Presentation on theme: "History How successful has the United Nations been as a peacekeeping organisation?"— Presentation transcript:
History How successful has the United Nations been as a peacekeeping organisation?
In general The United Nations has been more successful than the League of Nations in terms of peace keeping efforts. It had been largely successful in settling disputes between minor countries and major countries alike. However, sometimes failing to settle disagreements, for example in the Hungarian Rising and the Czech Crisis. In more recent years the League has failed to settle civil crisis such as the Rwandan massacre. But all in all, the United Nations has been largely successful.
West New Guinea (1946) First dispute that the United Nations had to handle between Indonesia and Holland. The argument stemmed from the fact that the future of New Guinea was disputed by both Indonesia and Holland. However, no agreement was reached and in 1961, fighting broke out. When U Thant appealed that both sides should re- negotiate in 1962, they came to a consensus that the territory should become part of Indonesia. United Nations played a vital role in the re-negotiations and was thus successful though it did not make the decision of West New Guinea’s future.
Palestine (1947) This dispute was between the Jews and the Arabs regarding the one of the UN’s decision to divide Palestine. They set up the Jewish state of Israel and that was by far the UN’s most controversial decision as it wasn’t accepted by most of the Arabs. War broke out between both parties and the UN could do nothing about it. The UN tried their best by arranging ceasefires and providing supervisory forces and cared for the Arab refugees. It is difficult to judge whether it was a success or a failure of the UN.
The Korean War (1950-53) Most severe test for the UN ever since its inception In June 1950, North Korea (controlled by Russia) unexpectedly attack South Korea (controlled by America) America immediately brought forth this case before the UN and on the same day, the UN Security Counsel met and majority decided that North Korea should withdraw back to the 38th parallel When North Korea had ignored the UN Security Counsel’s resolution, America called on the UN to use force on them In September 1950, the UN landed its troop in Inchon and together with the South Korean Army, they were succesful at pushing the North Koreans out of South Korea
MacArthur was thus sacked and the war was degenerated to a war of stalemate In 1953, a ceasafire was agreed at Panmunjon which still exists to this day The UN was highly succesful as they received much support for taking robust action against an aggressor nation but this was partly because of the domination of America in the UN However, American General, MacArthur, continued to advanced into North Korea despite warnings from Communist China This resulted in an Chinese attack and they managed to push back the UN forces
The Suez Canal (1956) Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal of whose many shares were owned by British and French. Both powers sent troops to protect their interests. At the same time, the Israelis attacked Egypt from the east A security council resolution condemning force vetoed by Britain and France. However, the general assembly condemned the invasions and called for the withdrawal of troops. This led to the aggressors to withdraw provided the UN provide a reasonable settlement over the canal. This eventually led the French and British forces to withdraw making a success for the UN. The Suez Canal (1956)
Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) War between Iraq and Iran which began due to border disputes and the Iranian demands to overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein. War was fought for many years without either side gaining much ground. The end of the fighting was put to an end by the United Nations Security Council Success for the United Nations. Iran-Iraq War (1980-88)