have more slow twitch fibers
Type II or Fast Twitch – Appear white under a microscope – Associated with anaerobic activity – Fatigue easily – Produce fast, powerful contractions
Type II or Fast Twitch Explosive activity Successful sprinters have a greater percentage of fast twitch fibers Associated with anaerobic activity
What Determines Fiber Type Primarily genetics Given types of training will not develop more fast or slow twitch fibers
Push-Ups: Standards for healthy fitness zone AGEFEMALESMALES 147-1514-30 157-1516-35 167-1518-35 177-1518-35 17+7-1518-35
Curl-Ups: Standards for healthy fitness zone AGEFEMALESMALES 1418-3224-45 1518-3524-47 1618-3524-47 1718-3524-47 17+18-3524-47
5. Body Composition Lean Body Mass (muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones) VS Body Fat (fat is fat)
Overweight vs. Obesity Overweight individuals are those who exceed desirable body weight by 10% according to height and weight charts. Obese people are those who have more body fat than they should have
OVERWEIGHT Overweight refers to an excess of body weight compared to set standards. The excess weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water
OBESITY Obesity refers specifically to having an abnormally high proportion of body fat. – PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM 1 - Diabetes 2 - Hypertension 3 - High Cholesterol 4 - Orthopedic problems 5 - Cancers associated with it 6 - Increased risk during surgery 7 - Joint problems
Body Mass Index A measure of body weight relative to height.
Body Mass Index Tool used to screen the general population regarding their risk for chronic disease Weight (lbs) x 705 = BMI Height (in) 2
BMI is another method to assess your body composition. BMI can be used to determine if people are at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese.
Disease Risk According to BMI BMIDisease Risk <20.00 Moderate to High 20.00 - 21.99 Low 22.00 - 24.99 Very Low 25.00 - 29.99 Low 30.00 - 34.99 Moderate 35.00 - 39.99 High >40.00 Very High
BMI Results – description / procedure: BMI is calculated from body mass (M) and height (H). BMI = M / (H x H), where M = body mass in kilograms and H = height in meters. The higher the score usually indicating higher levels of body fat body massheight – scoring: underweight <20 healthy range 20-25 overweight 25-30 obese >30
Common Myths Myth: BMI Measures Body Fat Two people can have the same BMI, but a different percent body fat. A bodybuilder with a large muscle mass and a low percent body fat may have the same BMI as a person who has more body fat because BMI is calculated using weight and height only. These men have the same height, weight, and BMI, but may have different percent body fat. 6'3"Height6'3" 220 lbsWeight220 lbs 27.5BMI27.5
Body Composition Methods Skinfold Measurements * Skinfold Measurements Underwater Weighing * Underwater Weighing Bioelectrical Impedence Bod Pod (Air Displacement) Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000
Skinfold Measurements Description: This method is the most widely used body composition testing method for assessing percent body fat. Equipment used for this assessment includes a skinfold caliper. A Skinfold Caliper is designed specifically for simple accurate measurement of subcutaneous tissue. Either a 7 or 3 site skinfold may be assessed.