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Remember: What was the Monroe Doctrine? (1823): ISOLATIONIST

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Presentation on theme: "Remember: What was the Monroe Doctrine? (1823): ISOLATIONIST"— Presentation transcript:

1 Remember: What was the Monroe Doctrine? (1823): ISOLATIONIST
*Europe “Stay Out” of Western Hemisphere *West different from Europe (republics) *U.S. regard as threat any attempt by Europe to colonize West *U.S. will not interfere in Europe

Purchased from Russia (1867) for 7.2 million dollars Negotiated by Secretary of State, William Seward Reaction is negative--“Seward’s Folly”/ “Seward’s Icebox”

3 $7.2 million = 2 cents an acre

4 In what ways will America’s foreign policy change
at the turn of the 20th century? I. America will emerge as a world power and adopt an imperialist outlook. Imperialism- the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.


6 “Progress to Imperialism”

7 “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”

8 Case in Point: Africa Ethiopia and Liberia are the only two independent African nations in 1914

9 What year is a “key” turning
point in U.S. expansion?

10 II. America Expands its influence--***1898
William McKinley ( ) Expansionist President

11 McKinley and Imperialism
“Hawaiian islands should be controlled by the U.S. and no foreign power shall be permitted to interfere” McKinley 1) Hawaii: (1875)American business interests in sugar plantations grows- duty free (1887)Pearl Harbor (1891)Queen Liliuokalani/ “Hawaii for Hawaiians”, forced from power (***1898)Annexed

12 Sanford Dole, Hawaii’s 1st territorial governor.

13 McKinley and Imperialism
2) Spanish-American War (***1898): Cuba Libre!!- free Cuba from Spanish rule Jose Marti and Cuban revolutionaries attack property, including American owned sugar plantations “Liberty is the right of every man to be honest, to think and to speak without hypocrisy.” Jose Marti--

14 Spain sends General Valeriano Weyler to “restore order.”
Herds est. 300,000 Cubans into concentration camps.

15 What is the message to Americans?

16 William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and
Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) publish exaggerated accounts of Spanish atrocities, Yellow Journalism Hearst Pulitzer

17 Feb. 1898--U.S.S. Maine explodes (266 Americans killed)
Yellow Journalists blame Spain, but likely an accident April 20, 1898 America declares war “Remember the Maine”

18 What is the Bill of Fare? Which President does the waiter portray? What is Uncle Sam’s attitude toward the offering?



21 McKinley and Imperialism
U.S. views new territories as “protectorates” Philippines- Removal Policies (1899) to suppress revolutionaries (Emilio Aguinaldo) Puerto Rico- Foraker Act (1900) Cuba- Platt Amendment (1901) “Civilization Begins at Home” (1889)

22 McKinley and Imperialism
4.) China Divided into “Spheres of Influence” by England, Germany, Russia, France, Japan. Queen Victoria (England), Wilhelm II (Germany), NicholasII (Russia), Marianne (France), Samurai (Japan)

23 John Hay- U.S. Secretary of State issues a series of
policy statements called the “Open Door Notes” (1899) (open trade in China, opened greater U.S. role in Asia)

24 Resistance in China Boxer Rebellion (1900)- Secret society, “Boxers,” terrorize Christian missionaries and other “foreign devils.” Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and U.S. suppress uprising.

25 What is the Bill of Fare? Which President does the waiter portray? What is Uncle Sam’s attitude toward the offering?

26 III. Imperialism under Theodore Roosevelt’s Administration
( ) “Speak Softly and carry a Big Stick” “Big Stick” = Powerful Military

27 Influence on “Big Stick” Policy
Alfred Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) Advocated military expansion, modern fleet, naval bases in Caribbean, canal in Panama, annexation of Hawaii, and Pacific Islands “I can say with perfect sincerity that I think it very much the clearest and most instructive general work of the kind…” Theodore Roosevelt

28 Influence on “Big Stick” Policy
Dewey’s heroic capture of Manila Bay, Philippines in Spanish-American War.

29 Influence on “Big Stick” Policy
TR’s tendency to view the world in tests of strength.

30 Examples of “Big Stick” Policy
(Dec to Feb. 1909) U.S. Atlantic Fleet traveled around the world. Mission “Gunboat Diplomacy.” Purpose was to impress foreign dignitaries.

31 Examples of “Big Stick” Policy “Roosevelt Corollary”
to Monroe Doctrine- U.S. assumes role of policing Latin America. Ensuring that European powers stay out.

32 Examples of “Big Stick” Policy
Panama Canal ( ) Man-made waterway to connect Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean. Commercial and Military benefits…. Problem??? Columbia will blocks sell of land to U.S.

33 TR’s Solution?? Nov. 1903, U.S. aids French official Bunau-Varilla to organize “revolution,” declare independent Panama. U.S. warships guard coast.

34 IV. Imperialism under William Howard Taft’s Administration
( ) “Dollar Diplomacy-” influence outlying areas without controlling them. American investments. “dollars for bullets”

35 (1911) U.S. supports revolution in Nicaragua, led by Adolfo Diaz
officer of American-owned mining property. U.S. lends $15 million in exchange for control of Nicaragua’s bank, customs, railroad.

36 V. Imperialism under Woodrow Wilson’s Administration
( ) “Missionary Diplomacy”- U.S. has moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin Am. government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, hostile. “…never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest…” Wilson

37 Unrest in Mexico. Revolution threatens stability and
American business. Porfirio Diaz (Dictator to 1911- encouraged Am. business) Francisco Madero (Democratic reformer, ruled until 1913) Victoriano Huerta (murdered Madero seize control in 1913) Venustiano Carranza (U.S. supported, leader 1914)

38 Problem??: Pancho Villa, Mexican bandit

39 (Jan- 1916) murdered Americans, burned Columbus, New Mexico.


41 General John Pershing- 12,000 U.S. troops sent to capture Villa. Anti-American feeling increases. U.S. withdrawals 1917, turns to WWI.

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