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Independence of Latin America

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1 Independence of Latin America
Chapter 25 Independence of Latin America

2 Revolutions in US & France set example that successful revolution possible
External causes of political change in Latin America American Revolution provided a model French Revolution provided revolutionary ideology Slave rebellion of St. Domingue – provided local slave led success model Spain, Portugal, French Conflict – clouds colonial focus

3 Who is the primary force pushing early revolution movements?
Creoles Where does Toussaint l’Overture bring about change? Haiti/Saint Domingue Who has a longer lasting impact in early Mexican revolution, Father Miguel Hidlago or Augustin de Iturbide? Hidalgo pushed early but eventually lost support Iturbide – sent to put down revolt but actually continues it (becomes emperor of Mexico) Problem: Still a monarchy not meeting needs of people

4 South America – Venezuela/Colombia
Who is the famous creole for pushing independence in Venezuela? Simon Bolivar (Creole) Gran Colombia was South Americas version of what? United States

5 BRAZIL Who led the violent Independence movement in Brazil that ended up with actual independence from Portugal? No one, Pedro I declared independence Almost every colony of the new World was a republic except for Mexico and Brazil

6 Struggles in Latin America
As a result of early revolutions, was there increased social injustice or status quo? Social injustices still rampant (rich got richer, lower class still neglected) Possibly because revolutions carried out by creoles Most attempts at consolidation failed Why were they trying to consolidate? That was the model they saw as successful

7 Centralists vs Federalists
Differences among leaders about the forms of republican government. Centralists Strong governments with/ broad power (more colonial) Federalists Favor authority to regional governments (More like US) Describe the level of satisfaction with newly forged governments. VERY LITTLE The intent of the Monroe Doctrine was to eliminate whose influence in LA? Aimed at keeping European countries out of LA

8 Why did Britain support the Monroe Doctrine?
Needed the materials and the market

9 Economic boom Post-1870 Increasing demand in industrializing Europe stimulated Latin American economic growth. Political alliances forged to influence governments (at expense of peasants/working class) The developing commerce drew foreign investors. What was the problem with increased foreign investment in Latin America? $$ useful but key industries under foreign control (government influence)

10 MEXICO People still dissatisfied Mexican American War
Financially weak (target for others) Mexican American War What happened as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? US gets ½ of Mexican territory (5% of population) Attempt to refocus Mexican politics La Reforma (laws and constitution) French influence/attempt at control (Maximillian von Habsburg) Eventually Juarez back to power (Zapotec) Dies Followed by Porfirio Diaz governs over a period of stability

11 Argentina Struggle like Mexico (Centralism vs Federalism)
Government eventually compromises to become the Argentine Republic What were some of the key exports for Argentina? Foreign trade increases, leads to prosperity (wool, hides, beef) Population triples Strong sense of national unity

12 Brazilian Empire Smooth transfer of power
hid tension beneath the surface Not much had changed Power passed from Pedro I to Pedro II (boy at the time) Decades of instability ensued What was the new crop in Brazil that proved to be key to increased financial strength? Coffee became a key crop (1880: 60% of exports) = increased slavery 1888 = Slavery abolished in Brazil

13 Brazilian Empire (cont’d)
Why did it take so long to abolish slavery in Brazil? Slavery was the lifeblood of production Continued to modernize and change Dom Pedro II becomes better ruler “of the people” New political movement (positivism) push for a more republican government Pushes to be more “civilized”

14 The Plight of Women Gained little despite participating
Expected to be wives, mothers (couldn’t vote or hold office) Lower class women – more “power” but still not much What was the avenue through which women gained some rights? EDUCATION – Area of improvement Rise of education system created opportunities for women, As teachers, they needed education EDUCATION = Enlightenment = push for change Also push for restructuring of classes Merchants become more important

15 Economic boom and Foreign Investment post 1870
Increased demand in industrializing Europe for Latin American goods = economic growth Political alliances = influence (neglected peasants & working class) Export fuels expansion Provides resources for imports of manufactured goods and local development projects.

16 Foreign Investment Foreign investors:
Germany, United States, Britain, French Key industries under foreign control (influenced policies of governments) Where were “swallows” (golondrinas) from? Large amounts of people coming from Europe (many Italians to Brazil[[swallows] and Argentina)

17 Who is the “Big Brother” in Latin America?
US IMPERIALISM Spanish-American War of 1898 Brings US into Latin American affairs. US already invested in Cuba (also direct involvement in the Caribbean) Cuba American economic dependent, Puerto Rico annexed Panama – US backs revolution in Panama and gained exclusive rights over the canal which they built US IS ASSUMING THE ROLE OF “BIG BROTHER” IN LATIN AMERICA



20 US Imperialism

21 Internal Imperialism? What is the difference between expansionism and imperialism? Expansionism – the drive by settlers out of a need for more land Imperialism – the search for new: raw materials markets colonization is a side-effect Was the domination of what became the US imperialism or expansionism?

22 Louisiana Purchase How they got it…
Louisiana Territory purchased from France How was it to be governed? By Locals or by the US Government? It became an imperial holding

23 Mexican American War 1846 – 1848 US sent soldiers to area between Mexico and Republic of Texas (recently annexed) Provokes war Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo US gets SW US and California Mexico gets between $15 – 18 million Different views of further progression Some argued to take over the rest of Mexico to further Manifest Destiny Some argued to stop the imperial expansion that had slavery undertones

24 Asian Relation What type of relation does Japan and China have with Western nations? They are isolationists. Trade is only allowed with outsiders in Canton(China) or Nagasaki(Japan)

25 Reasons/Effects for US Imperialism
Racism People needed to be “civilized” Need for foreign markets The need for a “Frontier” Once the US was formed, they needed a new area to explore to maintain the American spirit EFFECT US now has an adversarial relationship with many European Countries Spain (Cuba, Philippines, Caribbean), Colombia, Britain

26 Commodore Matthew Perry
Proponent of modernizing the US Navy Called the “Father of the Steam Navy” Visit One – 1852 – 1853 Meets with Tokugawa Shogunate Representative Presents letter demanding opening of additional ports Japanese technology was inferior He leaves Visit Two: 1854 The Convention of Kanagawa Twice as many ships and leaves believing that it has been accepted

27 So what was Britain up to???

28 Dispute between Great Britain and China
The Opium Wars Dispute between Great Britain and China

29 Growth of Opium Trade Europeans bought silk, tea, porcelain, & spices from China Chinese would only trade goods for silver Drain on European finances

30 Opium Trade Opium manufactured in China since 15th century for medical purposes Opium then mixed with tobacco so it could be smoked Dutch were first to begin trade of opium English soon followed Chinese government banned smoking and trade of opium in 1729 due to health and social issues

31 English East India Company
Held monopoly on production and export of opium in India Peasant cultivators often coerced and paid in advance for cultivation of poppies Sold in Calcutta for a profit of 400% In 1799, the Chinese Empire reaffirmed its ban on opium imports, and in 1810 the following decree was issued: Opium has a very violent effect. When an addict smokes it, it rapidly makes him extremely excited and capable of doing anything he pleases. But before long, it kills him. Opium is a poison, undermining our good customs and morality. Its use is prohibited by law. Now the commoner, Yang, dares to bring it into the Forbidden City. Indeed, he flouts the law! However, recently the purchases and eaters of opium have become numerous. Deceitful merchants buy and sell it to gain profit. The customs house at the Ch'ung-wen Gate was originally set up to supervise the collection of imports (it had no responsibility with regard to opium smuggling). If we confine our search for opium to the seaports, we fear the search will not be sufficiently thorough. We should also order the general commandant of the police and police- censors at the five gates to prohibit opium and to search for it at all gates. If they capture any violators, they should immediately punish them and should destroy the opium at once. As to Kwangtung and Fukien, the provinces from which opium comes, we order their viceroys, governors, and superintendents of the maritime customs to conduct a thorough search for opium, and cut off its supply. They should in no ways consider this order a dead letter and allow opium to be smuggled out!

32 East India Company Buy tea on credit in Canton
Sell opium at auctions in Calcutta, India Then it was smuggled into China through India and Bengal 1797 began direct trade of opium into China Chinese government had hard time controlling trade in South British exports of opium to China skyrocketed from an estimated 15 tons in 1730, to 75 tons in 1773, shipped in over two thousand "chests", each containing 140 pounds (67 kg) of opium. In the 1820s, opium trade averaged 900 tons per year from Bengal to China.

33 Napier Affair Lord Napier tried to circumvent the Canton Trade laws to reinstitute East India’s monopoly Governor of Macao closed trade with Britain September 2, 1834 British resumed trade under old restrictions

34 First Opium War 1838 Chinese instituted death penalty for native traffickers of opium March 1839 – new commissioner to control opium trade – Lin Zexu Lin imposed embargo on Britain unless they permanently ended the trade

35 First Opium War March 27, 1839 – British Superintendent of Trade – Charles Elliot demanded all British subjects turn over opium to him Opium amounting to a year’s worth of trade was given to Commissioner Lin Trade resumed with Britain and no drugs were smuggled

36 First Opium War Lin demanded British merchants to sign a bond promising not to deal opium under penalty of death Lin disposed of the opium – dissolving it in the ocean Did not realize the impact of this action! disposed of the opium, by dissolving it with water, salt and lime and flushing it out into the ocean. He then apologized to the spirit of the Southern Sea in a special prayer.

37 First Opium War British merchants and government regarded this as destruction of private property Responded by sending warships, soldiers, and the British India Army into China June 1840 Had superior military force – attacked coastal cities, defeated Qing forces easily

38 End of the War British took Canton and sailed up the Yangtze River
Took Tax Barges, cut revenue of imperial court of Beijing 1842 Qing sued for peace Ended with Treaty of Nanjing

39 Treaty of Nanjing Referred to as the Unequal Treaties – accepted 1843
China Ceded Hong Kong to the British Opened ports to British – Canton, Amoy, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Shanghai

40 Treaty of Nanjing Great Britain received 21 million ounces of silver
Fixed tariffs Extraterritoriality for British citizens on Chinese soil Most favored nation status Allowed missionaries into interior of China Allowed British merchants sphere of influence in and around British ports Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. Extraterritoriality can also be applied to physical places, such as embassies, consulates, or military bases of foreign countries, or offices of the United Nations. These places remain the sovereign territories of the host countries, and although they are not subject to local law, local law enforcement agencies do have the duties of protecting them from outside disturbances and can in some cases arrest a person there for crimes committed on the host states' soil.

41 Treaty of Nanjing Unresolved Issues Status of opium trade with China
Equivalent American treaty forbade opium trade with China However, both Americans and British were subject only to the legal trade of their consuls

42 Second Opium War 1856 - 1860 Also known as Arrow War
Followed incident when Chinese bordered British registered, Chinese owned ship – the Arrow Crew was accused of piracy and smuggling Were arrested

43 Second Opium War British claimed ship was flying British flag and was protected under the Treaty of Nanjing War delayed by Taiping Rebellion and Indian Mutiny British attacked Guangzhou one year later Aided by allies of United States, Russia, and France

44 Second Opium War Treaty of Tientsin was created in July 1858 – was not ratified by China until 2 years later Hostilities broke out in 1859 when China refused the establishment of British Embassy in Beijing Fighting erupted in Hong Kong and Beijing British burned the Summer and Old Summer Palace and looted the city

45 Treaty of Tientsin 1860 ratified the treaty at the Convention of Peking Br, Fr, Rus and US have rights to station in Beijing (a closed city at the time) Ten more Chinese ports to be opened Foreigners gain right to travel interior of China Purpose: Travel, trade or missionary activities China was to pay foreigners for losses Legalized the import of Opium PowerPoint adapted from


47 Ben Needle Kell High School Marietta, GA
The Qing Dynasty 6 Ben Needle Kell High School Marietta, GA

48 Who Were the Qing? Manchu people (not Han) Semi-nomadic people
Qing - meaning pure Semi-nomadic people Highly organized military force Able to take over due to disorder of Ming Dynasty Weakened by weak central government and others corrupting dynasty 1st 40 years were spent waging war against Ming Loyalists Loyalists forced to what becomes Taiwan Population quadruples under Qing Dynasty to 420,000,000 Economy based upon money Specifically silver (from Europeans via Americas) Creates a silver glut Prompts British importation of opium which played a key role in 19th century Unified tribes (by Nurhaci 1616 – 1626) against Ming

49 Qing Rule Established strict laws regarding travel and marriage
No Chinese/Manchu marriage Chinese not permitted to go to Manchuria Heavily Confucian and interested in increasing size of Qing Empire Kept practice of emphasis on Confucianism for government advancement Tried to make sure those people are also Manchu Civil Service Examination – Explanation Scholar-gentry handle the day-to-day operations Both Ming and Qing Dynasties returned to a more traditional China (away from Yuan)

50 Women of the Qing Females were seen as a financial burden
They could not take exams Moved out once married Society was heavily patriarchal Still practiced foot binding

51 Future Predictions How is Qing China different than other parts of the world? Do you think this will be an issue for China? What do you think will happen?5

52 So whassup with the Middle East?

53 The Ottomans, “The Sick Man of Europe” and a bit about Egypt


55 I. Ottoman Empire A. What was happening in the Ottoman Empire?
1. Succession of weak rulers 2. Corruption 3. Artisan workers in towns – negatively impacted by competition from imported goods from Europe – This led to urban riots. 4. Merchants grew more dependent on doing business with European counterparts – this led to economic dependence of Ottoman Empire on European political rivals

56 5. Ottomans pushed out of areas like Eastern
Europe 6. Russia becomes a major threat to the Ottomans (led to Crimean War) 7. Empire was crumbling a. Greeks gain independence in 1830 b. by 1867 Serbia independent c. by 1870s Ottomans had been driven out from Balkans 8. Europeans helped keep Ottomans in power – because they didn’t want each other to get Ottoman possessions

57 B. So the Ottomans make some reforms
1. Sultan Selim III (r ) a. Wanted bold reforms b. Improved administration c. Built new army & navy d. These reforms made people angry: 1. people in the bureaucracy 2. the Janissary corps who dominated the Ottoman military ** His reforms cost him his throne – toppled by a Janissary revolt **

58 Selem III

59 2. Mahmud II (r ) a. Built a small professional army with help of European advisors in secret b he tricked and killed the Janissaries and slaughtered their families and religious allies c. Implemented reforms based on Western precedents 1. Diplomatic corps & exchanged ambassadors with European powers 2. Westernization of army expanded – with western military advisors

60 Mahmud II

61 3. Abdülmecid I ( ) a. Son of Mahmud II b. Tanzimat reforms (between ) 1. University education was reorganized along western lines 2. Training in European sciences and mathematics was introduced 3. State run postal and telegraph systems were established in 1830s 4. Railways built in 1860s 5. Newspapers established 6. Legal reforms c. Some groups were hurt or gained little from Tanzimat reforms: 1. Artisans weakened by treaty with British that removed barriers to foreign trade 2. Women gained little

62 Abdülmecid I

63 4. 1876 constitution based on European
prototypes (Sultans still rule too) *. Once westernized, some groups saw sultanate as barrier to more radical reform

64 5. Sultan Abdul Hamid (r. 1878-1908)
a. Returned to absolutism b. Nullified the constitution c. Restricted civil liberties esp. freedom of press d. Killed/imprisoned dissidents or suspected dissidents e. Still pushed for western reforms *. Especially military – German advisors f. Railroads linked Berlin to Baghdad g. Telegraph lines built h. Western education

65 6. Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
a. Turkish intellectuals b. Young Turks c. Want to restore the Constitution of 1876 d. Sympathy within military helped and e. Bloodless coup in 1908 – overthrew Abdul Hamid f. Fought among themselves g. Wanted to keep Ottoman Empire intact (many people, like the Arabs wanted Ottoman rule to end) h. Continued to lose territory i. WWI begins….

66 II. A bit about Egypt (recap and some new stuff)
A. It’s July 1798 and 1. Mamluk (slave) regime rules Egypt as vassal of Ottoman sultans 2. Napoleon arrives 3. Defeats Mamluks in the Battle of the Pyramids a. French occupy Egypt b. Mamluks are deeply shocked


68 B. In August 1798 1. British sink most of French fleet in the Battle of Aboukir 2. French supply line cut – Napoleon abandons army and creeps back to Paris (and…well…you know that story) 3. French withdraw


70 C. In 1801 Muhammad Ali (young officer of
Albanian origin) becomes ruler 1. Modernizes the military 2. Hires French military advisors 3. Builds fleet 4. Invades Syria 5. Encourages peasants to grow cash- crops and material in demand in Europe 6. Tries to industrialize 7. He died in 1848

71 Not this one… …this one.

72 D. His successors content to rule only
Egypt and Sudanic areas 1. Rulers were called “khedives” from 2. Not strong 3. Made Egypt dependent on cotton – single crop 4. Wasted money 5. Debt and strategic importance of Suez canal led to British control (and you know that story as well!)

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