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Presentation on theme: "TEST #8 COMPARATIVE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS."— Presentation transcript:


2  Unwritten Constitution – most done by custom that has developed over centuries ◦ writ  Historic documents  monarchy

3  Parliament –holds legislative and executive powers ◦ Legislative – lawmaking ◦ Executive – chooses administrative departments and runs nation’s affairs ◦ Bi-cameral  House of Lords  House of Commons House of Commons

4  House of Lords – until 1999, members were appointed by the queen or inherited noble titles, life peers (those honored for achievements in science, literature, politics or business. ◦ 682 members ◦ Most are chosen by committee now ◦ Reviews bills made by the House of Commons – if opposed, it will have to be reapproved  Can delay a bill or improve details of a bill ◦ Serves as the final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases

5  House of Commons – 659 members elected by single member districts of similar populations ◦ Elections are held every 5 years ◦ Opposing parties sit across from each other ◦ Majority party does most of the work but any member of Parliament can introduce a bill

6  Prime Minister ◦ Chosen by the majority party, approved by the queen ◦ No majority, a coalition – temporary alliance of parties – will choose the Prime Minister  The Cabinet ◦ Selected by the Prime Minister from the House of Commons or House of Lords ◦ Carries out public policy

7  Calling elections ◦ Held usually every 5 years ◦ Sometimes the Prime Minister chooses to hold elections when he thinks his party will win ◦ If the majority loses votes and is judged ineffective, the Prime Minister must ask the Monarch to dissolve Parliament and hold new elections – therefore the Prime Minister can be removed at anytime ◦ No checks and balances as in the US

8  Political Parties ◦ Conservative party (tories)  Middle and upper class – private economic initiatives over government, less government involvement and support the class structure ◦ Labour Party  Working class and poor – redistribution of wealth, nationalization of certain industries, public welfare programs ◦ Parties have more loyalty from voters than in the US

9  The Courts – Northern Ireland, England and Wales ◦ Crown court – criminal cases heard by judges and juries ◦ Magistrate court – hears less serious cases ◦ Appellate courts – hears appeals – final appeal goes to the House of Lords  Scotland – different system  Decisions are based on parliamentary legislation, common law or judicial precedent ◦ Not bound to uphold a constitution or bill of rights ◦ No right of judicial review – cannot overrule Parliament

10  Monarchy until 1917 ◦ Began to decline after the Russo-Japanese War of 1905 ◦ Was unable to stay together during WWI  Bolshevik Revolution Bolshevik Revolution ◦ March 1917 – Czar Nicholas II abdicates and a provisional government under Alexander Kerensky is created and continues to support WWI ◦ Nov – Lenin leads a coup against the provisional government. ◦ Lenin – transforms Russia into a modern yet communist nation

11  Lenin – transforms Russia into a modern yet communist nation  Stalin Stalin ◦ “Great Purges” – purifies the party by executing his political and military threats ◦ Forced collectivization of agriculture ◦ Placed emphasis on industry and military growth ◦ Rules during WWII and the beginning of the Cold War

12  Government Structure ◦ Soviets (councils) ◦ 15 republics  Soviet Constitution ◦ Established the structure and powers of the government ◦ No limits to government power – does not guarantee basic rights but does provide for some civil rights  Legislature ◦ Rubber stamps decrees of the communist party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) usually one candidate for each members seat

13  Communist Party ◦ pyramid structure – 400,000 primary organizations representing 9% of the people – each headed by a party committee ◦ Top Committee – Central Committee or Politburo – head is the General Secretary ◦ Politburo was the decision making body  Gorbachev ◦ Perestroika – political and economic reforms ◦ Glasnost – openness of the society reducing government censorship

14  Fall of the Soviet Union Fall of the Soviet Union ◦ Baltic states declared independence ◦ 1991 – elections were held and Boris Yeltsin became the President of the Russian Republic and withdrew from the communist party ◦ Gorbachev and his wife are put under arrest in a failed coup by the communist to gain back control ◦ Gorbachev resigns – Soviet Union is dissolved

15  1993 Constitution – establishes a republic and guarantees individual freedoms  40 political parties including the Communist  Separation of Powers ◦ President – most power – appoints the Prime Minister (2 nd in Command) and the ministers of the executive departments  4 yr. term, 2 term limit, 35 yrs. old, citizens, 10 year resident ◦ Legislative Branch – Federal Assembly  Bicameral – Council of Federation and the State Duma (more powerful)  Override presidential veto by 2/3’s vote ◦ Constitutional Court – 19 members, 12 year terms  Power of “judicial review’

16  Regional and Local Governments ◦ 49 provinces with governors ◦ The Federation contains 21 republics of which 10 are autonomous areas ◦ Constant pressure by some republics to break away

17  1949 – becomes communist nation under Mao Ze-Dong ◦ Support from the peasants ◦ Great Leap Forward – plan to collectivize to increase agricultural production and to place emphasis on heavy industry  1960’s – Cultural Revolution (1966)Cultural Revolution ◦ “Red Guard” – young patriots ◦ “Little Red Book” – Thoughts of Chairman Mao  1976 – Deng Xia PingDeng Xia Ping ◦ Reforms encouraging private enterprise ◦ No right to political dissent ◦ 1989 – Tiananmen Square demonstration

18  The Constitution reflects current governmental policies – 4 have been written 1954, 1975, 1978, and 1982  Communist Party (58 million) – hold all major positions, thus they control the government ◦ Similar to Soviet Union with a politburo and Secretariat  National Government ◦ National Peoples Congress – 3000 deputies elected to 5 year terms ◦ State council – Executive Branch with Premier chosen by the Communist Party  Judiciary ◦ Supreme People’s Court – appointed by the National Peoples Congress

19  Capitalism – economic system that rewards individuals through free enterprise and profit ◦ Factors of Production  Land, Labor, capital and entrepreneurship ◦ Market Economy  Free enterprise where the factors are owned by private individuals  Profits – gains from business dealings ◦ Competition  Law of Supply and Demand – these forces will set prices in the market  Monopoly – one seller of a good or service within an industry  Laissez-faire – business activity free of government regulations

20  Socialism – an economic and political philosophy based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity-wealth should be equitably distributed throughout society. ◦ Collective ownership of the factors of production  The government can be democratic but must have centralized planning ◦ Rejection of individualism and competition for profit ◦ Public controls to insure equitable distribution ◦ Rose out of the abuses by owners during the Industrial Revolution.

21  Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto Karl Marx ◦ Condemned the misery of industrialism and capitalist enslavement ◦ Proletariat - workers ◦ Bourgeoisie – capitalists –owners of the factors of production ◦ Socialist vs. Communist – socialist favor change through peaceful means while communist believe change will occur through a violent revolution.

22  Nationalization – government take over of industries ◦ Compensating owners – usually utilities and transportation ◦ Giving workers some say in running the companies (Sweden)  Public Welfare – emphasis on housing, food and medical ◦ Welfare state – countries that pay extensive social services  Taxation – high taxes to pay for government services (50-60%)  Central Planned or Command Economy – determines how the resources are used and what products will be produced

23  Collectivist ideology which calls for the collective or state ownership of land and other productive property.  Karl Marx – Das Capital ◦ View of history – class struggle ◦ Theory of Labor – product should be valued based on the labor put into making it. Workers should get the money from his labor ◦ Nature of the State – Government was used by the capitalist to keep power. Religion is used to make people tolerate the abuse in return for a better life after death ◦ Dictatorship of the Proletariat – transition phase between capitalism and classless society. Authoritarian to do the will of the masses.

24 Marx had believed the revolution would occur in an industrialized nations but didn’t Both Russia and China were backward agrarian cultures CAPITALISM VS. COMMUNISM  Characteristics of communist economies ◦ Role of the Party ◦ Central Planning ◦ Collectivization ◦ State ownership


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