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World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 Underlying Causes (excuses)
Imperialism Taking over other nations (motivations vary) Creates instability and violates nations’ sovereignty (self-determination) Nationalism Intense feeling of pride/loyalty to one’s own group Problematic when at expense of other nations’ sovereignty (self-determination) Ex. Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism Militarism Arms racing and keeping an army prepared for war defense or hostile actions/intentions??? Entangling Alliances Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) Triple Entente (G.B., France, and Russia) Causes chain reaction and a much bigger conflict - “world war”

3 How does it all start? Where does it start? Balkan Peninsula
“Powder Keg of Europe” Why called Powder Keg? Ethnic/religious disputes in region (explosive situation) The “Spark” Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie assassinated by Serb nationalist Part I Part II

4 War Declared Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after issuing an ultimatum War Declared - July 28th 1914 Sets off chain reaction due to alliance system Russia, Germany, France, and finally Britain (major powers directly involved)

Allies Great Britain, France, Russia (until 1918), Serbia, Japan, Italy (1915), U.S. (1917) Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

Most believe it will be over quickly Patriotic fervor sweeps Europe

7 SCHLIEFFEN PLAN Quick victory in France; then turn on Russia
“Paris for lunch; dinner in St. Petersburg” Does not turn out that way Why not? With help from Belgium, and Russian attack; France and Britain are able to mobilize and halt German advance at Battle of the Marne

8 WESTERN FRONT Trench Warfare; basically a stalemate Why?
New Technology (weapons); too costly to use old battle tactics

9 EASTERN FRONT Russians had to mobilize (outdated army)
German forces Russian retreat (Tannenberg) Russians sign treaty in 1918 (Brest-Litovsk) Why? Revolution (1917)

10 UNITED STATES Why does it take so long for the U.S. to enter the war?
Isolationism Why? Tradition (Washington, Jefferson, others) Ethnicity (British or Germans???) Why does U.S. finally enter the war on the Allies side? Propaganda (mostly from British) Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 Unrestricted U-boat warfare Zimmerman telegram (1917)

11 U.S. DECLARES WAR APRIL 6, 1917 “World must be made safe for Democracy!” Not well prepared (non-intervention) Americans turn the tide of war Change way war is waged “Devil Dogs” (Marines)

12 German economy in poor shape
ARMISTICE 4/6/2017 November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am “Eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month” German economy in poor shape New Leadership (Weimar Republic) surrenders – Revolution (Hitler’s “November Criminals”)

13 Short Term Consequences of War
Death- 30 million people Slaughter, disease, starvation Destruction Farmland, homes, and villages Economic Impact National treasuries drained; debt figures vary – much owed to U.S. (creditor nation v. debtor nation) Psychological Effect- despair, insecurity

14 Long Term Consequences
Peace Process (Versailles Treaty) Big Four dominate proceedings Wilson – U.S. (14 Points) Wilson had attempted earlier to negotiate peace settlement – a “peace without victory” Clemenceau – France (Punish Germany!) David Lloyd George – G.B. (punish but more moderate than Clemenceau) Orlando – Italy (Land) End Result = Germans must pay!! Their excuse for not listening to Wilson? U.S. had not sacrificed as much as other Allies

15 Long Term Consequences (cont.)
Treaty creates bitterness and resentment Germany - as a result of Versailles Treaty: Must accept full responsibility for the War Must pay war reparations (severe) Loses territory (Alsace/Lorraine and other) Military limited (100,000 man army) Italy – did not gain territory League of Nations U.S. does not join Why not? Only Senate has power to declare war not League of Nations World Wide Economic Crisis (Depression) Belfour Declaration - Zionism

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