Sources Theory X (Authoritarian) Theory Y (Participatory) –Douglas McGregor, MIT –Scientific vs. Humanistic Theory Z (Consensus) –Japanese Management Theory –Consensus –Based on Deming Boehm Theory W –Win Win Management Ouchi, William, Theory Z: How American Business can meet the Japanese Challenge, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley ( ), 1981.
Theory X People inherently dislike work. They have to be coerced into working. They prefer being told what to do. “Theory X is based on an assumption that people must be prodded into doing work; this tends to result in an adversarial management-developer relationship, and in fact does not accurately reflect the nature of software people.” —Barry Boehm
Theory Y People don't inherently dislike work. People can exercise self-direction. Commitment to objectives depends on resulting rewards. People can learn to seek responsibility. Work creativity is widely distributed. People potential is only partly utilized. “Theory Y is based on an assumption that people will work well if they are rewarded properly; this tends to result in the creation of a self-oriented work force, and tends to break down when conflict is encountered.” —Barry Boehm
Theory Z People work best toward goals which they have helped establish. Once people have bought into goals, you can trust them to perform. If people share a common set of values, they can develop workable project goals. “Theory Z, the so-called “Japanese-style management,” is useful in a single community of workers, but tends to break down when multiple organizations, such as software’s managers, customers, developers and maintainers are involved.” —Barry Boehm
The Theory Z Bar
Theory W W stands for “Make Everyone a Winner” 1.Establish a set win-win preconditions. Understand what the win conditions for each player really are. Establish objectives which include making those wins possible. Provide a supportive environment in which all participants accept the possibility of a win-win solution. 2.Structure a win-win software process. Establish a realistic process plan, including the flagging of win- lose and lose-lose situations as risks. Provide feedback which keeps involved as negotiation and compromise proceed. 3.Structure a win-win software product. Define a final software product which matches all the win conditions, those of the user and the maintainer.
A Win for Each Player
Boehm’s Steps 1.Separate the people from the Problem. 2.Focus of Interests, not positions. 3.Invent Options for mutual gain. 4.Insist on using objective Criteria to analyze the results. “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you —if you were like them” —Barry Boehm