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Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009

2 Industry Council of National Defense (1916) – Business and labor leaders – Coordinate industrial mobilization – Little authority War Industries Board (1917) – Military refused to cooperate – Congressional investigation-Overman Act Bernard Baruch to head – Standardized products – Strict production and purchasing controls – Paid high prices – Ineffective – Most heavy equipment and munitions produced in Europe


4 Food Supplied US and European allies Bad winter Lever Act – President could control production, price, and distribution – Food Administration Herbert Hoover Fixed high prices Encourage production of wheat, pork, etc. Encouraged conservation of food – Wheatless Mondays and Meatless Tuesday Food exports tripled/farm income up 30%


6 Fuel Fuel Administration – Harry A. Garfield – Coal production and conservation – Severe winter – Fueless Mondays and Gasless Sundays Coal production increased 35%



9 Railroads United States Railroad Administration – William McAdoo, Sec. of Treasury – Take over and operate all railroads as one system – Paid owners rent for RR lines – $500 million on improvements Efficient railroad system

10 Maritime Shipping United States Shipping Board – Emergency Fleet Corporation Buy, build, lease, operate merchant ships – Built shipyards Just beginning to produce by end of war Seized German and Dutch ships – Purchased private ships – Large fleet by SEP 1918

11 Labor War Labor Board – Prevent strikes and work stoppages in war industries – William Howard Taft and Frank Walsh – Prohibited strikes – Encouraged higher wages, eight-hour day, and unionization Union membership doubled

12 War Finance and Taxation $33.5 billion by 1920 – $7 billion loaned to allies Taxes and borrowing – Revenue Act of 1918 Personal income tax – 6% up to $40,000 – 12% over $40K – Excess profits tax-65% – Excise taxes on luxury items – Liberty Bonds 100% inflation from

13 The Committee on Public Information George Creel Voluntary censorship of the press Propaganda campaign – 150,000 paid writers, lecturers, artists, etc. – Portray Germans as barbaric Liberty Leagues established – Spy on neighbors – Report suspicious activity to Justice Department


15 War Hysteria American Protective League – 250,000 members – Claimed approval of Justice Dept. – Humiliated people for not buying war bonds Persecuted, beat, sometimes killed Germans and German-Americans German language instruction and music banned – German measles- liberty measles – Sauerkraut-liberty cabbage – Pretzels prohibited

16 "No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919) "If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move...." –Nebraska state legislator

17 Espionage and Sedition Acts Espionage Act of 1917 – Fines and imprisonment for making false statements that aided the enemy, incited rebellion, or obstructed recruitment – Excluded seditious material from the mail – Upheld by Supreme Court-Shenk v. United States – clear and present danger (Oliver Wendell Holmes) – Cant cry fire in a crowded thater Sedition Act of 1918 – Forbade criticism of the government, flag, or uniform – Eugene V. Debs-10 years in prison for speech – Upheld in Abrams v. United States 2168 prosecuted, 1055 convicted, 10 charged with sabotage


19 Mobilizing the Home Front-WWI AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009

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