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1 THE STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS BELONGING TO VARIOUS FAMILIES OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE Zingiberaceae  Ginger  Curcuma.

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Presentation on theme: "1 THE STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS BELONGING TO VARIOUS FAMILIES OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE Zingiberaceae  Ginger  Curcuma."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 THE STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS BELONGING TO VARIOUS FAMILIES OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE Zingiberaceae  Ginger  Curcuma

2 2 GINGER: Vernacular Name: Adrak Biological Source: Ginger consists of either the scraped or unscraped rhizomes of Zingiber officinale belonging to family Zingiberaceae. Parts Used: Rhizome Chemical Constituents: Ginger contains about % of volatile oil, 5-8% resinous matter, 56% starch and protein. Volatile oil contains a mixture of more than 25 constituents containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The pungent taste of ginger is due to the presence of gingerol.

3 3 The pungency of gingerol is destroyed by boiling in 2% solution of KOH. Zingerone, a pungent compound also occurs in the rhizome but possesses a sweet odor. Shogaol is a component of oil but is not present in fresh rhizomes, it is formed by dehydration of gingerol. Uses: Ginger is used as condiment. Medicinally it is used as aromatic, carminative, flavourant, stimulant and stomachic. The oil of ginger is used as mouthwashes and beverages (as flavoring agent)

4 4 Z.officinale is acrid, thermogenic, laxative, digestive, emollient, appetizer, stimulant, rubefacient, aphrodisiac, expectorant, anti- helmintic, carminative, anodyne, useful in anorexia and inflammations. Ginger root can relieve symptoms of motion sickness due to gingerols and shoagols. It is also useful in the treatment of following conditions: dropsy, otalgia, cephalagia, asthma, cough, colic, flatulance, anorexia, cholera, nausea, vomiting, thrombosis and elephantiasis.

5 5 Adverse effects and Interactions: The findings that ginger is positive in E.coli bacteria test for mutagenesis raises concerns about its use in pregnant women. It is a potent inhibitor of thromboxane synthetase, there is a possibility that ginger could increase the risk of bleeding or bruising if given concomitantly with anticoagulants or platelet-inhibiting drugs.

6 6 Curcuma longa: Vernacular Name: Haldi Biological Source: Turmeric consists of fresh, dried rhizomesof Curcuma longa, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. Chemical constituents: Turmeric contains about 5% curcumanoids as a coloring matter. The curcumanoid contains curcumine-I, curcumine-II, curcumine-III. Turmeric contains about 5% volatile oil. Their volatile oil contains sesquiterpenes, alcohol and ketone and monoterpene example, zingiberone, turmerone, arturmerone, alcohol-p- tolylmethyl, carbenol, cineole, borneole, etc. It also contains arabinose, fructose, glucose and starch grains.

7 7 Parts Used: Rhizomes and tubers Uses: It is used as stomachic, carminative, aromatic, antiperiodic, blood purifier and stimulant. It is also an anti-arthritic, anti- inflammatory, anti-lipidemic, carminative and digestant and anti-fertility. It is also used in menstrual pain, liver diseases and to produce choleritic and chologogue action. Turmeric is used in curry powders, sauces and paper impregnated with its tincture is used for the borate and boric acid detection.

8 8 It is employed as coloring agent for formulations like ointments and creams. Ethanolic extract of curcuma longa shows anti-ulcerogenic property. Rhizome extract has anti-diabetic action. Curcuma is used in conjunctivitis. A recent study involving mice has shown that turmeric slows the spread of breast cancer in to lungs and other body parts. Turmeric also enhances the effect of taxol in reducing metastasis of breast cancer.

9 9 The rhizome is well-known for its anti-gastric ulcer and cholagogic properties. It is prescribed in the therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcer, hepatitis, jaundice, pain in the extrimities, boils and impetigo.It is also used as a poultice for wounds.

10 10 Toxicology: The clastogenic potential of Curcuma longa in experimental rats in invivo conditions has been evaluated. A single acute dose treatment 500mg/kg body weight could not significantly induce micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes but caused considerably higher chromosomal abberations.

11 11 Adverse reactions and Interactions: Fetal effects are unknown, and use during pregnancy, other than as food spice, is probably best avoided. Prolonged use has been associated with gastrointestinal upset and may increase the risk of peptic ulcer. Use in patients with biliary obstruction or gallstones is contraindicated. There is a potential for interaction with NSAIDs and platelet–inhibiting drugs because of its effect on prostaglandin synthesis.

12 12 HERBAL GLOSSARY Pungent = sharp or biting, somewhat acrid Condiment = A sauce, spice Aromatic = A pleasant smelling and tasting herb that stimulates the GI system, and improves the taste of medicine and food. Carminative = A preparation to relieve flatulence and any resultant griping

13 13 Stimulant = A drug or other agents that increases the activity of an organ or system within a body Stomachic = Name given to drugs that treat stomach disorders Acrid = pungent, producing an irritation Thermogenic = producing heat Laxative = A substance that is taken to evacuate a bowel or soften stools

14 14 Digestive = pertaining to digestion, digestant Emollient = Substances which have softening and soothing effect upon the skin Rubefacient = Irritation of the skin causes congestion of the parts immediately below the skin Aphrodisiac = stimulates sexual excitement and desire Expectorant = Drugs assisting the removal of secretions from the air passages

15 15 Anti-helmintic = Substances causing death or expulsion of parasitic worms Anodyne = Relieves or soothes pain Anorexia = loss of appetite Inflammation = Reaction of tissues to any injury yielding redness, heat, pain and swelling

16 16 Mutagenesis = The production of change, the induction of genetic mutation Antiperiodic = Prevents periodic recurrance of symptoms, as in malaria Choleretic = Increases the production of bile by the liver Chologogue = Substances which increase the flow of bile by stimulating evacuation of gall bladder Tincture = An alcoholic or hydroalcolholic solution preparedfrom animal or vegetable drugsor from chemical substances

17 17 Anti diabetic = alleviates diabetes or the effects of diabetes Metastasis = The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it Impetigo = A contagious pyoderma caused by direct innoculation of group A streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus into superficial cutaneous abrasions or compromised skin Poultice = A soft, moist mass spread between layers of muslin, linen, gauze or towels and applied hot to a given area in order to create moist local heat or counter irritation Clastogenic = Giving rise to or inducing disruption or breakages, as of chromosomes

18 18 Liliaceae  Garlic  Colchicum  Aloe

19 19 Garlic Vernacular Name: Lasan Biological Source: Garlic consists of ripe bulbs of Allium sativum, belonging to family Liliaceae. Parts Used: Bulb, oil, leaves and seeds Chemical Constituents: Garlic contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mucilage, and essential oil (volatile oil). The volatile oil is the main active constituent. It contains allicin, allyl propyl disulphide and alliin. Alliin is converted into allicin by action of enzyme allinase. Ajoene is also one of the important constituents of garlic formed by self condensation of allicin.

20 20 Uses: The allicin and alliin are the potent antibacterial ingredients in garlic. The ajoene is an antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, stimulant, used in treatment of chronic bronchitis, in reduction of hypertension, and decreasing cholesterol level. It is used as alternative, anthelmintic, anti- rheumatic, anti-diabetic,, blood purifier, carminative, diaphoretic, disinfectant, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, gastric tonic, stimulant,antiseptic

21 21 Adverse Effects and Interactions: Garlic has significant potential to interfere with AIDS therapy. Patients taking anticoagulants, platelet-inhibiting drugs, anticholesterolemic drugs, antiviral protease inhibitors, and antihypertensives are not good candidates for garlic supplementation. Concomitant use of garlic and antidiabetic medication should be monitored closely. Some individuals may be allergic to garlic.

22 22 Colchicum Vernacular Name: Suranjan, meadow saffron Biological Source: Colchicum ripe seeds and corms are derived from Colchicum autumnale. Indian colchicum is obtained from plant Colchicum leutum belonging to family Liliaceae. Parts Used: Corm, seeds Chemical Constituents: Colchicum contains alkaloids: colchicine, colchciene, colchicoresin and demecolcine. Apart from alkaloids, flavonoids are also present. Colchicine is a weak base, readily dissolve in water, alcohol or chloroform.

23 23 Uses: Colchicum preparations are used to relieve pain, and inflammation in gout. It is also used in biological experiment to produce polyploidy. It is also reported to have anti-tumor activity. Colchicine has a number of other pharmacological actions, including lowering body temperature, depressing the respiratory center, and enhancing the action of central depressants. It has also been shown to activate T-lymphocytes. Colchicum is use as an anodyne, antispasmodic, emetic, local irritant, purgative and resolvent. Externally, it is applied to relieve neuralgia and itchiness.

24 24 Adverse Effects and Interactions: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain result from the anti mitotic effect of colchicine on the rapidly proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. Leukopenia also may occur. Because of the signs and symptoms of colchicum poisoning are similar to those of radiation sickness. Aplastic anemia and other blood dyscrasias have been reported.

25 25 Debiliated patients, elderly patients, and those with organ disease (heart, kidney, liver) are not appropriate candidates for treatment with colchicum, nor are children and pregnant women.

26 26 Aloe: Vernacular Name: Indian aloe, Ailwa Biological Source: Aloe is the dried juice of the leaves of various species of aloe, belonging to family Liliaceae. There are many species of aloe: Aloe perryi, Aloe barbadensis, and Aloe ferox and its hybrids. Parts Used: Leaves

27 27 Chemical Constituents: Aloe contains % aloin. It is a mixture of three substances, barbaloin, β-barbaloin and iso-barbaloin. Aloe also contains a resin ester formed from ferulic acid, para coumaric acid and cinnamic acid. Polysaccharides aloeferon and aloeulcin are also present in aloe. It also contains glycoprotein, alocutin A & B.

28 28 Uses: Aloe is used as irritant purgative. Its activity is increased when it is administered with small amounts of alkaline salts or soaps. Aloe gel is viscous viscid juice. It is a mucilaginous and colorless, widely used in the cosmetic industry as a protective in the treatment of sunburn. It is one of the ingredients of compound benzoin tincture. It may be used as anthelmintic, detersive, emmenagogue, laxative, resolvent, skin aid, stomachic tonic.

29 29 The plant is bitter, sweet, cooling, aperient, carminative, deobstruent, depurative, diuretic, ophthalmic, alexeteric. The juice is used in dyspepsia, amenorrhoea, burns, colic, hyperadenosis, hepatopathy, splenopathy, constipation, spanomenorrhea, abdominal tumors, dropsy, carbuncles, sciatica, lumbago and flatulance.

30 30 Adverse Effects and Interactions: The chronic use of aloe is not recommended. Similar to all strong cathartics, aloe may cause griping, colicky pain and excessive laxative effect. Chronic use may lead to electrolyte imbalance, especially potassium depletion. Aloe may cause pelvic engorgement and increase menstrual bleeding and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Aloe cathartic is contraindicated in pregnancy, nursing mothers, children younger than 12 years of age, and suspected intestinal obstruction. Large doses may produce nephritis. The use of aloe and other related herbal preparations is contraindicated in pregnancy.

31 31 GLOSSARY Volatile oil: These compounds are formed from an alcohol and a hydrocarbon Protein: Higly complex, nitrogenous compounds, found in all animal and vegetable tissues Carbohydrates: These compounds are formed in plants as a result of photosynthesis Fat: An oil which may be of animal or plant origin, and may be either solid or liquid Mucilage: A gum-like substance found in cell walls or seed coats of plants. They are polysaccharides that have a soothing effect on inflammed tissues Anti-bacterial:Any agent which destroys bacterias Anti-thrombotic: Any measure that prevents or cure thrombosis Aphrodisiac: A compound that excites the sexual organ

32 32 Stimulant: A drug or other agent that increases the activity of an organ or system within a body Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi Alternative: A term given to a substance that speeds up the renewal of the tissues so that they can carry out their functions more effectively. Diaphoretic: Aterm given to drugs that promotes perspiration Disinfectant: Germicides which are too corrosive or toxic to be applied to tissues, but which are suitable for application to inanimate objects Diuretic: A substance that stimulates the kidneys and increases urine and solute production Emenagogue: A compound that is able to excite the menstrual discharge

33 33 Expectorant: A group of drugs that are taken to help in the removal of secretions from the lungs, bronchi and trachea Antiseptic: A substance that prevents the growth of disease causing microorganisms. It is applied to wounds to cleanse them and prevent infection Alkaloid: These are organic substances, found in association with organic acids in particularly the flowering plants Polypoid: Many footed Emetic: A drug that induces vomiting

34 34 Irritant: A general term encompassing any agent that causes irritation of a tissue Purgative: A drug causing evacuation of bowel Neuralgia: Pain extending along the course of one or more nerves Colic: Severe pain resulting from periodic spasm in an abdominal organ Nausea: A feeling of sickness without actual vomiting Anti-mitotic: Any agent which prevents reproduction of cells by mitosis Leucopenia: Decresed number of leucocytes in blood

35 35 Dyscrasias: A morbid general stae resulting from the presence of toxic materials in the blood Resin: A mixture of complex organic substances which can occur naturally or manufactured synthetically Detersive: Detergent Stomachic: Name given to drugs that treat stomach disorders Laxative: A substance that is taken to evacuate the bowel or soften stools Aperient: A medicine that produces a natural movement of the bowel.

36 36 Carminative: Apreparation to relieve flatulance and any resultant griping Deobstruent: A medicine which removes obstruction Depurative:used for or capable of depurating; purifying; purgative Dyspepsia: Indigestion Ammenorrhea: Absence of menstrual periods in a women of reproductive age Bitter: A drug that is bitter tasting and is used to stimulate appetite

37 37 Hyperadenosis: Enlargement of glands, especially of the lymph glands. Hepatopathy: A disease or disorder of the liver. Splenopathy: Disease of the spleen. Dropsy: edema Carbuncles: An acute inflammation involving several hair follicles and surounding subcutaneous tissue, forming an extensive slough with several discharging sinuses

38 38 Sciatica: is a set of symptoms including pain that may be caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that give rise to the sciatic nerve, or by compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve itself. Lumbago: low back pain Flatulance: Flatulence is the expulsion through the rectum of a mixture of gases that are byproducts of the digestion process of mammals and other animals. Engorgement: An over fullness or obstruction of the vessels in some part of the system; congestion. Nephritis: Inflammation of kidney

39 39 Labiatae  Peppermint  Thyme  Spearmint  Salvia  Ocimum

40 40 Peppermint: Vernacular Name: Pudina Biological Source: Mentha piperata is a strongly scented perennial herb belonging to family Labiatae Parts Used: Leaves Chemical Constituents: Peppermint oil mainly contains menthol (about 70%). It also contains menthone, menthyl acetate, and other terpene derivatives like cineole, pinene, isopulegone, camphene, limonene, Zasmone, menthofurone, menthyl isovalerate

41 41 Uses: The dried flowering tops are used to prepare beverages like peppermint tea and in the formulation of liqueurs and bitter. The current use of peppermint is mainly for colic and irritable bowl syndrome. Peppermint oil is used as carminative, aromatic, stimulant and flavoring agent. It is widely used as an antiseptic in various preparations and in mouth fresheners. It is also used as antipruritic and counter irritant over skin and mucous membrane.

42 42 Adverse Effects and Interactions: Peppermint may relax the lower esophageal sphincter and therefore is contraindicated or patients with reflux disease. Peppermint should probably not be used in patients with biliary tract obstruction, cholecystitis, or severe liver damage. Peppermint oil has been shown to be a moderately potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, raising the possibility thatis li ke grapefruit, juice also may inhibit the metabolism of felodipine.

43 43 Thyme: Vernacular Name: Garden or common thyme. Biological Source: Thymus vulgaris is a herb belonging to family Labiatae Parts Used: Leaves Chemical Constituents: Thyme oil contains the phenols, thymol and carvacrol, as well as cymene, pinene and borneol.

44 44 Uses: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, tonic, carminative. The fresh herb in syrup forms a safe cure for whooping cough, as is an infusion of the dried herb. The infusion of tea is beneficial for catarrh, sore throat, wind spasms, colic and in allaying fevers and colds. Thyme is generally used in conjunction with other remedies in herbal medicine.

45 45 Spearmint: Vernacular Name: Green mint Biological Source: Mentha virdis is the herb belonging to family Labiatae Parts Used: The herb and the essential oil Chemical Constituents: The main components found in the essential oil derived from the herb are: carvone, phellandrine, limonene, and dihydrocarveol acetate. The oil also has the esters of acetic, butyric, and caproic acids within it.

46 46 Salvia: Vernacular Name: Garden sage Biological Source: Salvia officinalis is the herb belonging to family labiatae Parts Used: Leaves, Whole herb Chemical Constituents: The herb contains a volatile oil, tannin and resin and is distilled to produce sage oil. The oil is made up of salvene, pinene, cineol, vorneol, thujone and some esters.

47 47 Uses: Stimulant, astringent, tonic, carminative, aromatic. Sage makes an excellent gargle for relaxed throat and tonsils, bleeding gums, laryngitis and ulcerated throat. Sage tea is valuable against delirium of fevers, nervous excitement and accompanying brain and nervous diseases; as a stimulant tonic in stomach and nervous system complaints and in weak digestion. It also works as an emmenagogue, in treating typhoid fever, bilious and liver problems, kidney troubles and lung or stomach haemorrhages.

48 48 The infusion is used in head colds, quinsy, measles, painful joints, lethargy, palsy and nervous headaches. Fresh leaves are rubbed on the teeth to cleanse them and strengthen gums. Even today sage is included in tooth powders. The oil of sage was used to remove mucus collections from the respiratory organs and is included in embrocations for rheumatism. The herb is also applied warm as a poultice.

49 49 Ocimum: Vernacular Name: tulsi, basil Biological Source: Ocimum sanctum is the herb belonging to family labiatae Parts Used: Leaves, seeds and roots Chemical Constituents: Essential oils, ascorbic acid, carotene, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble oxalates. It also contains terpenes, fixed oil, mucilage and fatty acid

50 50 Uses: It is used to treat bronchitis, catarrah, cough, earache, gastric disorders, hepatic disorders, inflammation, otitis, otorrhoea, syphilis, malarial fever, cardiac debility, gonorrhea, palpitation, urino-genital complaints.

51 51 HERBAL GLOSSARY Colic: Colic is a form of pain in the abdomen which starts and stops abruptly. Irritable bowl syndrome: It is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause. Antipruritic: Preventing or relieving itching, or an agent that does this. Counter irritant: A counter-irritant is a remedy applied to the body externally which relieves a discomfort somewhere else by producing a local irritation. They effect relief by reflex action due to the sensation they impart to the nerves of the skin below. The term is more specifically applied to such irritating substances as, when applied to the skin, redden or blister it, or produce pustules, purulent issues, etc.

52 52 Reflux: Reflux is the regurgitation of acid stomach contents back into the esophagus, and is the cause of heartburn - that unpleasant, burning feeling that wells up from the pit of the stomach, and travels up your chest and into your throat after a rich or fatty meal. Cholecystitis: Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, usually resulting from a gallstone blocking the cystic duct. Delirium: A sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometimes associated with hallucinations and hyperactivity, in which the patient is inaccessible to normal contact.

53 53 Catarrh: Inflammation of the mucous membranes with discharge, especially inflammation of the air passages of the nose and the trachea. Otitis: Inflammation of the ear Otorrhoea: A discharge from the ear Syphilis: an infectious venereal disease caused by a spirochete (Treponema pallidum) and usually transmitted by sexual intercourse or acquired congenitally: if untreated, it can ultimately lead to the degeneration of the heart, bones, nerve tissue, etc.

54 54 Gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted disease caused by gonococcal bacteria that affects the mucous membrane chiefly of the genital and urinary tracts and is characterized by an acute purulent discharge and painful or difficult urination, though women often have no symptoms. Palpitation: Unpleasant sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart. Embrocations: The act of moistening and rubbing a diseased part with spirit, oil, etc.

55 55 Scrophulariaceae  Digitalis  Verbascum

56 56 Digitalis: Vernacular Name: Foxglove leaves Biological Source: Digitalis consists of dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea belonging to family Scrophulariaceae. Parts Used: Leaves Chemical constituents: Digitalis purpurea contains 35 glycosides. The primary glycosides are : Purpurea A, Purpurea B, Odoroside H. The digitoxigenin, digitoxin, gitoxigenin, gitaloxin are important medicinal compounds. They are also called secondary glycosides. They also contain anthraquinone derivatives, saponin, flavonoid, tannin and pectin.

57 57 Uses: It is a cardiac stimulant. The drug directly stimulates the cardiac muscles. It is used in various forms, like tablets or capsule in the treatment of congestive cardiac failure, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and peroxysmal atrial tachycardia. The preparation of digitalis produce cumulative effect on cardiac muscles due to digoxin. Hence it should be administered under strict medical supervision. It is also used as a diuretic.

58 58 Contraindications/cautions:  Contraindicated in allergy to digitalis preparations,  Ventricular tachycardia,  Ventricular fibrillation,  Heart block,  Sick sinus syndrome,  IHSS, (Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis)  Acute MI, (Myocardial infaraction)  Renal insufficiency and  Electrolyte abnormalities (decreased K+, decreased Mg++, increased Ca++).

59 59 Verbascum: Vernacular Name: Mulleins Biological Source: The Mulleins; genus Verbascum, are a genus of about 250 species of flowering plants in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. Parts Used: Leaves, flowers and roots Chemical Constituents: The primary chemical constituents of Mullein include resin, saponins, glycoside (aucubin), flavonoids (hesperidin, verbascoside), choline, magnesium, mucilage, tannins and carotene. Mullein also contains iron, magnesium, potassium, sulfur and calcium phosphate.

60 60 Uses: Different parts of the plant cover different properties. Leaves are anodyne, antibacterial, antispasmodic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, mucilaginous, sedative and vulnerary; and the flowers are antispasmodic, demulcent, emollient, mucilaginous, nervine and sedative. In general, Mullein reduces inflammation of the trachea and soothes irritated tissues. Due to its high mucilage content, Mullein has also been used topically by herbalists as a soothing emollient for inflammatory skin conditions and burns.

61 61 Externally, an extract of this herb made in olive oil is excellent for soothing and healing any inflamed surface or easing ear problems. Mullein flowers are also made into an oil for the treatment of frostbite, ringworm, hemorrhoids and bruises, and the leaves have been smoked to treat asthma and bronchitis (although this use seems somewhat counterproductive). Mullein has also been known to relieve constipation, counteract sleeplessness, protect the kidneys and help ease nervous tension.

62 62 Contraindications: Pregnant or nursing women should not use Mullein, and people with a history of cancer should consult their physicians before taking this product.

63 63 HERBAL GLOSSARY Congestive cardiac failure = Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart's function as a pump to deliver oxygen rich blood to the body is inadequate to meet the body's needs. Atrial flutter = Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart Atrial fibrillation = Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) Peroxysmal atrial tachycardia = A period of very rapid and regular heart beats that begins and ends abruptly. Diuretic = A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of urination

64 64 Heart block = Heart block refers to a delay in the normal flow of electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. They are further classified as first-, second-, or third-degree block. Sick sinus syndrome = Sick sinus syndrome is a disorder of the sinus node of the heart, which regulates heartbeat. With sick sinus syndrome, the sinus node fails to signal properly, resulting in changes in the heart rate. Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis = Obstruction of the flow of blood out of the left ventricle due to hypertrophy of the ventricular septum.

65 65 Myocardial infaraction = Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing some heart cells to die. Renal insufficiency = Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. Astringent = Causing contraction of tissues, arrest of secretion, or control of bleeding Ventricular tachycardia = Ventricular tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat that starts in the ventricles. Ventricular fibrillation = An abnormal irregular heart rhythm whereby there are very rapid uncoordinated fluttering contractions of the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.

66 66 Demulcent = Serving to soothe or soften. Expectorant = Promoting or facilitating the secretion or expulsion of phlegm, mucus, or other matter from the respiratory tract. Mucilaginous = having the sticky properties of an adhesive Sedative = A drug that calms a patient down, easing agitation and permitting sleep Vulnerary = used for or useful in healing wounds Nervine = having a soothing or calming effect upon the nerves

67 67 Solanaceae Belladonna Hyoscyamus Stramonium Capsicum

68 68 Belladonna Vernacular Name: Luffah, Mako siyah, Belladonna Biological Source: Belladonna consist of dried leaves and flowering tops of Atropa belladonna, belonging to family solanaceae. Parts Used: roots and leaves Chemical Constituents: Belladonna contains % of tropone alkaloids. The chief alkaloids are hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine. It also contains small quantity of bases like pyridine, N- methylpyrroline. The leaves also contain florescence substance β-methyl aesculetin and calcium oxalate.

69 69 Uses: It is used as anticholinergic, narcotic, sedative, and diuretic. It is used for the spasm of gut and respiratory tract. Herb is used to reduce secretion of salivary, gastric and sweat glands and in bronchial asthma, GIT, hyper motility, peptic ulcer, motion sickness. The aqueous extract of atropine is applied as sulphate for the dilation of pupil of the eyes. It is important antidote for opium, muscarine, and chloral hydrate poisoning. Atropa belladonna leaves are used in internal preparations whereas roots are mainly used externally.

70 70 Hyoscyamus: Vernacular Name: Ajwain Khurasani, Henbane Biological Source: It consist of dried leaves and flowering tops of plant Hyoscamus niger, belonging to family Solanaceae. Parts Used: Leaves and seeds Chemical Constituents: Hyoscyamus leaves contain tropane alkaloids. Atropine is main active constituent of leaves. It also contains scopalamine. In seeds the percentage of alkaloids is less than the leaf. It also contains apohyoscine, α and β belladonine, ascorbic acid and other amino acids.

71 71 Uses: The leaves are used as mydriatic (atropine and hyoscine), antispasmodic, laxative, anodyne, antiseptic and in asthma and whooping cough. The oil prepared from leaves and seeds of henbane is useful as anthelmintic, narcotic, stomachic and in inflammation and swellings. Atropine is a CNS stimulant. Hyoscyamus has weak parasympatholytic action than belladonna and stramonium; prevent gripping pain when added to cathartics.

72 72 Stramonium: Vernacular Name: Thorn apple, Dhaturah Biological Source: Datura stramonium is a common weed belonging to family Solanaceae. Parts Used: Leaves and seeds Chemical Constituents: Datura contains tropane alkaloids. The drug contains hyoscine (scopolamine) and hyoscyamine (atropine).

73 73 Uses: Datura is an anticholinergic and parasympatholytic drug. It is used as anaesthetic, anticatarrhal, anti- spasmodic, aphrodiasic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative

74 74 Capsicum: Vernacular Name: Lal mirch, chillies Biological Source: It is the dried ripe fruit of capsicum annum, belonging to family Solanaceae. Parts Used: Fruits Chemical Constituents: Fruits contain pungent phenolic compounds; capsaicinoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, fixed oil and flavonoids.

75 75 Uses: It is used as absorbent, aphrodisiac, cardiac tonic, carminative, counter irritant, diuretic, irritant, rubefacient, sialagogue, stomach tonic, vesicant.

76 76 HERBAL GLOSSARY Anticholinergic = The action of certain medications that inhibit the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses and thereby reduce spasms of smooth muscle Narcotic = A drug derived from opium or opiumlike compounds, with potent analgesic effects associated with significant alteration of mood and behavior, and with the potential for dependence and tolerance following repeated administration.

77 77 Sedative = A drug that calms a patient down, easing agitation and permitting sleep. Antidote = A remedy that counteracts the effects of poison Mydriatic = A drug that dilates the pupil Parasympatholytic = Pertains to a drug that blocks the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system Anaesthetic = A substance that causes lack of feeling or awareness. A local anesthetic causes loss of feeling in a part of the body. A general anesthetic puts the person to sleep.

78 78 Anticatarrhal = Efficacious against catarrh (inflammation of nose and throat) Hypnotic = tending to produce sleep Sedative = An agent or a drug having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect. Absorbent = A substance that is capable of absorbing. Irritant = A source of irritation Rubefacient = A substance that irritates the skin, causing redness Sialagogue = A drug or other agent that increases the flow of saliva Vesicant = A substance that causes tissue blistering.

79 79 Apocynaceae  Rauwolfia  Catharanthus

80 80 Rauwolfia Vernacular Name: Serpentine root Biological Source: Rauwolfia consists of the dried roots and rhizomes of Rauwolfia serpentina, belonging to family Apocynaceae. Parts Used: Roots and Rhizomes Chemical Constituents: The Rauwolfia roots and rhizomes contain around alkaloids, other organic matter like phytosterol, fatty acid, unsaturated alcohols and sugars are also present in rauwolfia

81 81 Uses: Rauwolfia serpentina and its preparation are used as hypotensive agent and in certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Ajmaline is used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias similar to the action of quinidine. Ajmalicine can also be isolated from catharanthus species (vinca) and is used in circulatory diseases. The decoction of root is used to increase uterine contraction in difficult cases. The extract is used for intestinal disorders and as anthelmintic, bitter, tonic and febrifuge.

82 82 Catharanthus Vernacular Name: Sadabahar, Periwinkle Biological Source: It is a dried whole plant of Catharanthus roseus, belonging to family Apocynaceae. Parts Used: Whole plant Chemical Constituents: Catharanthus contains terpenes and more than 100 different alkaloids. The alkaloids are of indole; dihydroindole and dimeric type.

83 83 The indole or dihydroindole derivatives are ajmalicine, tetra hydroalstonine, serpentine and lochnerine. The dimeric alkaloids are active against malignant tumours namely vincristine and vinblastine. The vincristine is available in % and vinblastine 0.003% in crude drug. Uses: Vinca is used in cancer and hypertension. The Vincristine is used in leukemia while vinblastine is used in Hodgkin’s disease and chlorionepithelioma.

84 84 HERBAL GLOSSARY Cardiac Arrhythmia = is a term for any of a large and heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is abnormal electrical activity in the heart. The heart beat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular. Decoction = The process includes mashing, and then boiling in water to extract oils, volatile organic compounds, and other chemical substance. Bitter = Bitters are herbs and herbal preparations that have a characteristically sharp effect on the palate.

85 85 Febrifuge = A medication that reduces fever; an antipyretic Leukemia = a progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Hodgkin’s disease = a cancer of the lymphatic system Chlorionepithelioma = a rare malignant tumour of the placenta originating in the chorion.

86 86 Umbelliferae Fennel Carum Coriander Conium Asafoetida

87 87 FENNEL Vernacular Name: Saunf, Fennel Biological Source: The drug consists of the dried ripe fruit of Foeniculum vulgare, belonging to family Umbeliferae. Parts Used: Whole plant and dried ripe fruits Chemical Constituents: Fennel contains volatile oil, fixed oil and proteins. The chief constituents of volatile oils are a phenolic ether anethole and the ketone fenchone.

88 88 Uses: Fennel and its volatile oil are used as a flavouring agent, carminative, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, and anthelmintic. It is also useful in dental and mouthwash preparations due to pleasant taste of anethole. Fennel water is useful in colic and flatulence in children.

89 89 Carum Vernacular Name: Zira, Caraway Biological Source: Caraway consists of dried, ripe fruits of Carum carvi, belonging to family umbelliferae. Parts Used: Fruits Chemical Constituents: Caraway contains volatile oil. The main constituents of volatile oil are carvone and limonene. Caraway also contains fixed oils, resins, proteins, coloring matters and calcium oxalate crystal.

90 90 Uses: Caraway is used as a carminative, flavoring agent, stomachic and spice. Its oils is used in the preparation of mouth washes, tooth pastes, chewing gums, soaps, cosmetics etc.

91 91 Coriander Vernacular Name: Dhania, Coriander Biological Source: It is the dried ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum, belonging to family Umbelliferae. Parts Used: fruits and leaves Chemical Constituents: Coriander fruits contain volatile oil. The main constituents of volatile oil are linalol and α pinene. It also contains fixed oils, malic acid, tannins etc. coriander leaves also contain vitamin A.

92 92 Uses: Coriander fruits and volatile oils are used as a carminative and flavoring agents. It is also useful as anthelmintic, aromatic, diuretic, stimulant stomachic and aphrodisiac. It is one of the important ingredient for cooking.

93 93 Conium Vernacular Name: Poison hemlock Biological Source: Conium maculatum is a plant belonging to family Umbelliferae. Parts Used: leaves, fruits and seeds Chemical Constituents: The most important content of hemlock leaves is the alkaloid coniine, which is poisonous with a disagreeable odour. Other alkaloids in the plants include methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ethyl piperidine.

94 94 Uses: Sedative, anti-spasmodic, anodyne. It is used to remedy undue nervous motor excitability, eg teething, cramp and muscle spasm of the larynx and gullet. When inhaled, hemlock is good in relieving cough, bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma. It is used as an antidote to strychnine and other similar poisoning.

95 95 Asafoetida Vernacular Name: Hing, Asafoetida Biological Source: Asafoetida is an oleo gum resin obtained as exudation by incision from living rhizomes and roots of Ferula foetida, belonging to family Umbelliferae. Parts Used: Resinous exudates of the root. Chemical Constituents: Volatile oils 4- 20%, resins 40-65% and gum 25%.

96 96 Uses: The drug is used as carminative, diuretic, expectorant, antispasmodic, anthelmintic and applied externally to ring worms. It is also used as veterinary practice.

97 97 Leguminosae  Acacia  Glycyrrhiza  Senna  Cassia  Tamarind

98 98 Acacia Vernacular Name: Babul, Kikar, Biological Source: Acacia gum is a dried gummy exudate obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia senegal and some other species of Acacia. It is a member of leguminosae family. Parts Used: Bark, gum, leaves, seeds and pods Chemical Constituents: Acacia contains mainly arabin that is mixture of calcium, magnesium and potassium salt of arabic acid. In this calcium salt is found in abundance.

99 99 Arabic acid on hydrolysing with dilute sulphuric acid forms L-rhamnose, L- arabinose, L-aldobionic acid and d- galactose. It also contains oxydase, pectinase, peroxidase and diastase. Bark contains a large quantity of tannins; pods contain about 22% of tannins. The water content is about 14%. Uses: Acacia gum is used as an emulsifying agent, suspending agent, emollient, demulcent, binder, adhesive in tablets and lozenges. The gum acacia solution is given as a plasma substitute in hemolysis.

100 100 It is also applied externally on inflammations, such as burns, sores and nodules in leprosy. It is useful in constipation. Apart from that it is useful as an astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, nutritive and expectorant.

101 101 Glycyrrhiza Vernacular Name: Mulathi, Liquorice Biological Source: Liquorice consists of dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra and other species of glycyrrhiza, belonging to family Leguminosae. Parts Used: Peeled roots

102 102 Chemical Constituents: It contain triterpenoid saponin glycoside known as glycyrrhizin. Glycyrrhizin is 150 times sweeter than sugar. This on hydrolysis produces glycyrrhetinic acid and 2 moles of glucuronic acid. It also contains aspargine, sugar resin,fat, etc. The yellow color of liquorice is due to the presence of flavinoids like liquiritin, isoliquiritin. It also contains constituents like bitter principle glycycamarin, coumarin, starch etc.

103 103 Uses: Liquorice is used as an expectorant and demulcent. It is also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is used as a sweetening agent, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and in Addison’s disease

104 104 Senna Vernacular Name: Indian Senna Biological Source: Senna consist of dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia, known as Alexandrian senna, and Cassia acutifolia, known as Tinnevelly senna. These are commonly known as cassia senna, belonging to family leguminosae. Parts Used: leaves

105 105 Chemical Constituents: Senna contains anthraquinone glycosides as sennoside A,B,C,and D. emodin, chrysophanol, aloe emodin, rhein, and two naphthalene glycosides. It also contains yellow flavinol, coloring matter kaempferol and its glucosides kaempfrin, sterol and its glucoside, mucilage, resin and calcium oxalate

106 106 Uses: Senna leaves are used as laxative and cathartic. It acts as an irritant purgative due to the presence of anthraquinone derivative. Senna is mixed with carminative drugs due to its gripping action. Powdered senna is mixed with vinegar and applied externally to cure skin diseases.

107 107 Cassia Vernacular Name: Purging cassia, amulthus Biological Source: The dried roots and leaves a Cassia fistula are commonly known as purging cassia, belonging to family leguminosae. Parts Used: Pulp, root, bark, flower, pods, leaves Chemical Constituents: Sennoside A,B; volatile oil; the pulp consists of sugar, gum, astringent matter, glutin, coloring matter, rhein and its glucoside, barbaloin, aloin, formic acid, butyric acid, their ethyl esters, oxalic acid, thiocyanogen, tannins, phlobaphenes, reducing sugars and oxyanthoquines.

108 108 Uses: The fruits are laxative, improve taste, cure leprosy and other skin diseases. Roots act a s purgative, tonic and febrifuge.

109 109 Tamarind Vernacular Name: Imli, tamarind Biological Source: It consists of dried fruits of Tamarindus indica; belonging to family leguminosae Parts Used: Roots, leaves, fruits and seeds Chemical Constituents: Organic acids and their salts – namely tartaric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, sodium and potassium tartarate and invert sugars.

110 110 Uses: Bark of Tamarindus indica is astringent, emmenagogue, tonic, anti- diarrhoeal, thermogenic, anti- inflammatory, anti-fungal, diuretic, useful in swellings, fever, gastropathy, wounds, ulcers, jaundice, scabies and tumors. Fruits are digestive, carminative, laxative, antiseptic, ophthalmic and febrifuge. The seeds are astringent, cooling, aphrodisiac, stomachic, used in constipation and as tonic.

111 111 Papaveraceae Papaver somniferum Sanguinaria canadensis

112 112 Papaver somniferum Vernacular Name: Afim, poppy Biological Source: Opium is the air dried latex obtained by incision of unripe capsule Papaver somniferum, belonging to family papaveraceae. Parts Used: The capsules and flowers

113 113 Chemical constituents: Opium contains about 25 alkaloids in which morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, narceine and papaverine are important alkaloids. Generally these alkaloids are combined with meconic acid. Morphine, codeine and thebaine contain phenanthrene nucleus and papaverine are freely basic and highly toxic compounds whereas noscapine, narceine and papaverine are freely basic in nature and less toxic compounds. Morphine contains both phenolic and alcoholic hydroxyl groups, on acetylation converted in to Heroin.It also contains other constituents like citric, tartaric acid, protein, coloring matter, sugars etc.

114 114 Uses: Opium causes depression action on central nervous system, due to narcotic principle. It is also used as sedative, analgesic, hypnotic and anti-spasmodic drug. Codeine is less sedative than morphine and useful in cough preparations. Papaverine is useful in muscular spasms as smooth muscle relaxant action. Noscapine is a non-narcotic compound and useful as antitussive agent. Opium is also useful in diarrhoea, dysentry and diaphoretic disease. Opium, morphine and heroin cause drug addiction in which heroin is a more dangerous drug.

115 115 Sanguinaria: Vernacular Name: Bloodroot Biological Source: Sanguinaria canadensis is a spring flower belonging to papaveraceae. Parts Used: Rhizome Chemical Constituents: It has the alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protropine and B.homochelidonineas its active component. Protropine is one of the most widely used opium alkaloids.

116 116 Uses: Emetic, cathartic, expectorant, emmenagogue. The plant is of great benefit in dyspepsia, asthma, bronchitis, croupand pulmonart consumption. It can be used in heart disease, heart weakness and palpitations, nervous irritation, torpid liver, scrofula, dysentry and to lower the pulse rate. Externally, it can be applied to cure ringworm, fungal growths, ulcers, eczema and cancerous growths. Care must be taken as toxic doses of Sanguinaria can be deleterious to the person.

117 117 Ranunculanceae Aconitum Larkspur Pulsatilla Hydrastis

118 118 Aconitum: Vernacular Name: Wolfsbane root Biological Source: It consist of the dried tuberous roots of Aconitum napellus, belonging to family ranunculaceae. Parts Used: The leaves used fresh and the root when dried. Chemical Constituents: The important alkaloids are aconitine, aconine and benzyl aconine. Aconitine on hydrolysis produce benzoyl aconine and acetic acid. It also contains aconitic acid and abundance of starch. A traces of ephedrine, spartein, neoline, napelline, ascorbic acid are also present.

119 119 Uses: It is a cardiac drug as CVS depressant. It is used in respiratory failure, gout, rheumatism, neuralgia and nervous debility and as antipyretic. It is extremely toxic in large dose and milk is given as antidote in aconite poisoning.

120 120 Larkspur Vernacular Name: Field Larkspur Biological Source: Delphinicum consolida is a plant belonging to family ranunculaceae. Parts Used: Seeds Chemical Constituents: The active principle in the plant is delphinine, an irritant poison.

121 121 Uses: Parasiticide, insecticide. The tincture of the seeds is used to destroy lice and nits in the hair and given internally in spasmodic asthma and dropsy. The expressed juice from the leaves was applied to bleeding piles and an infusion of the whole plant was said to benefit colic.

122 122 Pulsatilla Vernacular Name: Pasque Flower Biological Source: Pulsatilla vulgaris (Pasque Flower) belongs to family ranunculaceae. Parts Used: whole plant Chemical Constituents: The plant contains lactones, saponins, anemone comphor, tannins, and a volatile oil.

123 123 Uses: Used for treatment of Colds and coughs, Sinusitis, Sore throat, Chicken pox, Mumps, Measles, Fever, Painful Menstruation, Varicose veins, Migraine, Headaches, Backache, Joint pains, Cystitis, Varicose veins, Eye infections, Conjunctivitis, Earache, Toothache, Heartburn, Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and Insomnia

124 124 Hydrastis: Vernacular Name: Golden Seal Biological Source: Hydrastis canadensis is a plant belonging to family ranunculaceae. Parts Used: Rhizome Chemical Constituents: It contains the alkaloids berberine, hydrastine and canadine, as well as resins, albumin, starch, fatty matter, sugar, lignin and volatile oil.

125 125 Uses: Tonic, stomachic, laxative, alternative, detergent. It is used as remedy for sore eyes, general ulceration and disordered digestion. The herb has a special action on the mucous membranes of the body, making it an excellent remedy for catarrah, dyspepsia, loss of appetite and liver problems. Given as a tonic, the root is highly effective in easing constipation and is very good at stopping sickness and vomiting. It can be used to treat haemorrhoids. In large doses hydrastis is very poisonous.


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