President Woodrow Wilson Democrat Moral Isolationist
American Isolation Neutrality “in word and deed” Great Britain and France – Democracies
American Isolation Germans, Austrians, Turks – Autocracies US Naturally more sympathetic to Democracies Cultural ties to Britain GB cuts trans-Atlantic cable from Germany to US – only avenue for news from GB
American Isolation Trade- favored France and GB Remaining neutral allowed us to continue to trade with anyone. $2-3 Billion with Fr and GB $30 million with Germany
American Isolation War orders and loans for France and GB pulled up US economy – Boom US Bankers loaned the Allies millions with government approval The U.S. Stake in the outcome of the war (investment, future trade) was pro-ally.
The Blockade British Blockade of Germany with the Royal Navy, 1914 – Starve Germany (including citizens)
Submarine Warfare Germans respond with Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Neutrals and belligerent ships known to be carrying neutrals (Americans) fair game US objects – neutrality – International Law
Submarine Warfare May 1, 1915 Lusitania sets sail from New York 1,257 passengers and (hidden in storage) food stuffs and 4.2 million rounds of rifle ammo, 1,250 cases of shrapnel shells, and 18 case of fuses. On May 7, one torpedo from U-20 sank the huge liner in less than 18 minutes killing 1,198 – 128 Americans
Submarine Warfare Wilson, over the next several months objects in a series of statements. Germans back off until Feb 1917 – when they resume Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The Zimmerman Note German Telegram to Mexico proposing an alliance – Intercepted by Britain – Mexican support in exchange for land lost to the U.S. Changed public opinion in US
America Goes to War Feb 1917 – US breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany March 1917 – Armed Neutrality – US arms merchant ships
America Goes to War U.S. Declares War on April 6,1917 AEF – American Expeditionary Forces under General Pershing arrive in France in June 1917 and help turn the tide. – Provides much needed troops and supplies – Morale Boost – Financial Support
Wilson’s Hopes Wilson hoped to end the war and bring lasting peace to Europe Jan. 1918-Issued the Fourteen Points as a way of resolving and preventing wars
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Most important to Wilson
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