Presentation on theme: "Remember: What was the Monroe Doctrine? (1823): ISOLATIONIST"— Presentation transcript:
1 Remember: What was the Monroe Doctrine? (1823): ISOLATIONIST *Europe “Stay Out” ofWestern Hemisphere*West different from Europe (republics)*U.S. regard as threat any attemptby Europe to colonize West*U.S. will not interfere in Europe
2 ISOLATION TEST CASE: ALASKA Purchased from Russia (1867) for 7.2 million dollarsNegotiated by Secretary of State, William SewardReaction is negative--“Seward’s Folly”/ “Seward’s Icebox”
4 In what ways will America’s foreign policy change at the turn of the 20th century?I. America will emerge as a world power andadopt an imperialist outlook.Imperialism- the policy in which stronger nations extend theireconomic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
8 Case in Point: AfricaEthiopia and Liberia arethe only two independentAfrican nations in 1914
9 What year is a “key” turning point in U.S. expansion?
10 II. America Expands its influence--***1898 William McKinley( )Expansionist President
11 McKinley and Imperialism “Hawaiian islands should be controlled by the U.S. andno foreign power shall be permitted to interfere” McKinley1) Hawaii:(1875)American business interests insugar plantations grows- duty free(1887)Pearl Harbor(1891)Queen Liliuokalani/ “Hawaii forHawaiians”, forced from power(***1898)Annexed
13 McKinley and Imperialism 2) Spanish-American War (***1898):Cuba Libre!!-free Cuba from Spanish ruleJose Marti and Cuban revolutionariesattack property, including Americanowned sugar plantations“Liberty is the right of every man to be honest,to think and to speak without hypocrisy.”Jose Marti--
14 Spain sends General Valeriano Weyler to “restore order.” Herds est. 300,000 Cubans into concentration camps.
21 McKinley and Imperialism U.S. views new territoriesas “protectorates”Philippines-Removal Policies (1899)to suppress revolutionaries(Emilio Aguinaldo)Puerto Rico-Foraker Act (1900)Cuba-Platt Amendment (1901)“Civilization Begins at Home” (1889)
22 McKinley and Imperialism 4.) ChinaDivided into “Spheres of Influence”by England, Germany, Russia,France, Japan.Queen Victoria (England),Wilhelm II (Germany), NicholasII (Russia),Marianne (France), Samurai (Japan)
23 John Hay- U.S. Secretary of State issues a series of policy statements called the “Open Door Notes” (1899)(open trade in China, opened greater U.S. role in Asia)
24 Resistance in ChinaBoxer Rebellion (1900)-Secret society, “Boxers,” terrorize Christianmissionaries and other “foreign devils.”Britain, France, Germany, Japan, andU.S. suppress uprising.
25 What is the Bill of Fare?Which President does the waiter portray?What is Uncle Sam’s attitude toward the offering?
26 III. Imperialism under Theodore Roosevelt’s Administration ( )“Speak Softly and carry a Big Stick”“Big Stick” = Powerful Military
27 Influence on “Big Stick” Policy Alfred MahanThe Influence of Sea Power upon History(1890)Advocated military expansion, modern fleet,naval bases in Caribbean, canal in Panama,annexation of Hawaii, and Pacific Islands“I can say with perfect sincerity that I think it very muchthe clearest and most instructive general work of thekind…” Theodore Roosevelt
28 Influence on “Big Stick” Policy Dewey’s heroic capture ofManila Bay, Philippines inSpanish-American War.
29 Influence on “Big Stick” Policy TR’s tendency to view the worldin tests of strength.
30 Examples of “Big Stick” Policy (Dec to Feb. 1909) U.S. Atlantic Fleet traveled around theworld. Mission “Gunboat Diplomacy.” Purpose wasto impress foreign dignitaries.
31 Examples of “Big Stick” Policy “Roosevelt Corollary” to Monroe Doctrine-U.S. assumes roleof policing Latin America.Ensuring that European powersstay out.
32 Examples of “Big Stick” Policy Panama Canal ( )Man-made waterway to connectAtlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean.Commercial and Military benefits….Problem???Columbia will blocks sell ofland to U.S.
33 TR’s Solution??Nov. 1903, U.S. aids Frenchofficial Bunau-Varillato organize “revolution,”declare independent Panama.U.S. warships guard coast.
34 IV. Imperialism under William Howard Taft’s Administration ( )“Dollar Diplomacy-”influence outlying areaswithout controlling them.American investments.“dollars for bullets”
35 (1911) U.S. supports revolution in Nicaragua, led by Adolfo Diaz officer of American-owned mining property. U.S. lends $15 millionin exchange for control of Nicaragua’s bank, customs, railroad.
36 V. Imperialism under Woodrow Wilson’s Administration ( )“Missionary Diplomacy”-U.S. has moral responsibilityto deny recognition to anyLatin Am. government itviewed as oppressive,undemocratic, hostile.“…never again seek one additionalfoot of territory by conquest…” Wilson
37 Unrest in Mexico. Revolution threatens stability and American business.Porfirio Diaz(Dictator to1911-encouragedAm. business)Francisco Madero(Democraticreformer, ruleduntil 1913)VictorianoHuerta(murdered Maderoseize controlin 1913)VenustianoCarranza(U.S. supported,leader 1914)