Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Stress and Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 17: Stress and Health Case Study: The Slow-Food, Low-Stress DietSection 1: Understanding StressSection 2: Stress: Responses and EffectsSection 3: Psychological Factors and HealthSection 4: Ways of Coping with StressSimulation: Applying What You’ve Learned
2Case Study: The Slow-Food, Low-Stress Diet The ability of the French population to consume foods heavy in fat and sugar but remain slim became known as the French paradox. One French scientist claimed that the effect was caused by drinking wine, but this theory was disproven. Instead, researchers now think the difference is in the way the French eat a meal: slowly, without rushing or performing other tasks while eating. These studies show that the French consume less food in a meal, even though they spend more time eating. It seems that our eating habits are not only unhealthy, they are adding to our overall stress levels as we strive to eat more healthfully.–
3What do you think?What are some of the key factors that might explain the French paradox?Do you think Americans are ever likely to change their eating habits and adopt the French diet? Why or why not?
4Section 1 at a Glance Understanding Stress Stress is the arousal of one’s mind and body in response to demands made upon them.Sources of stress include frustration, daily hassles, and life changes.Different types of conflict contribute to stress.Some people create their own stress through their personality type.
5Understanding Stress Main Idea Reading Focus Many different situations and events can produce both good and bad stress. Some personality types may even create their own stress.Reading FocusWhat are the two different kinds of stress?What are the main sources of stress?Why does conflict cause stress?How does personality type affect stress?
7Different Kinds of Stress In physics, stress is defined as pressure, or a force. In psychology, stress is the arousal of one’s mind and body in response to demands made upon them.Eustress is positive stressIncreases sharpness and motivation and can keep people alert and involvedA sign that a person is taking on a challenge to try to reach a goalEustressDistress is negative stressLinked to intense pressure or anxietyCan strain people’s ability to adjust to various situationsCan dampen mood, impair ability, and harm the bodyDistress–
8Identify Supporting Details Reading CheckIdentify Supporting DetailsWhy isn’t all stress bad?Answer: Good stress can increase motivation and keep people alert and involved.
9Sources of Stress Frustration Daily Hassles Life Changes Stressor: an event or situation that produces stressWhat is a stressor for one person might not be for another.Some stressors are common to most people.FrustrationBeing blocked from attaining a goal, such as being late to an appointment or lacking moneyMany frustrations are minor, but more serious ones can be extremely stressfulDaily HasslesEveryday frustrations: household, health, time-pressure, inner-concern, environmental, financial, work, future-securityLife ChangesMajor events such as moving, serious illness, or a deathMany life changes are positive, and tend to happen less often
12How can sources of stress influence a person’s life? Reading CheckMake GeneralizationsHow can sources of stress influence a person’s life?Answer: Sources of stress influence a person’s life in psychological (depression or anxiety) and physical ways (health problems).
13Conflict Approach-Approach Conflict Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict Least stressful typesEach of the choices are positiveUsually resolved by making a decisionAvoidance-Avoidance ConflictMore stressfulNeither choice is positiveResolved by making a decisionApproach-Avoidance ConflictOccurs when a choice has both positive and negative aspectsMultiple Approach-Avoidance ConflictMost complex formEach of several alternative courses of action has its advantages and disadvantages
15Which type of conflict might cause the most amount of stress? Reading CheckAnalyzeWhich type of conflict might cause the most amount of stress?Answer: avoidance-avoidance conflict, there are no desirable choices
16Personality Types Some people create their own stress. Two basic personality types: type A (intense) and type B (laid-back)Type A people are always on the go and put pressure on themselvesType B people are more relaxed and patient, and do not become angry as easily as type AType A people usually achieve more than type B people, but their success comes with a price of heightened stress
17How does the behavior of type A and type B people differ? Reading CheckContrastHow does the behavior of type A and type B people differ?Answer: type B person more relaxed and less intense than a type A
18Section 2 at a Glance Stress: Responses and Effects Maintaining a positive attitude and a sense of humor are among the ways that people can reduce the effects of stress.Stressful situations produce the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome.Chronic stress can suppress the activity of the body’s immune system.
19Stress: Responses and Effects Main IdeaPeople respond to stress in different ways, but stressful situations produce similar responses in the body. Stress—especially chronic stress—can even compromise the body’s immune system.Reading FocusWhat factors influence our response to stress?What is the general adaptation syndrome?How does stress affect the immune system?
21Responses to StressPeople with different personalities respond to stress in different ways. The stress of an event depends largely on what the event means to the person involved. Biology also accounts for differences in people’s responses to stress.Beliefs people have that they can accomplish goals that they set for themselvesClosely related to self-confidenceSelf-confident person likely to keep cool under pressureSelf-Efficacy ExpectationsPeople with certain traits can withstand stressCommitment—stress as motivationChallenge—prefer changeControl—feelings of being in control of their livesPsychological Hardiness–
22Sense of HumorStudents who had a sense of humor and saw humor in difficult situations experienced less stress than students who were not able to find humor in the same situations.Some research suggests that emotional responses may aid the immune system.PredictabilityHaving the ability to predict a stressor seems to reduce the amount of stress it causes.Social SupportThe presence and interest of other people provide support that helps people cope with stress.Ways to help: express concern, provide physical relief, offer information, provide feedback, and socialize
24What role might attitude play in responding to stress? Reading CheckDraw ConclusionsWhat role might attitude play in responding to stress?Answer: Attitude affects how one responds to stress. A positive attitude yields a positive response to stress. A negative attitude yields a negative response to stress.
25The General Adaptation Syndrome Selye observed that different stressful situations each produced similar responses by the body.The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) has three stages:The alarm reactionInitiated when a stressor is perceivedSometimes described as the fight-or-flight reactionCertain hormones are released that prepare the body for stressThe resistance stageIf the stressor is not removed, people try to find a way to cope and to avoid being overwhelmedThe exhaustion stageIf stressor still is not removed, hormones are depleted, muscles are worn out, heart and breathing rates slow down
27What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome?Answer: alarm reaction, resistance stage, and exhaustion stage
28Effects of Stress on the Immune System Most people are exposed to a great variety of disease-causing organisms, but an intact immune system fights off most of them.White blood cells destroy disease-causing microorganisms, worn-out body cells, and malignant cells.The immune system “remembers” some invaders and maintains antibodies to fight them, often for years.Stress and the Immune SystemOne reason stress exhausts people is that it stimulates bodies to produce steroids, which suppress the immune system.One study showed lower immune-system functioning during more stressful periods.Another study showed that training in coping skills improved the functioning of the immune system.
29How does the immune system protect people against disease? Reading CheckAnalyzeHow does the immune system protect people against disease?Answer: by producing white blood cells that destroy disease-causing microorganisms
30Section 3 at a Glance Psychological Factors and Health Both biological and psychological factors play important roles in health problems.Headaches are among the most common stress-related health problems.People can make behavioral changes to help reduce the risks of heart disease.People with cancer must cope with the biological aspects of their illness as well as with its psychological effects.
31Psychological Factors and Health Main IdeaBoth biological and psychological factors play an important role in medical problems, including headaches, heart disease, and cancer.Reading FocusHow do biological and psychological factors affect health?What are the most common types of headaches?What factors contribute to heart disease?How is cancer linked to stress?
33Biological and Psychological Factors Biological factors such as family history of a disease, exposure to disease-causing microorganisms, inoculations against certain diseases, accidents, injuries, and age play an important role in physical illness.Psychological factors also affect health problems.AttitudesPatterns of behaviorAnxietyDepressionHealth psychology: concerned with the relationship between psychological factors and the prevention and treatment of physical illness.
34How can a bad family medical history be a positive opportunity? Reading CheckAnalyzeHow can a bad family medical history be a positive opportunity?Answer: A bad family medical history is an opportunity to keep harmful genes from expressing themselves.
35Headaches Among the most common stress-related health problems Most frequent is muscle-tension: dull, steady pain on both sides of the headSecond most common is migraine headache: sudden onset and severe throbbing on one side of the headAffect 10 percent of AmericansType A more affectedTypes of HeadachesAspirin, acetaminophen, and prescription drugs are used to fight headache pain.Different medicines work in different ways.Changing behaviors is also helpful: progressive relaxation and biofeedback training help to relieve painTreatment–
36Identify Cause and Effect Reading CheckIdentify Cause and EffectHow can headache pain result in a vicious cycle?Answer: Headaches are often caused by muscle tension. The pain of the headache increases rather than relaxes muscle tension.
38Heart Disease Risk Factors Behavioral Changes Nearly half of U.S. deaths are caused by heart disease. Causes include:Family history (genetics)Physical conditionsPatterns of consumptionType A behaviorAnger and hostilityJob strainLack of exerciseBehavioral ChangesVarious medical treatments exist, but certain behavioral changes can reduce risk:Quitting smokingControlling weightReducing hypertensionLowering serum cholesterol levelsChanging type A behavior patternsExercising regularly
40What can people do to help reduce the risk of heart disease? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat can people do to help reduce the risk of heart disease?Answer: quit smoking, control weight, reduce hypertension, lower cholesterol, change type A behavior, and exercise regularly
41Cancer Risk Factors Psychological Aspects Positive Attitude Cancer involves the rapid growth of malignant cells.Individuals whose immune systems are weakened appear to be more likely candidates for getting cancer.Risk FactorsPeople may inherit a tendency to develop certain kinds of cancer.Certain behaviors increase risk.Stress may be a risk factor.Psychological AspectsCancer patients must cope with weakness, pain, and medicine side-effects.They may face anxiety, fear, depression, and vulnerability.Positive AttitudeOne study found a significantly higher survival rate among women who met their cancer diagnosis with a “fighting spirit.”Social support increases the survival rate.
42Identify Supporting Details Reading CheckIdentify Supporting DetailsWhat psychological effects might those with cancer face?Answer: People with cancer face anxiety regarding treatment and the possibility of death.
43Section 4 at a Glance Ways of Coping with Stress Defensive coping methods as a means of handling stress are self-defeating and usually harmful.Effective active coping methods for dealing with stress include changing stressful thoughts, relaxing, and exercising.
44Ways of Coping with Stress Main IdeaPeople handle stress using both defensive and active coping methods. Defensive coping methods are often self-defeating, while active coping methods are far more effective.Reading FocusWhat are some defensive coping methods?How do active coping methods help ease stress?
46Defensive CopingDefensive coping: a way to handle stress and reduce immediate effects, but not the most desirable way. It may involve socially unacceptable behavior. It does not eliminate the source of stress.Substance abusePeople may become psychologically dependent on these substances in an effort to decrease their awareness of stress or disguise an unpleasant reality.AggressionUsing violence to cope with stressful situations rarely, if ever, provides a solution to the problem. May heighten the problem.WithdrawalCan be emotional or physical withdrawal.Defense mechanismsProtect ego from anxiety produced by an awareness of unacceptable ideas or impulses. They become problematic when they are the only coping mechanisms a person has.
48Reading CheckFind the Main IdeaWhy are defensive coping strategies not the most desirable ways to deal with stress?Answer: Defensive coping strategies are socially unacceptable and self-defeating.
49Active CopingActive coping: involves changing the environment or situation (in socially acceptable ways) to remove stressors, or changing one’s response to stress so that stressors are no longer harmful.Changing stressful thoughtsPeople who have stressful thoughts can learn to recognize and change them before becoming overwhelmed by them.Relaxation techniquesA number of techniques for reducing the bodily reactions to stress:MeditationBiofeedbackProgressive relaxationExerciseFosters physical health, enhances people’s psychological well-being, and helps people cope with stress.BreathingPracticing controlled breathing can reduce stress.
51Identify Supporting Details Reading CheckIdentify Supporting DetailsHow can active coping methods relieve some health problems?Answer: Active coping methods can relieve some health problems by reducing stress that compromises the body’s immune system.
52Current Research in Psychology Coping with CatastropheEven though the tragedy of September 11, 2001, mostly affected those who lost family and friends, people who only witnessed the attacks on television suffered what psychologists call “second-hand stress.”Many people who witnessed the terrorist attacks on television suffered symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder.Similar reactions occurred after Hurricane Katrina in 2005.Watching scenes on television can cause the biological fight-or-flight reaction.Some scientists suggest taking a break from the news to alleviate symptoms; others say this is a form of denial.One study found that those who donated blood or money felt less helpless.Disasters can bring a nation together when the shared response is to reach out and help the victims.–
54Thinking CriticallyHow does helping disaster victims reduce second-hand stress?Think of a time when you helped someone overcome difficulties. What did you do? How did it make you feel?
55Simulation: Applying What You’ve Learned Stress and Active Coping MethodsWhat is the most effective way to cope with a stressful situation?In this simulation, you will work in a group to develop and perform a simulation in which you role-play a stressful situation and effective coping methods.Your teacher will assign each group one stressful situation.1. IntroductionDiscuss with your group the source of stress that you have been assigned.Assign a role to each member.Discuss appropriate responses to the situation.Write the dialogue and practice it several times.2. Prepare the Simulation–
56Simulation (cont'd.) Speak loudly enough. Act your role in a serious manner.Be supportive of group members if they falter.As an audience member, take notes on:stressor being showneffectiveness of coping methodshow you would react3. Perform the SimulationAs a class, discuss the following:What did you think of the performances?Did each represent a stressful situation realistically?What were some of the effective coping mechanisms portrayed?Can you use what you have learned to deal with stress more effectively?4. Discussion–