2*Government subject to the will of the people; before the Civil War, the idea that people living in a territory had the right to decide by voting if slavery would be allowed there.*The ideas of Lewis Cass created popular sovereignty.*It appealed strongly to many members of congress because it removed the slavery issue from national politics.*Appeared democratic since the settlers would decide for themselves.*Abolitionists were against it because it still denied African Americans their rights. But most Northerners supported it.
4*The international spread of capitalism, especially in recent decades, across national boundaries and with minimal restrictions by governments.*Computer technology and the Internet has played a big role in forging a global economy.*All country’s are connected by trade and imports and exports and rely on each other.*Selling American-made goods abroad has been a long importance in American prosperity.
6*Hostility toward immigrants. *Nativism fueled anti-immigrant policies in the late 1850s. Nativism generally arose when economic insecurities caused people to feel economically and culturally threatened by immigrants.*The “Know-Nothing” party played a big part in this.
8*An effort to cure many of the ills of American society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter of the 19th century.*This movement was created to the commitment of changing and reforming the country.
10*Loyalty and devotion to a nation. *Helped destroy the Federalist Party.*Nationalism was one of the reasons for the tensions among the European powers during the late 1800s. Each nation viewed the others as competitors, and many people were willing to go to war to expand their nations at the expense of others.*A slowing industrial opportunity rate in Europe resulted in going overseas to invest their capital and begin selling their products in other countries (less powerful and prosperous), particularly Africa and Asia. To protect their investments there they began exerting control over those territories where they invested their capital and sold products.
12*The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.*The U.S. believes a strong military will protect the interest of their citizens and allies to maintain peace and security for the world.
14*The actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation.*Most industrialized countries had placed high tariffs against each other designed to protect a nation’s industries from foreign competition.*The tariffs reduced trade between industrial companies forcing them to search for places across seas to sell products.
16*A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition.*Benito Mussolini founded Italy’s Fascist Party in 1919.*Strongly anticommunist.*Fascism stood up for the protection of private property and the middle class.*Mussolini offered the working class full employment and social security.* Stressed national prestige, pledging to return Italy to the glories of the Roman Empire.*Fascist militia known as the Blackshirts.
18*The political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933 consisting of harshly domineering, doctorial, and intolerant people.* Did not represent the working class, as its name suggests, but was nationalistic and anticommunist.*Adolf Hitler was one of the party’s first recruits.*The Party intended on taking over local power and then eventually all of Germany under the power of Hitler.*Hitler claimed Germans, particularly blond, blue-eyed Germans, belonged to a “master race” called Aryans.
19*The Party called for expansions for more living space to the east in Poland and Russia. *Hitler believed the Slavic people of Eastern Europe belonged to an inferior race, which the Germans should enslave.*The strongest racism was towards the Jews and they were believed to be responsible for many of the world’s problems and especially for German’s defeat in WWI.*Hitler and the Nazi Party eventually began taking over with violence and he later gave himself the new title of fuhrer, or leader.
21*Hostility towards or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic or cultural group. *The most extreme Anti-Semitism occurrence happened in the murdering of millions of Jews by the Nazi Party in Germany.*The Holocaust was Adolf Hitler’s attempt in wiping out the Jewish race.
23The ideological and often confrontation conflict between the U. S *The ideological and often confrontation conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1990.*The U.S. and the Soviet Union began increasingly hostile towards each other because the two sides had different goals. The Soviet leaders were concerned with securing their boarders while American leaders focused on the economic problems.*Containment of communism was another of the U.S. concerns.
25*The process of making South Vietnam assume more of the war effort by slowly withdrawing American troops from Vietnam.*On June 8, 1969, Nixon announced the withdrawal of 25,000 soldiers*Nixon determined to maintain a strong American presence in Vietnam to ensure bargaining power during peace negotiations.*He also increased air strikes against North Vietnam and began bombing Vietcong sanctuaries in neighboring Cambodia.
27* Virginia's policy to prevent school desegregation. *It was declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. on February 24, 1956 to unite other white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.
29*The refusal to obey certain laws or governmental demands for the purpose of influencing legislation or government policy, characterized by the employment of such nonviolent techniques such as boycotting, picketing, and nonpayment of taxes.*Risking punishment, such as violent retaliatory acts or imprisonment, they attempt to bring about changes in the law. *In recent times, civil disobedience has been used in such events as street demonstrations, marches, the occupying of buildings, and strikes and other forms of economic resistance.
31*A form of non-violent resistance in an act of protesting. *Bus boycotts, freedom rides, sit-ins and mass demonstrations, were used during the African American Civil Rights Movement.*This movement succeeded in bringing about legislative change, and making it illegal to have separate seats, drinking fountains, and schools for African Americans.*Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks both played a huge roll in peaceful protest.
33*The mobilization of the political and economic power of African Americans, especially to compel respect for their rights and to improve their condition.*Had many different meanings, one of which was a clear rejection of Dr. Martin philosophy. It was interpreted to mean that physical self-defense and even violence was an acceptable way to gain one’s freedom.*Also it stressed pride in the African American cultural groups.*Stokely Carmichael, leader of SNCC in 1966 believed the term meant that African Americans should control the social, political, and economic direction of their struggle.