3INTRODUCTION Recycling involves; processing used materials into new products in order to prevent waste of potentially useful materialsreduce the consumption of fresh raw materialsreduce energy usagereduce air&water pollution
4Metals recycling protects the environment and saves energy. Using secondary raw materials means less use of natural resources which would otherwise be needed to make new metal compounds such as;iron ore in steelmakingnickel in stainless steelalumina and bauxite in aluminium smelting
5TABLE 1: Energy saving percentages of metals recycling
6European Union’s determinations show that using recycled raw materials, including metals, cuts 200 million tonnes CO2 emission reduction every yearThere are also other environmental benefits, for example, using recycled steel to make new steel enables reductions such as: • 86% in air pollution • 40% in water use • 76% in water pollution
7Metals can be recycled indefinitely without loosing any of their properties. Worldwide, over 400 million tonnes of metal is recycled each year.Virtually all metals can be recycled into high quality new metal.The process varies for different metals, but generally produces metals of equivalent quality.
8THE STEPS THAT ARE FOLLOWED in METALS RECYCLING Collection, weighing, sorting and distribution of metals (dealing with a wide range of suppliers)Shearing (reducing the size of large pieces of metal by cutting)
9Baling/compacting (to improve ease of handling and transportation) Shredding (feedstock to fist-sized lumps; and separating metals from other materials using magnets and air classification methods)
10Media separation (further separation of any remaining non ferrous metals using liquid density and hand or mechanical sorting methods)International metals trading (moving metals around the world)
11Figure 1: A simple flow diagram of metals recycling
12Figure 2: Metal cans after seperation of municipal solid waste in a landfill
13The UK is one of largest metal scrap exporting countries in the world. DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF METALS RECYCLING IN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN TURKEYThe UK is one of largest metal scrap exporting countries in the world.Manufacturing of metals continues to be one of the largest UK manufacturing sectors, employing more people, and contributing more value to the UK economy, than motor and aerospace combined.Growth in China, and to a lesser extent India, means that export markets are growing
14In 2005, 13 million tonnes of metal was recycled in the UK. Around 40% of this was used in the UK, and the remaining 60% exported worldwide; the UK produces considerably more scrap than is required for domestic markets.
15Steel and aluminium are common metals in the UK and are produced and exist in large quantities. Although UK per capita consumption of steel has dropped since the 1970s, aluminium use is still growing.
16Recycling aluminium requires only 5% of the energy and produces only 5% of the CO2 emissions as compared with primary production and reduces the waste going to landfill.
17Aluminium can be recycled indefinitely, as reprocessing does not damage its structure. 75% of all canned drinks sold in the UK are packaged in aluminium.In 2001 the UK consumed 5 billion aluminium drinks cans, of which 42% were recycled.
18Although this is a great improvement on the 2% recycled in 1989, there were still a massive 3 billion cans that were landfilled.Most recycled aluminium foil is used to make cast components for the automotive industry, such as cylinder heads and engine blocks.
19When washed, foil milk bottle tops, tops of cartons, baking and freezing trays, kitchen foil, cigarette and tobacco foil are all suitable for collection.Metal coated plastic film, which is often used for crisp and snack packets, looks like aluminium but can not be recycled.
20Steel is also mined from an ore. Steel cans have a very thin layer of tin that protects the surface of the can, which is why steel cans are often called "tins".
21In 2003 44% of all steel packaging, including 2 In % of all steel packaging, including 2.5 billion steel cans, were recycled, but 9 billion steel cans are still going to landfill, this despite the fact that owing to the high price paid for steel, recycling collections can often be made at zero cost to the collector.
22All steel cans are 100% recyclable. All steel cans contain up to 25% recycled steel.Its not just food and drink cans made from steel! Most of your deodorants, hairsprays, polishes, paint cans and other household are made out of steel too!
23TABLE 2: Recycling percentages of aluminium in European Countries (1995)
24DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF METALS RECYCLING IN TURKEY Recyclable metals include aluminium cans, steel cans, dye cans, oil & cheese & olive bins, conserve tins, kitchen stuff (forks, knifes, pans, teapots.).Non-recyclable metals include deodorant bottle, engine & machine grease boxes, varnish boxes.
251 tons of recycled aluminium and steel means that; %95 of energy consumption reduction,%90 of air pollution reduction,%97 of water pollution reduction.
26In Turkey; there are “recycle bins” in most of the public spaces. But there is no specific collection systems for household recyclable metals.Seperation in houses is made voluntarily.When household waste are put in wastebins in the streets, collectors take metals in the commingled waste.
27And they sell the recyclable metals to the scrap dealers. This system is not healthy for the collectors and also it is costly than direct seperation in sources.Because collected metals have dirt on them from commingled wastes so they have to be cleaned before recycling.This needs additional work & money and causes additional pollution.
28In accordance with the respective regulations of Ministry of Forest and Environment, Companies which produce metal cans or which sell their goods in metal packages have to recycle percentage of metals that they release to the market according to the next table .
30Some municipalities have package waste collection vehicles and they collect, seperate and recycle periodically from wastebins.Some firms have recycle licences so that they can collect, seperate and recycle metals.
31CONCLUSIONAs a result, handling the wastes seperately at the first source, in other words at homes, makes everything about the recycling processes more easy to operate, however, it is not accomplised in our country.