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Presentation on theme: "TEST #8 COMPARATIVE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS"— Presentation transcript:


2 GREAT BRITAIN Unwritten Constitution – most done by custom that has developed over centuries writ Historic documents monarchy

3 Parliament –holds legislative and executive powers
Legislative – lawmaking Executive – chooses administrative departments and runs nation’s affairs Bi-cameral House of Lords House of Commons

4 House of Lords – until 1999, members were appointed by the queen or inherited noble titles, life peers (those honored for achievements in science, literature, politics or business. 682 members Most are chosen by committee now Reviews bills made by the House of Commons – if opposed, it will have to be reapproved Can delay a bill or improve details of a bill Serves as the final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases

5 House of Commons – 659 members elected by single member districts of similar populations
Elections are held every 5 years Opposing parties sit across from each other Majority party does most of the work but any member of Parliament can introduce a bill

6 Prime Minister The Cabinet
Chosen by the majority party, approved by the queen No majority, a coalition – temporary alliance of parties – will choose the Prime Minister The Cabinet Selected by the Prime Minister from the House of Commons or House of Lords Carries out public policy

7 Calling elections Held usually every 5 years
Sometimes the Prime Minister chooses to hold elections when he thinks his party will win If the majority loses votes and is judged ineffective, the Prime Minister must ask the Monarch to dissolve Parliament and hold new elections – therefore the Prime Minister can be removed at anytime No checks and balances as in the US

8 Political Parties Conservative party (tories) Labour Party
Middle and upper class – private economic initiatives over government, less government involvement and support the class structure Labour Party Working class and poor – redistribution of wealth, nationalization of certain industries, public welfare programs Parties have more loyalty from voters than in the US

9 The Courts – Northern Ireland, England and Wales
Crown court – criminal cases heard by judges and juries Magistrate court – hears less serious cases Appellate courts – hears appeals – final appeal goes to the House of Lords Scotland – different system Decisions are based on parliamentary legislation, common law or judicial precedent Not bound to uphold a constitution or bill of rights No right of judicial review – cannot overrule Parliament

10 RUSSIA – SOVIET UNION Monarchy until 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
Began to decline after the Russo-Japanese War of 1905 Was unable to stay together during WWI Bolshevik Revolution March 1917 – Czar Nicholas II abdicates and a provisional government under Alexander Kerensky is created and continues to support WWI Nov – Lenin leads a coup against the provisional government. Lenin – transforms Russia into a modern yet communist nation

11 Lenin – transforms Russia into a modern yet communist nation Stalin
“Great Purges” – purifies the party by executing his political and military threats Forced collectivization of agriculture Placed emphasis on industry and military growth Rules during WWII and the beginning of the Cold War

12 Government Structure Soviet Constitution Legislature
Soviets (councils) 15 republics Soviet Constitution Established the structure and powers of the government No limits to government power – does not guarantee basic rights but does provide for some civil rights Legislature Rubber stamps decrees of the communist party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) usually one candidate for each members seat

13 Communist Party Gorbachev
pyramid structure – 400,000 primary organizations representing 9% of the people – each headed by a party committee Top Committee – Central Committee or Politburo – head is the General Secretary Politburo was the decision making body Gorbachev Perestroika – political and economic reforms Glasnost – openness of the society reducing government censorship

14 Fall of the Soviet Union
Baltic states declared independence 1991 – elections were held and Boris Yeltsin became the President of the Russian Republic and withdrew from the communist party Gorbachev and his wife are put under arrest in a failed coup by the communist to gain back control Gorbachev resigns – Soviet Union is dissolved

15 Russian Government Today
1993 Constitution – establishes a republic and guarantees individual freedoms 40 political parties including the Communist Separation of Powers President – most power – appoints the Prime Minister (2nd in Command) and the ministers of the executive departments 4 yr. term, 2 term limit, 35 yrs. old, citizens, 10 year resident Legislative Branch – Federal Assembly Bicameral – Council of Federation and the State Duma (more powerful) Override presidential veto by 2/3’s vote Constitutional Court – 19 members, 12 year terms Power of “judicial review’

16 Regional and Local Governments
49 provinces with governors The Federation contains 21 republics of which 10 are autonomous areas Constant pressure by some republics to break away

17 CHINA 1949 – becomes communist nation under Mao Ze-Dong
Support from the peasants Great Leap Forward – plan to collectivize to increase agricultural production and to place emphasis on heavy industry 1960’s – Cultural Revolution (1966) “Red Guard” – young patriots “Little Red Book” – Thoughts of Chairman Mao 1976 – Deng Xia Ping Reforms encouraging private enterprise No right to political dissent 1989 – Tiananmen Square demonstration

18 The Constitution reflects current governmental policies – 4 have been written 1954, 1975, 1978, and 1982 Communist Party (58 million) – hold all major positions, thus they control the government Similar to Soviet Union with a politburo and Secretariat National Government National Peoples Congress – 3000 deputies elected to 5 year terms State council – Executive Branch with Premier chosen by the Communist Party Judiciary Supreme People’s Court – appointed by the National Peoples Congress

Capitalism – economic system that rewards individuals through free enterprise and profit Factors of Production Land, Labor, capital and entrepreneurship Market Economy Free enterprise where the factors are owned by private individuals Profits – gains from business dealings Competition Law of Supply and Demand – these forces will set prices in the market Monopoly – one seller of a good or service within an industry Laissez-faire – business activity free of government regulations

20 Socialism – an economic and political philosophy based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity-wealth should be equitably distributed throughout society. Collective ownership of the factors of production The government can be democratic but must have centralized planning Rejection of individualism and competition for profit Public controls to insure equitable distribution Rose out of the abuses by owners during the Industrial Revolution.

21 Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto
Condemned the misery of industrialism and capitalist enslavement Proletariat - workers Bourgeoisie – capitalists –owners of the factors of production Socialist vs. Communist – socialist favor change through peaceful means while communist believe change will occur through a violent revolution.

22 Nationalization – government take over of industries
Compensating owners – usually utilities and transportation Giving workers some say in running the companies (Sweden) Public Welfare – emphasis on housing, food and medical Welfare state – countries that pay extensive social services Taxation – high taxes to pay for government services (50-60%) Central Planned or Command Economy – determines how the resources are used and what products will be produced

23 COMMUNISM Collectivist ideology which calls for the collective or state ownership of land and other productive property. Karl Marx – Das Capital View of history – class struggle Theory of Labor – product should be valued based on the labor put into making it. Workers should get the money from his labor Nature of the State – Government was used by the capitalist to keep power. Religion is used to make people tolerate the abuse in return for a better life after death Dictatorship of the Proletariat – transition phase between capitalism and classless society. Authoritarian to do the will of the masses.

24 Characteristics of communist economies
Marx had believed the revolution would occur in an industrialized nations but didn’t Both Russia and China were backward agrarian cultures CAPITALISM VS. COMMUNISM Characteristics of communist economies Role of the Party Central Planning Collectivization State ownership


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