# Movement.

## Presentation on theme: "Movement."— Presentation transcript:

Movement

Movement The amount of change in movement of an object is based on the mass of the object and the amount of force exerted.

Movement Essential questions 1. What is gravity?
2. How can movement be measured? 3. What is weight?

Movement You’re responsible for:
1. Understanding the Essential Questions 2. Completing the vocabulary 3. Taking notes (slides/facts, videos) 4. Completing project 5. Answering the unit questions

Movement Vocabulary 1. force 2. gravity 3. mass 4. orbit
(copy down the vocabulary words and complete in your science journal using the vocabulary format)

Movement Taking notes Take notes about the slides that have pictures and any articles in your science journal. When watching videos, write down the title and list at least 3 things you learned in your science journal. Keep your notes from the slides on a separate sheet of paper from the ones you take for videos. Slide notes Video notes

Movement Movement can be measured by speed. The speed of an object is calculated by determining the distance (d) traveled in a period of time (t).

Movement Earth pulls down on all objects with a gravitational force. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force between an object and the Earth.

Movement Gravity Earth got you down? Don’t worry, it’s got us all down — thanks to gravity! In this BrainPOP movie, Tim and Moby teach you all about the ins and outs of gravity. You’ll learn everything from Sir Isaac Newton’s famous apple to Albert Einstein’s theory that massive objects use gravity to “bend” space and time. You’ll also find out about gravity’s effect on tides, humans, and even the earth’s rotation. In addition, Tim and Moby explain the difference between mass and weight, and how the moon’s gravity enables us humans to weigh less on the Moon than they do here on Earth!

Movement Gravity facts
Objects with mass are attracted to each other, this is known as gravity. Gravity keeps Earth and the other planets in our solar system in orbit around the Sun. It also keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth. Tides are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun. Because Mars has a lower gravity than Earth, a person weighing 100kg (220 pounds) on Earth would only weigh 38kg (84 pounds) on Mars. It is thought that Isaac Newton’s theories on gravity were inspired by seeing an apple fall from a tree. While formula one racing drivers may feel around 5 g’s under heavy braking, they can experience over 100 g’s if a crash causes them to decelerate extremely quickly over a very short distance. Some roller coasters have been known to include g-forces of around 4 to 6 g.

Movement Gravity Learn more about general relativity, Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein with this fascinating gravity video. As the story goes, back in 1665 Isaac Newton observed an apple fall from a tree and from there began to understand gravity and how it worked to keep the moon in earth’s orbit as well as keep humans and various other objects attached to the ground. Newton’s theories of gravity were revolutionary at the time but weren’t perfect, it took nearly 250 years before these issues were addressed. Along came Albert Einstein, who realized that there was in essence a universal speed limit, the speed of light. That nothing could go faster than this contradicted Newton’s theories and so evolved Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

Movement Any change in speed or direction of an object requires a force and is affected by the mass* of the object and the amount of force applied.

Movement The motion of an object can change by speeding up, slowing down or changing direction.

Movement Forces cause changes in motion. If a force is applied in the same direction of an object’s motion, the speed will increase. If a force is applied in the opposite direction of an object’s motion, the speed will decrease.

Movement Force In the 1600’s, British physicist Isaac Newton published his now-famous work on the physics of moving objects. More than 300 years later, Tim and Moby tackle the same topic in this BrainPOP movie on forces! They use bumper cars to illustrate how forces can cause objects to speed up, slow down, or change direction, and they’ll teach you about the concepts of friction and the gravitational constant. You’ll also learn how to calculate force with a special equation.

Movement Generally, the greater the force acting on an object, the greater the change in motion. Generally, the more mass* an object has, the less influence a given force will have on its motion.

Movement Newton's Laws of Motion
How do things move, anyway? In this BrainPOP movie, Tim and Moby will tell you all about Sir Isaac Newton's three famous laws of motion. You’ll see how braking on a highway, gliding down a snowy hill, and the swinging of kitchen doors illustrates Newton’s three physical laws. You’ll also discover related concepts like normal force, friction, and gravity. Newton’s laws have helped us understand the physical world for hundreds of years — and now you can understand it all, too!

Movement If no forces act on an object, the object does not change its motion and moves at constant speed in a given direction. If an object is not moving and no force acts on it, the object will remain at rest.

Movement Force and motion
This video defines gravity, force, friction and inertia through examples from amusement park rides. Examples and explanations of Sir Isaac Newton's 3 Laws of Motion are also included. Discussion Questions How do you define gravity and why is it a force? What are some of the reasons why an object in motion doesn't remain in motion on Earth? Describe Sir Isaac Newton's 3 Laws of Motion.

Movement Isaac Newton Facts
Born in England, Isaac Newton was a highly influential physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, alchemist and theologian. Newton’s three laws of motion relate the forces acting on a body to its motion. The first is the law of inertia, it states that ‘every object in motion will stay in motion until acted upon by an outside force’. The second is commonly stated as ‘force equals mass times acceleration’, or F = ma. The third and final law is commonly known as ‘to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction’. Newton was known to have said that his work on formulating a theory of gravitation was inspired by watching an apple fall from a tree. A story well publicized to this very day. (con’t)

Movement Isaac Newton Facts (con’t)
Newton’s law of universal gravitation describes the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass, the earth and moon for example. Other significant work by Newton includes the principles of conservation related to momentum and angular momentum, the refraction of light, an empirical law of cooling, the building of the first practical telescope and much more.

Movement Albert Einstein Facts
Albert Einstein was born on the 14th of March 1879 in Germany and died on the 18th of April 1955. Even when very young, Einstein showed great ability in both math’s and science. He was naturally curious and had a brilliant analytical mind. He produced perhaps one of the most famous equations ever: E = mc² (energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared). Einstein won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on theoretical physics. Einstein made many contributions to the field of theoretical physics. He worked on many other influential theories and projects including: the deflection of light by gravity, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids, Brownian motion, an explanation for capillary action and much more.

Movement Everything on or anywhere near Earth is pulled toward Earth’s center by gravitational force. Weight is a measure of this force. The planets are kept in orbit due to their gravitational attraction for the sun.

Movement Project Plan and implement a scientific experiment that determines how the mass* of an object (or amount of force acting on an object) affects how the motion of an object changes. Predict what will happen to the motion of an object. Provide the speed and direction of motion and a force diagram on the object. Explain the prediction. Compare and rank the relative change in motion for three objects of different masses* that experience the same force. Analyze the data to determine trends. Formulate a conclusion. Represent the data graphically. (con’t)

Movement Project (con’t)
What happens when you increase the force on an object? Compare the change in motion of objects with a large mass to ones with a small mass. Identify three ways the motion of an object can be changed. Identify two factors that influence the amount of change in motion of an object.

Movement Common misconceptions about forces and motion include:
Time can be measured without establishing the beginning of the interval. The only natural motion is for an object to be at rest. If an object is at rest, no forces are acting on the object. Only animate objects can exert a force. Thus, if an object is at rest on a table, no forces are acting on it. Force is a property of an object. An object has force and when it runs out of force, it stops moving. The motion of an object is always in the direction of the net force applied to the object. Large objects exert a greater force than small objects. A force is needed to keep an object moving with a constant speed.

Movement Misconceptions in physical science include:
Any quantity can be measured as accurately as you want. The only way to measure time is with a clock or a watch. Time has an absolute beginning. Gravity only acts on things when they are falling. Only animate things (people, animals) exert forces; passive ones (tables, floors) do not exert forces. A force applied by a hand (or other object), still acts on an object after the object leaves the hand.

Movement Essential questions 1. What is gravity?
2. How can movement be measured? 3. What is weight?

Movement Questions 1. Describe what gravity is and how it works. (4 points) 2. How can movement be measured? (2 points)