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Chapter 13 The Interwar Years

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1 Chapter 13 The Interwar Years 1919-1939

2 What was happening in China when we last visited there?
Western powers wished to divide up China and claim the natural resources available there. China wanted to have a “closed door” to the Western world.

3 Trading Rights Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia all claimed exclusive trading rights to certain parts of China. They were dividing China into "spheres of influence.“ Businesses hoped to take advantage of China's vast resources.

4 Fists of Righteous Harmony
A secret society, known as the Fists of Righteous Harmony, attracted thousands of followers. Foreigners called members of this society "Boxers" because they practiced martial arts. The Boxers also believed that they had a magical power, and that foreign bullets could not harm them. Millions of "spirit soldiers," they said, would soon rise from the dead and join their cause. A Boxer in 1900

5 Boxer Rebellion Defeated
Other nations feared the Boxers. They sent troops who looted the capital and even ransacked the Forbidden City. Disguised as a peasant, the empress dowager escaped the city in a cart. She returned to the Forbidden City a year later, but the power of the Ch'ing dynasty was destroyed forever. Empress Dowager Defeated

6 Formation of the Chinese Republic
Sun Yatsen Dissatisfaction with the Imperial government led to the rise of Sun Yixian (Yatsen) He was the Leader of the Kuomintang which was China’s Nationalist Party Overthrows Qing Emperor in 1911 and becomes China’s first president, but… Sun could not unite China

7 Warlords China becomes a military dictatorship overrun by warlords
Turns over presidency to a top general who overturns democratic reforms China becomes a military dictatorship overrun by warlords

8 Section 1 Unrest in Asia and Africa
1. Read the Inside Story. What was going on in China in 1934? 2. What were the 2 groups who were fighting? 3. Who led the Communists? 4. Who led the nationalists? 5. Which group was forced to flee?

9 China after World War I Following World War I, nationalist feeling increased in Asia and Africa. The resulting unrest continued into the 1930s. 6. In what year did China declare war on Germany and why did they join the Allies? 7. What nation got the lands China wanted after the war? 8. What did China believe the Versailles Treaty signified?

10 The Communist Party in China
Many intellectual Chinese turned against Western Democracy (as you might imagine they would considering how the democracies treated China) Communist Party Lead by former university asst. librarian Mao Zedong Influence by the Russian Revolutions of 1917

11 Mao Zedong Student of Marxism
However, he believed the communist revolutions would not begin with urban factory workers, but with RURAL PEASANTS “The force of the peasantry is like that of the raging winds and driving rain. It is rapidly increasing in violence. No force can stand in its way.

12 May Fourth Movement On May 4, 1919 over 3,000 angry Chinese students gathered in Beijing to protest the Treaty of Versailles Demonstrations spread to other cities throughout China

13 Students in Beijing 9. What was the May Fourth Movement?
10. What did many Chinese believe was the best way to strengthen and modernize China? 11. What party was formed in 1921?

14 Jiang Jieshi & the Nationalists
After Sun Yixian’s death in 1925, Jiang Jieshi becomes the head of the Kuomintang ( KMT)

15 Uneasy Partnership Communists and Guomindang formed partnership, fought warlords who controlled much of China

16 Chinese Civil War Jiang Jieshi starts a campaign against communists
Has troops and armed gangs kill members of the Communist Party and union members on the city streets of Shanghai Nearly wipes out all members of the Communist Party

17 Recognition of China In 1928 the US and Britain recognize Jiang Jieshi as president of China The Soviet Union does not due to persecution of Communist Party in China

18 Mao Zedong and the Red Army
Mao forms the Red Army by recruiting peasants Established themselves in the countryside of south-central China Jiang sends Nationalists soldiers after them, but can’t completely wipe them out due to guerilla warfare

19 An Uneasy Partnership 12. Why did the Kuomintang nationalists and the communists believe they needed to work together? 13. What action did Jiang take attempting to stop the communist influence in China and what did this mark the beginning of?

20 Mao Zedong 14. Who was the leader of the communists in China and what did he direct his followers to do when the nationalists began to defeat them?

21 Chinese Civil War The Long March
Jiang sends 700,000 men after Communists and surrounds them

22 Red Army soldiers marching part of the 6,000 miles
Communists Flee Red Army soldiers marching part of the 6,000 miles 100,000 Communists flee and begin a 6,000 mile-journey (The Long March) Tens of thousands die due to Starvation Battle wounds Exposure to the cold

23 Crossing the Mountains
15. How long was the Long March? 16. How many began the Long March and how many survived? Mao and 8,000 survivors take shelter in the caves of northwestern China.

24 8000 Kilometers 4970 Miles The sojourn stretched for 8000 kilometers across some of China's less tourist-friendly landscapes and was prompted by the battle the Reds were having with the far-superior Nationalist army. Of the 87,000 who began the march, only about 6000 made it to the finishing line.

25 Unprepared for Harsh Conditions
Because the Reds were forced to embark on their cross-country walking tour without much forethought, they were unprepared for the harsh conditions awaiting them, which ended up claiming most of those who set out.

26 Communists Behavior during the Long March
– obey orders, – do not take anything from the people by force, – turn in anything that is captured to Mao. This behavior led to increased support for the communists from the Chinese peasants. Luding Bridge Crossing 29 May 1935

27 17. How many Miles was the Long March?

28 Four “Wars” The Chinese people led by the CPC underwent successively
the Northern Expeditionary War ( ), the War of Agrarian Revolution (also known as "Ten-Year Civil War," ), the War of Resistance Against Japan ( ), and the War of Liberation ( ).

29 Japanese troops entering Shenyang
China Invaded Time Out!!! The Civil War between the Nationalists and Red armies is suspended JAPAN INVADES MANCHURIA IN 1931 By 1937 Japan invades all of China Nationalists and Communists unite to repel Japanese invasion Owing to the cooperation and joint resistance of the CPC and Kuomintang, the Japanese aggressors were defeated but shortly after the anti-Japanese war, the Kuomintang re-launched civil war. TO BE CONTINUED AFTER WORLD WAR II… Japanese troops entering Shenyang

30 China after World War I Japanese troops established on Chinese territory from 1901–1915 18. In 1921 what party was formed in China? 19. These two groups joined together to fight the ________ who controlled much of China. 20. Jiang Jieshi turned to the Nationalists. What did he do to the Communists he had previously supported? Also known as Chiang kai-shek

31 Chiang Kaishek’s Response to Japanese aggression
1931 Japanese Capture of Manchuria No resistance from Chiang Kaishek Chiang turned forces against Communists in Jiangxi Ruthless force used to crush student and intellectual demonstrations against Chiang’s weak policies.

32 Changes in India 21. India was a colony of what nation in World War I?
22. Why did the Indians feel anger and resentment after the war? 23. What acts were passed by the British in 1919 which allowed them to deal very harshly with the growing opposition in India? THINK: How did the Indians feel about this action?

33 Amritsar Massacre 24. How did the British soldiers respond to the peaceful, unarmed demonstrators in the city of Amritsar? THINK: What changed for the majority of the Indians after the Amritsar Massacre?

34 Gandhi’s Protests Gandhi believed in 2 important concepts.
25. What was AHIMSA? 26. What is CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE? 27. What was his first nonviolent action against British rule? THINK: How is this similar to the first actions taken by the colonists at the start of the American Revolution?

35 BOYCOTT Many Indians bought clothes made in England or from British cloth. 28. How did this change as the Indian movement for independence became stronger? 29. What became a symbol of Gandhi’s peaceful movement for change? 30. What monopoly did the British have which was the second boycott Gandhi launched?

36 Gandhi’s Progress 31. What happened to Gandhi during this revolution?
32. What did the British do in 1935? THINK: Why was this not what Gandhi wanted for his nation?

37 The Middle East 33. What was supposed to happen to lands controlled by the Ottoman Empire after World War I and why did this NOT happen?

38 Kemal Ataturk 34. Who was the World War I hero who led the defeat of Greek forces sent to claim this territory? 35. What did he announce in October 1923? 36. What does his name, Kemal Ataturk, mean?

39 PERSIA 37. In 1921 who led the movement to overthrow Persia’s shah and what was the result of this action? 38. What was Khan’s given name? 39. What was his goal for Persia and to what did he change the name of Persia?

40 French and British Mandates
40. What was the movement for a Jewish nation called? 41. What British document was issued in 1917 which agreed to support a Jewish homeland in Palestine? 42. What happened to this area instead after World War I? 43. What countries did the French control? 44. What countries did the British control?

41 Palestine 45. In 1921 the British gave the eastern part of Palestine to Husayn’s son, Abdullah and what name was given to this region? 46. What was the name of Husayn’s other son? 47. What area was he given by the British and what was this region named? THINK: Why do you think the residents of these regions were angry when Jewish immigration increased to this area?

42 Nationalism in Africa 48. How was the experience of African colonies during World War I similar to India and the Middle East colonies? 49. Why did the German colonies in African NOT gain their independence after helping to fight in World War I? 50. What was one result of the Pan-African Congresses? 51. Which African nation WAS granted its independency by Britain in 1922? 52. What 2 things does your text tell us will have to occur before African nations will achieve independence?

43 In your notes, briefly summarize what we have learned was happening in each of these areas after World War I. 53. China 54. India 55. Middle East 56. Africa

44 Section 2 The Great Depression
The decade between 1920 and 1930 known as The ROARING Twenties. 57. What 3 economic conditions occurred during this time? 58. What 2 new inventions boosted the consumer industry?

45 The US Economy in the 1920s REMEMBER: What change had occurred in the economic status of the US after World War I? 59. Why were American factories so busy during World War I? 60. What new invention was begun by Henry Ford? No it is not the car. THINK: What are consumer goods?

46 Hidden Problems 61. What phrase identifies borrowing money to pay for a stock in the hopes you can pay it off when the price rises? THINK: What happens if the price of the stock falls? 62. One of the problems was an UNEQUAL distribution of wealth. What does this mean? 63. What percent of the population earned 19 percent of the nation’s income?

47 The Depression Spreads
64. What was a third cause of the Great Depression? 65. When was Black Tuesday and what happened on that day? THINK: What did people have to do to repay the loans they had taken out for stocks? 66. Quick Facts. What were the 5 causes of the Stock Market Crash? 67. Our text tells us 1 out of every 4 workers in the US was unemployed. What percentage is that? THINK: What is our unemployment rate today in the US? The Depression Spreads

48 President Hoover As people needed money they tried to take it out of their banking accounts. THINK: What happens to the money you save in your bank? 68. Why did Herbert Hoover not want to begin a massive government program to help Americans during this time? 69. Who is elected president in 1932?

49 Music The Blues 70. Where did the blues originally develop and what 3 types of music did they combine? 71. How did the blues music travel to northern cities? 72. What other forms of music today owe their beginnings to the blues?

50 The New Deal 73. What program did FDR begin to help Americans during the Great Depression? The 3 parts of his policy were Relief, Recovery and Reform 74. How did the New Deal provide relief? 75. How did it provide recovery? 76. How did it cause reform?

51 Hurrah for John Maynard Keynes
77. What did Keynes believe government should do during a downturn in the economy? 78. If the government spent money on recovery programs, how did Keynes believe this would benefit the people? THINK: If the people were able to go back to work, what would they do with the money they earned?

52 The Worldwide Depression
79. What did the Allies require Germany to pay after the war and what did this lead to in Germany? THINK: What is inflation? 80. In what other nation did this also occur? THINK: Why would the actions in one part of the world affect other nations as well? 81. What is globalization?

53 Making the Wrong Move 82. What did the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act do?
83. Why did Americans think this was a good idea? THINK: Now that you understand globalization, why was this NOT a good idea? 84. What did other nations do to respond to the increase in US tariffs?

54 Political Impact 85. What 2 conditions had left many countries in the world politically unstable? 86. What group was formed in Germany which unfairly blamed Jews for their country's problems and who became the dictator of Italy? 87. Your text tells us a “worse crisis lay ahead”. To what is it referring?

55 Section 3 Japanese Imperialism
88. Read The Inside Story. Why did the Chinese bomb a railway in their own country? 89. Who really bombed the railway and why? 90. What did the Japanese want from Manchuria?

56 Japan in the 1920s 91. During what period did the Japanese economy begin to industrialize? 92. Which groups did NOT share in this new prosperity? 93. Why was Japan forced to import many materials? 94. What happened to Japanese products when other nations began to raise tariffs on imports? 95. What did the Japanese leaders decide to do to reverse this trend?

57 Growing Military Influence
96. After the beginning of the Great Depression, where did many Japanese look for help to fix their difficulties? 97. Why did treaties made by civilian leaders in Japan’s government after World War I anger military officials? 98. What did the US do in 1924 which angered the Japanese?

58 Japanese Aggression 99. For what 2 reasons does our test tell us the Japanese military believed they would not be able to compete with Western powers? 100. How did the Japanese military attempt to reduce this Western advantage and what is one example your text gives of this movement? 101. Read History’s Voices. Summarize in your own words. On October 12, 1938, the Japanese landed in Daya Bay (Bias Bay) and defeated the Chinese Nationalist army. Guangzhou (Canton) was occupied.  

59 Taking Over the Government
102. With what type of government did the military leaders try to replace the nation’s government and how did they attempt to do this? 103. What did the Japanese military leaders do in 1931 and what is this called? 104. What natural resources were located in Manchuria which the Japanese needs? Japanese planes bombing Shanghai

60 Forming New Alliances THINK: What was the League of Nations?
105. What announcement did the Japanese make when they withdrew from the League of Nations? 106. What did Japan and Germany agree to in the Anti-Comintern Pact? 107. What war was fought between Japan and China in 1937? 108. What name is given to the killing of 100,000 Chinese men, women and children in Nanjing? The Japanese Kwantung Army marches into battle south of the Yangtze River.

61 A Move toward Wider War 109. Why did the war with China not go Japan’s way? 110. What group did Japan propose in 1940 and what was their goal? After the three-year War of Liberation led by the CPC, the Kuomintang government was finally overthrown in 1949. Japanese “RAPE” of Nanking

62 Section 4 Dictators in Europe
111. Read the Inside Story. Who plotted to take over the Italian government? 112. What did the term “Il Duce” mean? 113. On what ancient Roman symbol was the name “Fascists” based? 114. What form of government is Fascism and what is its goal?

63 Mussolini in Power 115. When Mussolini led the March on Rome, what did Italy’s king do? 116. What type of government did Mussolini establish? 117. What is the term for the attempt by a government to control all aspects of life? 118. What were the two most important parts of Mussolini’s totalitarian program?

64 The Invasion of Ethiopia
Ethiopia was the first area Italy invaded. 119. What were two serious disadvantages for Ethiopia? 120. Who was the leader of Ethiopia? 121. Why did the world NOT want to help Ethiopia?

65 Stalin’s Soviet Union 122. Who became the ruler of the Soviet Union after Lenin died and what type of government did Stalin establish in order to control every aspect of Soviet life? 123. Why did he believe this was necessary?

66 The Five-Year Plans A QUOTA was established for each factory and mine under the Five-Year Plans. 124. THINK: Who owns and directs the Factors of Production in a communist system? 125. THINK: What are the Factors of Production? 126. THINK: Who owns and directs the Factors of Production in a capitalist system?

67 Collectivization and Famine
127. How did Stalin want to increase Soviet farm output and what is the term for this? 128. How was this a direct contradiction of Lenin’s programs? 129. When the peasants resisted collectivization, Stalin killed them or sent them north into Siberian labor camps. What was this system of labor camps called? 130. How did Stalin punish Ukraine for their resistance?

68 Political Purges 131. What is a purge?
132. How were children indoctrinated into supporting the Soviet Union? 133. How did Stalin promote a “cult of personality”?

69 Hitler’s Germany 134. What was the name of the new republican government in Germany after World War I? 135. Who did the Germans blame for the embarrassment from their punishment in the Treaty of Versailles? 136. What was another name for the Nationalist Socialist Party?

70 Hitler’s Early Career 137. How was Hitler punished when his attempt to overthrow the German government failed in 1923? 138. What book did he write while in prison and what does the title mean?

71 Hitler Gains Power 139. Read this section on page What promise did Hitler make to the military? 140. What did he call the Germans? 141. What position did Hitler achieve in 1933? THINK: Why do you think the German people were so eager to believe Hitler?

72 Totalitarian Governments
142. How did Hitler silence his opposition? (2) 143. What type of government did Hitler create? 144. What does our text tell us was similar between the rise in power of Stalin and Hitler? (2)

73 Hitler Controls Germany?
145. How did Hitler attempt to improve the economic situation in Germany? THINK: How was this similar to what was occurring in the US under FDR?

74 Nazi Anti-Semitism 146. What is Anti-Semitism?
THINK: What is prejudice? 147. How did the Nuremberg Laws change life for German Jews and how was this ancestry established? 148. What does Kristallnacht mean and what occurred on these nights?

75 Totalitarian Governments
149. What 3 totalitarian nations will begin World War II? 150. What are the 5 characteristics of a totalitarian nation? Totalitarian Governments Characteristics of a Totalitarian nation A. Government controlled by a single party B. Powerful dictator C. Secret police use terror and violence D. Citizens denied basic rights E. Govt. controls the economy

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