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ENVE 330 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Barış TOR Rana OKUR Sevda Ezel YILDIRIM.

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Presentation on theme: "ENVE 330 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Barış TOR Rana OKUR Sevda Ezel YILDIRIM."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVE 330 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Barış TOR Rana OKUR Sevda Ezel YILDIRIM

2 RECYCLING OF METALS in TURKEY & OTHER COUNTRIES

3 INTRODUCTION Recycling involves; processing used materials into new products in order to prevent waste of potentially useful materials processing used materials into new products in order to prevent waste of potentially useful materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce energy usage reduce energy usage reduce air&water pollution reduce air&water pollution

4 Metals recycling protects the environment and saves energy. Metals recycling protects the environment and saves energy. Using secondary raw materials means less use of natural resources which would otherwise be needed to make new metal compounds such as; Using secondary raw materials means less use of natural resources which would otherwise be needed to make new metal compounds such as;  iron ore in steelmaking  nickel in stainless steel  alumina and bauxite in aluminium smelting

5 TABLE 1: Energy saving percentages of metals recycling

6 European Union’s determinations show that using recycled raw materials, including metals, cuts 200 million tonnes CO 2 emission reduction every year European Union’s determinations show that using recycled raw materials, including metals, cuts 200 million tonnes CO 2 emission reduction every year There are also other environmental benefits, for example, using recycled steel to make new steel enables reductions such as: 86% in air pollution 40% in water use 76% in water pollution There are also other environmental benefits, for example, using recycled steel to make new steel enables reductions such as: 86% in air pollution 40% in water use 76% in water pollution

7 Metals can be recycled indefinitely without loosing any of their properties. Metals can be recycled indefinitely without loosing any of their properties. Worldwide, over 400 million tonnes of metal is recycled each year. Worldwide, over 400 million tonnes of metal is recycled each year. Virtually all metals can be recycled into high quality new metal. Virtually all metals can be recycled into high quality new metal. The process varies for different metals, but generally produces metals of equivalent quality. The process varies for different metals, but generally produces metals of equivalent quality.

8 THE STEPS THAT ARE FOLLOWED in METALS RECYCLING Collection, weighing, sorting and distribution of metals (dealing with a wide range of suppliers) Collection, weighing, sorting and distribution of metals (dealing with a wide range of suppliers) Shearing (reducing the size of large pieces of metal by cutting) Shearing (reducing the size of large pieces of metal by cutting)

9 Baling/compacting (to improve ease of handling and transportation) Baling/compacting (to improve ease of handling and transportation) Shredding (feedstock to fist-sized lumps; and separating metals from other materials using magnets and air classification methods) Shredding (feedstock to fist-sized lumps; and separating metals from other materials using magnets and air classification methods)

10 Media separation (further separation of any remaining non ferrous metals using liquid density and hand or mechanical sorting methods) Media separation (further separation of any remaining non ferrous metals using liquid density and hand or mechanical sorting methods) International metals trading (moving metals around the world) International metals trading (moving metals around the world)

11 Figure 1: A simple flow diagram of metals recycling

12 Figure 2: Metal cans after seperation of municipal solid waste in a landfill

13 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF METALS RECYCLING IN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN TURKEY The UK is one of largest metal scrap exporting countries in the world. The UK is one of largest metal scrap exporting countries in the world. Manufacturing of metals continues to be one of the largest UK manufacturing sectors, employing more people, and contributing more value to the UK economy, than motor and aerospace combined. Manufacturing of metals continues to be one of the largest UK manufacturing sectors, employing more people, and contributing more value to the UK economy, than motor and aerospace combined. Growth in China, and to a lesser extent India, means that export markets are growing Growth in China, and to a lesser extent India, means that export markets are growing

14 In 2005, 13 million tonnes of metal was recycled in the UK. In 2005, 13 million tonnes of metal was recycled in the UK. Around 40% of this was used in the UK, and the remaining 60% exported worldwide; the UK produces considerably more scrap than is required for domestic markets. Around 40% of this was used in the UK, and the remaining 60% exported worldwide; the UK produces considerably more scrap than is required for domestic markets.

15 Steel and aluminium are common metals in the UK and are produced and exist in large quantities. Steel and aluminium are common metals in the UK and are produced and exist in large quantities. Although UK per capita consumption of steel has dropped since the 1970s, aluminium use is still growing. Although UK per capita consumption of steel has dropped since the 1970s, aluminium use is still growing.

16 Recycling aluminium requires only 5% of the energy and produces only 5% of the CO 2 emissions as compared with primary production and reduces the waste going to landfill. Recycling aluminium requires only 5% of the energy and produces only 5% of the CO 2 emissions as compared with primary production and reduces the waste going to landfill.

17 Aluminium can be recycled indefinitely, as reprocessing does not damage its structure. Aluminium can be recycled indefinitely, as reprocessing does not damage its structure. 75% of all canned drinks sold in the UK are packaged in aluminium. 75% of all canned drinks sold in the UK are packaged in aluminium. In 2001 the UK consumed 5 billion aluminium drinks cans, of which 42% were recycled. In 2001 the UK consumed 5 billion aluminium drinks cans, of which 42% were recycled.

18 Although this is a great improvement on the 2% recycled in 1989, there were still a massive 3 billion cans that were landfilled. Although this is a great improvement on the 2% recycled in 1989, there were still a massive 3 billion cans that were landfilled. Most recycled aluminium foil is used to make cast components for the automotive industry, such as cylinder heads and engine blocks. Most recycled aluminium foil is used to make cast components for the automotive industry, such as cylinder heads and engine blocks.

19 When washed, foil milk bottle tops, tops of cartons, baking and freezing trays, kitchen foil, cigarette and tobacco foil are all suitable for collection. When washed, foil milk bottle tops, tops of cartons, baking and freezing trays, kitchen foil, cigarette and tobacco foil are all suitable for collection. Metal coated plastic film, which is often used for crisp and snack packets, looks like aluminium but can not be recycled. Metal coated plastic film, which is often used for crisp and snack packets, looks like aluminium but can not be recycled.

20 Steel is also mined from an ore. Steel is also mined from an ore. Steel cans have a very thin layer of tin that protects the surface of the can, which is why steel cans are often called "tins". Steel cans have a very thin layer of tin that protects the surface of the can, which is why steel cans are often called "tins".

21 In % of all steel packaging, including 2.5 billion steel cans, were recycled, but 9 billion steel cans are still going to landfill, this despite the fact that owing to the high price paid for steel, recycling collections can often be made at zero cost to the collector. In % of all steel packaging, including 2.5 billion steel cans, were recycled, but 9 billion steel cans are still going to landfill, this despite the fact that owing to the high price paid for steel, recycling collections can often be made at zero cost to the collector.

22 All steel cans are 100% recyclable. All steel cans are 100% recyclable. All steel cans contain up to 25% recycled steel. All steel cans contain up to 25% recycled steel. Its not just food and drink cans made from steel! Most of your deodorants, hairsprays, polishes, paint cans and other household are made out of steel too! Its not just food and drink cans made from steel! Most of your deodorants, hairsprays, polishes, paint cans and other household are made out of steel too!

23 TABLE 2: Recycling percentages of aluminium in European Countries (1995)

24 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF METALS RECYCLING IN TURKEY Recyclable metals include aluminium cans, steel cans, dye cans, oil & cheese & olive bins, conserve tins, kitchen stuff (forks, knifes, pans, teapots.). Recyclable metals include aluminium cans, steel cans, dye cans, oil & cheese & olive bins, conserve tins, kitchen stuff (forks, knifes, pans, teapots.). Non-recyclable metals include deodorant bottle, engine & machine grease boxes, varnish boxes. Non-recyclable metals include deodorant bottle, engine & machine grease boxes, varnish boxes.

25 1 tons of recycled aluminium and steel means that; 1 tons of recycled aluminium and steel means that; %95 of energy consumption reduction, %95 of energy consumption reduction, %90 of air pollution reduction, %90 of air pollution reduction, %97 of water pollution reduction. %97 of water pollution reduction.

26 In Turkey; there are “recycle bins” in most of the public spaces. In Turkey; there are “recycle bins” in most of the public spaces. But there is no specific collection systems for household recyclable metals. But there is no specific collection systems for household recyclable metals. Seperation in houses is made voluntarily. Seperation in houses is made voluntarily. When household waste are put in wastebins in the streets, collectors take metals in the commingled waste. When household waste are put in wastebins in the streets, collectors take metals in the commingled waste.

27 And they sell the recyclable metals to the scrap dealers. And they sell the recyclable metals to the scrap dealers. This system is not healthy for the collectors and also it is costly than direct seperation in sources. This system is not healthy for the collectors and also it is costly than direct seperation in sources. Because collected metals have dirt on them from commingled wastes so they have to be cleaned before recycling. Because collected metals have dirt on them from commingled wastes so they have to be cleaned before recycling. This needs additional work & money and causes additional pollution. This needs additional work & money and causes additional pollution.

28 In accordance with the respective regulations of Ministry of Forest and Environment, In accordance with the respective regulations of Ministry of Forest and Environment, Companies which produce metal cans or which sell their goods in metal packages have to recycle percentage of metals that they release to the market according to the next table. Companies which produce metal cans or which sell their goods in metal packages have to recycle percentage of metals that they release to the market according to the next table.

29 TABLE 3: Annual recycling targets percentages

30 Some municipalities have package waste collection vehicles and they collect, seperate and recycle periodically from wastebins. Some municipalities have package waste collection vehicles and they collect, seperate and recycle periodically from wastebins. Some firms have recycle licences so that they can collect, seperate and recycle metals. Some firms have recycle licences so that they can collect, seperate and recycle metals.

31 CONCLUSION As a result, handling the wastes seperately at the first source, in other words at homes, makes everything about the recycling processes more easy to operate, however, it is not accomplised in our country. As a result, handling the wastes seperately at the first source, in other words at homes, makes everything about the recycling processes more easy to operate, however, it is not accomplised in our country.

32 THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!


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