Presentation on theme: "Global Involvements and World War I,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Global Involvements and World War I, 1902-1920 AP US HistoryEast High SchoolMr. PetersonSpring 2011
2 Focus QuestionsWhat goals underlay America’s early-twentieth-century involvements in Asia and Latin America?Considering both immediate and long-term factors, why did the United States go to war in 1917?How did Washington mobilize the nation for war, and what role did U.S. troops play in the war?What was the war’s economic, political, and social impact on the American home front?How did the League of Nations begin, and why did the Senate reject U.S. membership in the League?
6 The Panama Canal: Hardball Diplomacy Need to move ships from Atlantic to Pacific during Spanish-American WarFrench failRoosevelt assists Panamanian rebelsPanama Canal builtU.S. Canal Zone established1198 people, 128 Americans killed when Lusitania sank
7 TR VISITS THE PANAMA CANAL CONSTRUCTION SITE, 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt played a key role in securing the strip of land on which the canal was built. Here he proudly poses in a steam shovel used in the construction project.p. 665
10 Roosevelt and Taft Assert U.S. Power in Latin America and Asia “The Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe DoctrineU.S. right to intervene in Western Hemisphere“speak softly and carry a big stick”Roosevelt earns Nobel Peace PrizeRusso-Japanese warTaft and “dollar diplomacy”TR for warBryan and Lafollette, German and Irish-Americans against war
12 Dollar Diplomacy is the term used to describe the effort of the United States — particularly under President William Howard Taft — to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The term was originally coined by President Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin America went from "warlike and political" to "peaceful and economic". Taft urged Americans to invest overseas, which called for bankers to channel their surplus money into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S., especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal. This investment, gave the U.S. economic control over these areas. In 1909, perceiving a threat to the monopolistic Russian and Japanese control of the Manchurian Railway, Taft had Secretary of State Philander C. Knox propose that a group of American and foreign bankers buy the railroads and turn them over to China. Taft also pumped U.S. dollars into Honduras and Haiti, whose economies were stagnant, while in Cuba, the same Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua, American forces were brought in to restore order after unrest. The term is also used historically by Latin Americans to show their disapproval of the role that the U.S. government and U.S. corporations have played in using economic, diplomatic and military power to open up foreign markets.
13 Wilson and Latin America Promised to not seek additional territoryIntervened in Haiti, Dominican RepublicTried to control events in MexicoIntervened in Mexican internal conflictSent troops under John J. Pershing to go after Pancho Villa
14 MAP 22.1 U.S. HEGEMONY IN THE CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICA, 1900–1941 Through many interventions, territorial acquisitions, and robust economic expansion, the United States became the predominant power in Latin America in the early twentieth century. Acting on Theodore Roosevelt’s assertion of a U.S. right to combat “wrongdoing” in Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States dispatched troops to the region, where they met nationalist opposition.Map 22-1, p. 667
15 WOODROW WILSON, SCHOOLTEACHER This 1914 political cartoon captures the patronizing tone of Wilson’s approach to Latin America, which planted the seeds of long-term resentments.p. 668
16 War in Europe, 1914-1917 War at a stalemate British losing 1 of 4 shipsAmerican and British navy escorts reduce tollOnly 120,000 active soldiers/80,000 in National GuardSelective Service brings almost 3 million into army, 2 million volunteerWomen in navy and marines400,000 blacks enlisted or drafted into army and navyMore ammunition used in 7 weeks of Meuse-Argonne offensive than in entire Civil War
17 The Coming of War Secret alliances Rise of German Empire Competition for colonies, military powerArchduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated June 1914 in Sarajevo, BosniaWarAllies-Great Britain, Russia, FranceCentral Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire
22 THE SINKING OF THE CUNARD LINER LUSITANIA, MAY 7, 1915, OFF THE IRISH COAST The destruction of the Lusitania by a German U-boat, portrayed here in an illustration from an English newspaper, took nearly 1,200 lives, including 128 Americans. This event outraged U.S. public opinion and led to build-up in military preparedness. But as President Wilson pursued diplomatic exchanges with Germany, nearly two more years would pass before the United States entered the war.p. 670
23 The United States Enters the War Unrestricted submarine warfare reinstatedZimmerman telegramDeclaration of warApril 2, 1917U.S. joins Allies
25 Mobilizing at Home, Fighting in France, 1917-1918
26 Raising, Training, and Testing an Army Selective Service ActCommission on Training and Camp ActivitiesTurned civilians into soldiersA RECRUITMENT POSTER TARGETING AFRICAN AMERICANS In this poster, Abraham Lincoln looks down approvingly as black soldiers battle the German foe. In reality, most black troops were restricted to non-combat roles.
27 WAR ENTHUSIASM IN THE HEARTLAND In Denver, automobiles carrying young army recruits parade through the city.p. 672
28 Organizing the Economy for War War Industries BoardBernard BaruchFuel AdministrationFood AdministrationHerbert Hoover“Meatless Monday”“Wheatless Wednesday”
29 War Industries Board Original caption: War Industries Board War Industries Board Original caption: War Industries Board. Seated from left to right are : Seated, Admiral F.F. Fletcher; Robt. S. Brookings, chairman price-fixing committee; Bernard N. Baruch, chairman: and Hugh Frayne, labor representative. Standing H.P. Ingles, secretary; Judge E. B. Parker, priorities commissioner; George N. Peek, commissioner of finished products; J. Leonard Replogle, steel administrator; Alexander Legge, vice chairman; Major General George W. Goethals, army; and Albert C. Ritchie, general counsel.
30 WORLD WAR I POSTER URGING FOOD CONSERVATION, BY THE ILLUSTRATOR JAMES MONTGOMERY FLAGG Home-front propaganda played a key role in mobilizing Americans in support of the war effort in 1917–1918.22CO, p. 662
33 With the American Expeditionary Force in France European armies in disarrayStuck in trench warfareRussia under Bolsheviks quitsJohn J. Pershing leads AEF2 million Americans serve in France and BelgiumSecond Battle of the MarneMeuse-Argonne offensiveAircraft play important role
34 WORLD WAR I SOLDIERS LISTEN TO A SPECIAL “ARMY AND NAVY MODEL” EDISON PHONOGRAPH “Since the beginning of the war,” declared the Edison Company, “there has welled up from the trenches in Europe a great cry for music.”p. 681
35 Gen. Pershing Inspects the Troops at Chaumont Accompanied by Capt Gen. Pershing Inspects the Troops at Chaumont Accompanied by Capt. George S. Patton
36 THE FOG OF WAR. U.S. TROOPS ON THE WESTERN FRONT, JUNE 26, 1918 The reality of combat differed from the idealized images offered in home front propaganda. As the war’s ﬁ nal stage began, these American soldiers attacked entrenched German positions in Alsace, a disputed region along the French-German border near Switzerland (see Map 22.2). They are ﬁ ring a 37mm. machine gun, a weapon of deadly accuracy with a maximum range of a mile and a half.p. 678
37 THE WAR IN THE AIR This recruitment poster evoked the romance and excitement of air combat in World War I, the first in which airplanes played a role.p. 675
39 Americas first ace: Capt Americas first ace: Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker shot down 26 enemy aircraft in World War I and earned the Medal of Honor for his actions. His feats, and those of other Allied fliers, ushered in an era of air-to-air combat that changed the role of aircraft in military operations forever, and helped establish the need for control of the air during wartime.
40 Turning the Tide Americans help Allies win war Meuse-Argonne offensive ends warArmistice signed November 11, 1918
41 MAP 22.2 THE UNITED STATES ON THE WESTERN FRONT, 1918 American troops ﬁ rst saw action in the campaign to throw back Germany’s spring 1918 offensive in the Somme and Aisne-Marne sectors. The next heavy American engagement came that autumn as part of the Allies’ Meuse-Argonne offensive, which ended the war.Map 22-2, p. 677
45 Advertising the War Liberty Loans Committee on Public Information “Fight of Buy Bonds”Committee on Public InformationGeorg CreelPropagandaEmphasizes German atrocitiesWarns of spies and saboteursBecomes “progressive” war
47 Wartime Intolerance and Dissent Anti-German sentiment growsBan on German language“liberty cabbage”Socialists oppose warAttacks against radical dissentersReligious (conscientious) objectorsOrganized labor, women’s groups, blacks split in support
48 "No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919)"If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator"No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919)"If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator"No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919)"If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator
49 “A GERMAN IN AMERICA; AN AMERICAN IN NO MAN’S LAND” This March 1918 cartoon in the New York Herald attacked Karl Muck, the German conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, when the orchestra performed in New York. Muck was arrested soon after and imprisoned for the rest of the war. Propaganda like this helped whip up anti-German hysteria on the home front.p. 679
50 MILWAUKEE SOCIALIST LEADER VICTOR BERGER OPPOSES WAR PROFITEERS AND THE SUPPRESSION OF FREE SPEECH Elected to Congress in 1918, Berger was denied a seat because of his conviction under the wartime Espionage Act. The Supreme Court later reversed the conviction, and Berger served in Congress from 1923 to 1929.p. 682
51 Suppressing Dissent Espionage Act American Protective League organized Sedition AmendmentSocialist magazines banned in mailSchenk v. United States“clear and present danger” doctrineAmerican Protective League organizedCouncils of DefenseBoy Spies of America
52 Debs defended his comrades who had already been sent to jail for speaking against the war, some of them his close friends, and he disputed the common charge that the Socialists were pro-German. He added that America’s greatest enemy was not the Kaiser, but those American businessmen who had taken the country to war, and were making inordinate profits from the venture. Debs also repeated the standard socialist talking point that wars were a nasty by-product of capitalist greed, and that when working people took charge of the earth, peace would reign. The most often quoted line from that speech was Debs’s comment, “you need to know that you are fit for something better than slavery and cannon fodder.”Debs knew that federal agents were in the crowd, and he may have expected to be arrested, though I don’t think he was actively courting martyrdom—more likely, he was saying what he felt he had to say. He was in his 60s and in frail health, and he certainly did not relish the prospect of spending his last days in prison, but he felt it was his duty not to remain silent while his friends were going to jail. He was a reluctant martyr.The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that the United States Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of proximity and degree. When a nation is at war, many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight, and that no Court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right.
54 Boom Times in Industry and Agriculture Prices and wages riseIndustry growsFarmers profitBust after war
55 Blacks Migrate Northward Move from South to jobs in Northern citiesRacial tensions and violence
56 AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY ARRIVES IN CHICAGO, 1912 Seeking a better life, African-Americans moved North in great numbers in the early twentieth century. Among the newcomers was Fraser Robinson Jr., grandfather of Michelle Obama, the future ﬁrst lady, who came to Chicago from South Carolina.p. 684
57 Women in Wartime Nineteenth Amendment-1919 1 million women work in industry
58 Public-Health Crisis: The 1918 Influenza Pandemic million die worldwide550,000 in US, six times battle deaths
59 BATTLING INFLUENZA, 1918 Red Cross workers like these in Philadelphia and other public-health professionals mobilized to combat a deadly epidemic that claimed over half a million American lives.p. 687
60 FIGURE 22.1 U.S. DEATH RATE FROM INFLUENZA AND PNEUMONIA, 1900–1960 This chart shows the devastating toll of the 1918 inﬂ uenza epidemic, as well as the gradual decline of inﬂ uenza mortality thanks to the discovery of antibiotics that combat the secondary infections that are often fatal.Fig. 22-1, p. 686
61 The War and Progressivism Eighteenth Amendment-1919Campaign against viceWar Labor BoardMany ideas copied in FDR’s New Deal
63 Wilson’s Fourteen Points: The Armistice Wilson’s plan for post-war world“war to end all wars”“general association of nations”Self-determination for people of Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires
64 “Liberalism is the only thing that can save civilization form chaos—from a flood of ultra-radicalismthat will swamp the world…Liberalism must be more liberalthan ever before, it must even beradical, if civilization is to escapethe typhoon.”--Woodrow Wilson
65 The Versailles Peace Conference, 1919 French and British determined to punish GermanyReparations demandedSome self-determinationPoland, Baltic StatesNew nations-Czechoslovakia and YugoslaviaMandate in Palestine (Israel)Balfour Declaration
66 THE VICTORIOUS ALLIED LEADERS IN PARIS, DECEMBER 1918 Seated, left to right: Vittorio Orlando (Italy), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Woodrow Wilson. The peace conference revealed deep divisions among the Allies, as Wilson promoted his visionary new world order, including a League of Nations, and the European powers pursued their own interests and imposed harsh terms on defeated Germany.p. 690
67 The Fight over the League of Nations Wilson gives up most of 14 points to get League in Treaty of VersaillesOpposition in U.S.Henry Cabot LodgeWilson won’t compromiseGets sick in Pueblo, then has strokeReservationists and irreconcilables block treaty in Senate
69 REFUSING TO GIVE THE LADY A SEAT” In this newspaper cartoon published during the Senate battle over U.S. membership in the League of Nations, three Republican opponents of the League—William Borah of Idaho, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, and Hiram Johnson of California—stubbornly refuse to give a seat to an angelic female passenger symbolizing peace.p. 691
70 Racism and Red Scare, 1919-1920 Anti-radical sentiment Palmer Raids target radicalsAG A. Mitchell Palmer4000 arrested, 550 deported
71 CHICAGO RACE RIOT, 1919 This graphic photo vividly conveys the horrifying reality of the racial violence that struck Chicago in July 1919.p. 692
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