Presentation on theme: "Europeans Claim Muslim Lands Chapter 11 Section 3."— Presentation transcript:
Europeans Claim Muslim Lands Chapter 11 Section 3
Goals and Objectives: Upon completion students should 1.Summarize the decline of the Ottoman Empire 2.Describe the causes and effects of the Crimean War. 3.Analyze Egypt’s reforms 4.Evaluate Persia’s response to foreign pressure
Muslim lands 1800 Muslims controlled N. Africa, S.W. Asia and land surrounding the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire had stretched from Hungary through Greece around the Black Sea through Syria and Egypt By the 1800’s the Ottoman empire was in a period of decline due to weak rulers as well as the rise of European strength.
Reasons for the decline of the Ottomans Suleyman I- great reform minded ruler of the Ottomans died in 1566. Leaders following him were corrupt amd weak minded. Inflation raged in the 1700’s and the empire failed to modernize keeping up with the Europeans.
Geopolitics An interest in taking land for strategic purposes or products contained inside of the land. Russia demonstrated this when they went to war with the Ottomans in order to take a warm water port along the Black Sea.
Crimean War 1853 between Russia and Ottomans Britain and France aided the Ottomans The combined forces won the war but it revealed the weakness of the Ottomans and opened it up to further invasions. Romania, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Bosnia-Herzegovinia eventually spilt away from the empire.
The Great Game A geopolitical struggle in Central Asia engaged between Russia and Great Britain. Russia and Britain battled over Afghanistan and India. India was a British colony but Russia wanted access to its rich resources. Great Britain withdrew from Afghanistan in 1881 making it an independent country.
Egyptian Reforms After Napoleon was defeated in Egypt, a new Egyptian leader emerged, Muhammad Ali he was considered a reformer. In 1831, he waged war with the Ottomans and broke away after winning battled in Syria and Arabia. As a reformer, he turned to cash cropping (cotton), reformed the military and strengthened the legal system.
The Suez Canal After Muhammad Ali died, his grandson Isma’il took power and continued reform efforts. The Suez Canal- a human made water way connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. It was built largely by French money but Egypt could not repay its debts so Great Britain took over the project, thus giving Britain control of the region.
Persia pressured to change G. Britain wanted access to Persia because it was a buffer between Russia and India. G. Britain became focused on Persia because of the presence of oil (1908) Russia wanted access to the Persian Gulf as well as the Indian ocean (warm water ports)
Oil Persia wanted to gain economic prestige but it lacked capital. It raised money by granting concession to western businesses including oil companies. The Anglo Persian Oil Company- first began to develop the oil fields of Persia European and American oil companies began to take control of the region.
Tensions in Persia Many fundamentalists (religious leaders) resented the western influence in Persia and called for boycotts of tobacco. In 1906 a group of revolutionaries forced the ruler to adapt a new constitution. In 1907 Russia and Britain took over Persia by dividing it into spheres of influence. European countries continued to use economic imperialism as well as establishing spheres of influence.
Which of the following was a reason for the decline of the Ottoman empire? 1.Asian countries dominated its borders 2.Food shortages 3.Weak and corrupt leaders 4.The construction of the Aswan High Dam
The cause of the Crimean War was 1.Russia wanting a new trade partner 2.Russia wanting war with France 3.Expanded cash crops in the region 4.Russia wanting a warm water port
Who was the great reformer of Egypt? 1.Muhammad Ali 2.Suleyman the Magnificent 3.Osman II 4.Isma’il
Why were Persian fundamentalists upset with the Persian rulers? 1.They believed the region was slow in developing 2.They felt western influence was too strong 3.They wanted oil fields developed 4.Geopolitics had backfired