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World War I. Underlying Causes (excuses) Underlying Causes (excuses) Imperialism Imperialism Taking over other nations (motivations vary) Taking over.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I. Underlying Causes (excuses) Underlying Causes (excuses) Imperialism Imperialism Taking over other nations (motivations vary) Taking over."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 Underlying Causes (excuses) Underlying Causes (excuses) Imperialism Imperialism Taking over other nations (motivations vary) Taking over other nations (motivations vary) Creates instability and violates nations’ sovereignty (self-determination) Creates instability and violates nations’ sovereignty (self-determination) Nationalism Nationalism Intense feeling of pride/loyalty to one’s own group Intense feeling of pride/loyalty to one’s own group Problematic when at expense of other nations’ sovereignty (self- determination) Ex. Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism Problematic when at expense of other nations’ sovereignty (self- determination) Ex. Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism Militarism Militarism Arms racing and keeping an army prepared for war Arms racing and keeping an army prepared for war defense or hostile actions/intentions??? defense or hostile actions/intentions??? Entangling Alliances Entangling Alliances Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) Triple Entente (G.B., France, and Russia) Triple Entente (G.B., France, and Russia) Causes chain reaction and a much bigger conflict - “world war” Causes chain reaction and a much bigger conflict - “world war”

3 How does it all start? Where does it start? Where does it start? Balkan Peninsula Balkan Peninsula “Powder Keg of Europe” “Powder Keg of Europe” Why called Powder Keg? Why called Powder Keg? Ethnic/religious disputes in region (explosive situation) Ethnic/religious disputes in region (explosive situation) The “Spark” The “Spark” Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie assassinated by Serb nationalist Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie assassinated by Serb nationalist Part I Part I Part I Part I Part II Part II Part II Part II

4 War Declared Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after issuing an ultimatum Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after issuing an ultimatum War Declared - July 28 th 1914 War Declared - July 28 th 1914 Sets off chain reaction due to alliance system Sets off chain reaction due to alliance system Russia, Germany, France, and finally Britain (major powers directly involved) Russia, Germany, France, and finally Britain (major powers directly involved)

5 MAJOR NATIONS INVOLVED IN WAR Allies Allies Great Britain, France, Russia (until 1918), Serbia, Japan, Italy (1915), U.S. (1917) Great Britain, France, Russia (until 1918), Serbia, Japan, Italy (1915), U.S. (1917) Central Powers Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

6 INITIALLY NOT SEEN AS A MAJOR WAR Most believe it will be over quickly Most believe it will be over quickly Patriotic fervor sweeps Europe Patriotic fervor sweeps Europe

7 SCHLIEFFEN PLAN Quick victory in France; then turn on Russia Quick victory in France; then turn on Russia “Paris for lunch; dinner in St. Petersburg” “Paris for lunch; dinner in St. Petersburg” Does not turn out that way Does not turn out that way Why not? Why not? With help from Belgium, and Russian attack; France and Britain are able to mobilize and halt German advance at Battle of the Marne With help from Belgium, and Russian attack; France and Britain are able to mobilize and halt German advance at Battle of the Marne

8 WESTERN FRONT Trench Warfare; basically a stalemate Trench Warfare; basically a stalemate Trench Warfare; basically a stalemate Trench Warfare; basically a stalemate Why? Why? New Technology (weapons); too costly to use old battle tactics New Technology (weapons); too costly to use old battle tactics

9 EASTERN FRONT Russians had to mobilize (outdated army) Russians had to mobilize (outdated army) German forces Russian retreat (Tannenberg) German forces Russian retreat (Tannenberg) Russians sign treaty in 1918 (Brest- Litovsk) Russians sign treaty in 1918 (Brest- Litovsk) Why? Why? Revolution (1917) Revolution (1917)

10 UNITED STATES Why does it take so long for the U.S. to enter the war? Why does it take so long for the U.S. to enter the war? Isolationism Isolationism Why? Why? Tradition (Washington, Jefferson, others) Tradition (Washington, Jefferson, others) Ethnicity (British or Germans???) Ethnicity (British or Germans???) Why does U.S. finally enter the war on the Allies side? Why does U.S. finally enter the war on the Allies side? Propaganda (mostly from British) Propaganda (mostly from British) Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 Unrestricted U-boat warfare Unrestricted U-boat warfare Zimmerman telegram (1917) Zimmerman telegram (1917)

11 U.S. DECLARES WAR APRIL 6, 1917 “World must be made safe for Democracy!” “World must be made safe for Democracy!” Not well prepared (non- intervention) Not well prepared (non- intervention) Americans turn the tide of war Americans turn the tide of war Change way war is waged Change way war is waged “Devil Dogs” (Marines) “Devil Dogs” (Marines)

12 ARMISTICE November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am “Eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month” November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am “Eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month” German economy in poor shape German economy in poor shape New Leadership (Weimar Republic) surrenders – New Leadership (Weimar Republic) surrenders – Revolution (Hitler’s “November Criminals”) Revolution (Hitler’s “November Criminals”)

13 Short Term Consequences of War Death- 30 million people Death- 30 million people Slaughter, disease, starvation Slaughter, disease, starvation Destruction Destruction Farmland, homes, and villages Farmland, homes, and villages Economic Impact Economic Impact National treasuries drained; debt figures vary – much owed to U.S. (creditor nation v. debtor nation) National treasuries drained; debt figures vary – much owed to U.S. (creditor nation v. debtor nation) Psychological Effect- despair, insecurity Psychological Effect- despair, insecurity

14 Long Term Consequences Peace Process (Versailles Treaty) Peace Process (Versailles Treaty) Big Four dominate proceedings Big Four dominate proceedings Wilson – U.S. (14 Points) Wilson – U.S. (14 Points) Wilson had attempted earlier to negotiate peace settlement – a “peace without victory” Wilson had attempted earlier to negotiate peace settlement – a “peace without victory” Clemenceau – France (Punish Germany!) Clemenceau – France (Punish Germany!) David Lloyd George – G.B. (punish but more moderate than Clemenceau) David Lloyd George – G.B. (punish but more moderate than Clemenceau) Orlando – Italy (Land) Orlando – Italy (Land) End Result = Germans must pay!! End Result = Germans must pay!! Their excuse for not listening to Wilson? Their excuse for not listening to Wilson? U.S. had not sacrificed as much as other Allies U.S. had not sacrificed as much as other Allies

15 Long Term Consequences (cont.) Treaty creates bitterness and resentment Treaty creates bitterness and resentment Germany - as a result of Versailles Treaty: Germany - as a result of Versailles Treaty: Must accept full responsibility for the War Must accept full responsibility for the War Must pay war reparations (severe) Must pay war reparations (severe) Loses territory (Alsace/Lorraine and other) Loses territory (Alsace/Lorraine and other) Military limited (100,000 man army) Military limited (100,000 man army) Italy – did not gain territory Italy – did not gain territory League of Nations League of Nations U.S. does not join U.S. does not join Why not? Why not? Only Senate has power to declare war not League of Nations Only Senate has power to declare war not League of Nations World Wide Economic Crisis (Depression) World Wide Economic Crisis (Depression) Belfour Declaration - Zionism Belfour Declaration - Zionism


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