2 Broad Problem Area Preliminary data gathering Problem definition
3 Broad Problem AreaIdentification of the broad problem area through observation and focusing on situations at work.The broad problem area refers to the entire situation where one sees a possible need for research and problem solving.
4 Broad Problem Area1) problems currently existing in an organizational setting that need to be solved2) areas that a manager believes need to be improved in the organization3) some research questions that need an empirical answer.
5 ExamplesTraining programs are perhaps not as effective as anticipated.The sales volume of a product is not as expected.The inventory control is not effective.
6 Preliminary data gathering 1)Background information of the organization2) Managerial philosophy, company policies and other structural aspects.3) Perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral responses of organizational members.
7 1)Background information of the organization History of the organization, growth rate,..Size in terms of employees, assets or bothLocation; regional, national or otherResources; human R. and others.Financial situation
8 2) Managerial philosophy, company policies and other structural aspects Roles and positions in the organization and number of employees at each job level.Extent of specializationCommunication channelsControl systems and workflow systemCoordination and span of controlReward system
9 3) Perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral responses of organizational members Nature of workWorkflow interdependenciesParticipation in decision makingOpportunities for advancement in the organizationOrganization’s attitudes towards employees’ family responsibilities.
10 Literature survey Why literature survey? The purpose of the literature survey is to ensure that no important variable that has in the past been found repeatedly to have had an impact on the problem is ignored.
11 Conducting the literature survey Identify the relevant sourcesExtracting the relevant informationWriting up the literature review
12 Problem definition A problem could be defined by: Any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal states.A clear statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.
13 Examples of well-defined problems To what extent do the structure of the organization and type of information system installed account for the variance in the perceived effectiveness of managerial decision making?What are the components of “quality of life”?
14 Examples of well-defined problems What are the effect of downsizing on the long-range growth patterns of companies?What is the relationship between working conditions and employees’ satisfaction?Think of others……………