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Slide 1 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.

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1 Slide 1 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

2 Slide 2 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

3 Slide 3 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic.

4 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 4 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle In the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis passes to the second stage of cellular respiration, the Krebs cycle.

5 Slide 5 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle What happens during the Krebs cycle?

6 Slide 6 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.

7 Slide 7 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle begins when pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis enters the mitochondrion.

8 Slide 8 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle One carbon molecule is removed, forming CO 2, and electrons are removed, changing NAD + to NADH.

9 Slide 9 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle Coenzyme A joins the 2-carbon molecule, forming acetyl-CoA.

10 Slide 10 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle Citric acid Acetyl-CoA then adds the 2-carbon acetyl group to a 4- carbon compound, forming citric acid.

11 Slide 11 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle Citric acid is broken down into a 5-carbon compound, then into a 4-carbon compound.

12 Slide 12 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle Two more molecules of CO 2 are released and electrons join NAD + and FAD, forming NADH and FADH 2.

13 Slide 13 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle In addition, one molecule of ATP is generated.

14 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 14 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle The energy tally from 1 molecule of pyruvic acid is 4 NADH 1 FADH 2 1 ATP

15 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 15 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Krebs Cycle What does the cell do with all those high-energy electrons in carriers like NADH? In the presence of oxygen, those high-energy electrons can be used to generate huge amounts of ATP.

16 Slide 16 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport How are high-energy electrons used by the electron transport chain?

17 Slide 17 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport The electron transport chain uses the high- energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP.

18 Slide 18 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport High-energy electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are passed along the electron transport chain from one carrier protein to the next.

19 Slide 19 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport At the end of the chain, an enzyme combines these electrons with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.

20 Slide 20 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport As the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain, oxygen gets rid of the low-energy electrons and hydrogen ions.

21 Slide 21 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport When 2 high-energy electrons move down the electron transport chain, their energy is used to move hydrogen ions (H + ) across the membrane.

22 Slide 22 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport During electron transport, H + ions build up in the intermembrane space, so it is positively charged.

23 Slide 23 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport The other side of the membrane, from which those H + ions are taken, is now negatively charged.

24 Slide 24 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport ATP synthase The inner membranes of the mitochondria contain protein spheres called ATP synthases.

25 Slide 25 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport As H + ions escape through channels into these proteins, the ATP synthase spins. ATP synthase Channel

26 Slide 26 of The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport As it rotates, the enzyme grabs a low-energy ADP, attaching a phosphate, forming high-energy ATP. ATP ATP synthase Channel

27 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 27 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Transport On average, each pair of high-energy electrons that moves down the electron transport chain provides enough energy to produce three molecules of ATP from ADP.

28 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 28 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Totals Glycolysis produces just 2 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. The complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration, including glycolysis, results in the production of 36 molecules of ATP.

29 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 29 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Totals

30 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 30 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration The energy flows in photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in opposite directions.

31 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 31 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration On a global level, photosynthesis and cellular respiration are also opposites. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and cellular respiration puts it back. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food.

32 - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 32 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2

33 Slide 33 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 The Krebs cycle breaks pyruvic acid down into a.oxygen. b.NADH. c.carbon dioxide. d.alcohol.

34 Slide 34 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 What role does the Krebs cycle play in the cell? a.It breaks down glucose and releases its stored energy. b.It releases energy from molecules formed during glycolysis. c.It combines carbon dioxide and water into high-energy molecules. d.It breaks down ATP and NADH, releasing stored energy.

35 Slide 35 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is located in the a.cell membrane. b.inner mitochondrial membrane. c.cytoplasm. d.outer mitochondrial membrane.

36 Slide 36 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 To generate energy over long periods, the body must use a.stored ATP. b.lactic acid fermentation. c.cellular respiration. d.glycolysis.

37 Slide 37 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 9-2 Which statement correctly describes photosynthesis and cellular respiration? a.Photosynthesis releases energy, while cellular respiration stores energy. b.Photosynthesis and cellular respiration use the same raw materials. c.Cellular respiration releases energy, while photosynthesis stores energy. d.Cellular respiration and photosynthesis produce the same products.

38 END OF SECTION


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