Presentation on theme: "Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI"— Presentation transcript:
1Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI AP US HistoryEast High SchoolMr. PetersonSpring 2009
2Industry Council of National Defense (1916) Business and labor leadersCoordinate industrial mobilizationLittle authorityWar Industries Board (1917)Military refused to cooperateCongressional investigation-Overman ActBernard Baruch to headStandardized productsStrict production and purchasing controlsPaid high pricesIneffectiveMost heavy equipment and munitions produced in Europe
3War Industries Board Original caption: War Industries Board War Industries Board Original caption: War Industries Board. Seated from left to right are : Seated, Admiral F.F. Fletcher; Robt. S. Brookings, chairman price-fixing committee; Bernard N. Baruch, chairman: and Hugh Frayne, labor representative. Standing H.P. Ingles, secretary; Judge E. B. Parker, priorities commissioner; George N. Peek, commissioner of finished products; J. Leonard Replogle, steel administrator; Alexander Legge, vice chairman; Major General George W. Goethals, army; and Albert C. Ritchie, general counsel.
4Food Supplied US and European allies Bad winter 1917-1918 Lever Act President could control production, price, and distributionFood AdministrationHerbert HooverFixed high pricesEncourage production of wheat, pork, etc.Encouraged conservation of food“Wheatless Mondays” and “Meatless Tuesday”Food exports tripled/farm income up 30%
9Railroads United States Railroad Administration William McAdoo, Sec. of TreasuryTake over and operate all railroads as one systemPaid owners rent for RR lines$500 million on improvementsEfficient railroad system
10Maritime Shipping United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet CorporationBuy, build, lease, operate merchant shipsBuilt shipyardsJust beginning to produce by end of warSeized German and Dutch shipsPurchased private shipsLarge fleet by SEP 1918
11Labor War Labor Board Union membership doubled Prevent strikes and work stoppages in war industriesWilliam Howard Taft and Frank WalshProhibited strikesEncouraged higher wages, eight-hour day, and unionizationUnion membership doubled
12War Finance and Taxation $33.5 billion by 1920$7 billion loaned to alliesTaxes and borrowingRevenue Act of 1918Personal income tax6% up to $40,00012% over $40KExcess profits tax-65%Excise taxes on luxury itemsLiberty Bonds100% inflation from
13The Committee on Public Information George CreelVoluntary censorship of the pressPropaganda campaign150,000 paid writers, lecturers, artists, etc.Portray Germans as barbaricLiberty Leagues establishedSpy on neighborsReport suspicious activity to Justice Department
15War Hysteria American Protective League 250,000 membersClaimed approval of Justice Dept.Humiliated people for not buying war bondsPersecuted, beat, sometimes killed Germans and German-AmericansGerman language instruction and music bannedGerman measles- “liberty measles”Sauerkraut-“liberty cabbage”Pretzels prohibited
16"No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919)"If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator
17Espionage and Sedition Acts Espionage Act of 1917Fines and imprisonment for making false statements that aided the enemy, incited rebellion, or obstructed recruitmentExcluded seditious material from the mailUpheld by Supreme Court-Shenk v. United States“clear and present danger” (Oliver Wendell Holmes)Can’t cry “fire” in a crowded thaterSedition Act of 1918Forbade criticism of the government, flag, or uniformEugene V. Debs-10 years in prison for speechUpheld in Abrams v. United States2168 prosecuted, 1055 convicted, 10 charged with sabotage
18Debs defended his comrades who had already been sent to jail for speaking against the war, some of them his close friends, and he disputed the common charge that the Socialists were pro-German. He added that America’s greatest enemy was not the Kaiser, but those American businessmen who had taken the country to war, and were making inordinate profits from the venture. Debs also repeated the standard socialist talking point that wars were a nasty by-product of capitalist greed, and that when working people took charge of the earth, peace would reign. The most often quoted line from that speech was Debs’s comment, “you need to know that you are fit for something better than slavery and cannon fodder.”Debs knew that federal agents were in the crowd, and he may have expected to be arrested, though I don’t think he was actively courting martyrdom—more likely, he was saying what he felt he had to say. He was in his 60s and in frail health, and he certainly did not relish the prospect of spending his last days in prison, but he felt it was his duty not to remain silent while his friends were going to jail. He was a reluctant martyr.The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that the United States Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of proximity and degree. When a nation is at war, many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight, and that no Court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right.
19Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI AP US HistoryEast High SchoolMr. PetersonSpring 2009