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Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The Origins of the Cold War Section 2:Section 2:The Early Cold War Years Section 3:Section 3:The Cold War and American Society Section 4:Section 4:Eisenhowers Cold War Policies Visual Summary
Chapter Intro How Did the Atomic Bomb Change the World? The destructiveness of the atomic bomb raised the stakes in military conflicts. Growing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II led to a constant threat of nuclear war. How did the atomic bomb change relations between nations? Do you think the invention of the atomic bomb made the world safer?
Chapter Intro 1 The Origins of the Cold War Why did the Cold War develop after World War II?
Chapter Intro 2 The Early Cold War Years How did President Truman attempt to deter communism?
Chapter Intro 3 The Cold War and American Society How did the Cold War change Americans lives?
Chapter Intro 4 Eisenhowers Cold War Policies How did Eisenhowers policies address Cold War issues?
Section 1-Main Idea Big Ideas Government and Society Although World War II was nearly over, personal and political differences among Allied leaders and the peoples they represented led to new global challenges.
Section 1-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Yalta Cold War Potsdam
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Should Truman have tried to appease Stalin more in order to keep peace between the nations? A.Yes B.No
Section 1 The Yalta Conference Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to discuss Poland, Germany, and the rights of liberated Europe.
Section 1 In February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to plan the postwar world. Although the conference seemed to go well, several agreements reached at Yalta later played a role in causing the Cold War. The Yalta Conference (cont.)
Section 1 The three leaders made the following agreements: Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by the Soviets. Stalin agreed that the government would include members of the prewar Polish government and that free elections would be held as soon as possible. The Yalta Conference (cont.) The Yalta Conference, 1945
Section 1 They also agreed to issue the Declaration of Liberated Europe. They decided to divide Germany into four zones, each of which would be controlled by either Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, or France. The Yalta Conference (cont.) The Yalta Conference, 1945
Section 1 Tensions began to rise between the United States and the Soviet Union for several reasons: The Yalta Conference (cont.) Stalin demanded that Germany pay war reparations and was not content with the ideas Roosevelt had to offer. The Soviets pressured the king of Romania into appointing a Communist government.
Section 1 The Soviets refused to allow more than three non-Communist Poles to serve in the 18-member Polish government. There was no indication that they intended to hold free elections in Poland. The Yalta Conference (cont.) The increasing hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States led to an era of confrontation and competition known as the Cold War. It lasted from about 1946 to 1990,
Section 1 The Soviet Union and the United States had different goals: The Yalta Conference (cont.) The Soviets were concerned about security. They wanted to keep Germany weak and make sure that the countries between Germany and the Soviet Union were under Soviet control. The Soviets also were concerned about encouraging communism in other nations; they were suspicious of capitalist nations.
Section 1 The United States was focused on economic problems: The Yalta Conference (cont.) Many American officials believed that the Depression had caused World War II. By 1945, Roosevelt and his advisers were convinced that economic growth, democracy, and free enterprise were the key to peace.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Why was Stalin so concerned about making Poland communist? A.Invaders could easily enter Russia through Poland. B.He did not want Poland to align with the U.S. C.Poland consistently tried to invade Russian territory. D.He believed all bordering countries should be communist.
Section 1 Truman Takes Control Although President Truman took a firm stand against Soviet aggression, Europe remained divided after the war.
Section 1 Eleven days after confronting the Soviets about Poland, FDR died and Harry S. Truman became president. Truman did not want to appease Stalin as Britain had appeased Hitler. Truman Takes Control (cont.) He told Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov that Stalin must hold free elections, as he had promised at Yalta. This meeting marked an important shift in Soviet-American relations.
Section 1 In July 1945 Truman finally met Stalin at Potsdam. Truman Takes Control (cont.) Truman was convinced that the rest of Europe could only recover if Germanys economy was allowed to revive. Meanwhile, Stalin wanted more reparations from Germany.
Section 1 Stalin did not like Trumans proposals for reparations. Truman Takes Control (cont.) However, American and British troops controlled Germanys industrial heartland, and there was no way for the Soviets to get any reparations except by cooperating. The Soviets refused to make any stronger commitments to uphold the Declaration of Liberated Europe.
Section 1 The Communist countries of Eastern EuropePoland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakiacame to be called satellite nations.satellite nations With the Iron Curtain separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West, the Cold War era was about to begin.Iron Curtain Truman Takes Control (cont.) The Iron Curtain in Europe, 1946
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Why did Truman think World War II began? A.The Great Depression B.Britains appeasement of Hitler C.Polands decision to fight Germany D.Japans emperor
Section 2-Main Idea Big Ideas Trade, War, and Migration As the Cold War began, the United States struggled to oppose Communist aggression in Europe and Asia through political, economic, and military measures.
Section 2-Key Terms People and Events to Identify George Kennan Long Telegram Marshall Plan NATO SEATO
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Do you agree with Trumans decision to maintain a limited war with the Soviet Union and Asia? A.Agree B.Disagree
Section 2 Containing Communism The Truman Doctrine offered aid to any nation resisting communism; the Marshall Plan aided European countries in rebuilding.
Section 2 Increasingly exasperated by the Soviets refusal to cooperate, officials at the State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior. Diplomat George Kennan responded with what became known as the Long Telegram. Kennan proposed a long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendenciesthe basic policy followed by the United States throughout the Cold War.containment Containing Communism (cont.)
Section 2 After World War II, instead of withdrawing as promised, the Soviet troops remained in northern Iran. Containing Communism (cont.) Stalin then began demanding access to Irans oil supplies; he also helped local Communists establish a separate government in northern Iran. The secretary of state sent Stalin a strong message demanding that they withdraw from northern Iran.
Section 2 Coupled with the threat of the USS Missouri sailing into the eastern Mediterranean, Stalin withdrew. In August 1946 Stalin demanded joint control of the Dardanelles with Turkey. After Britain informed the United States that they could no longer afford to help Greece, Truman gave a speech to Congress outlining a policy that became known as the Truman Doctrine. Containing Communism (cont.) The Truman Doctrine
Section 2 In June 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program, or Marshall Plan, which would give European nations American aid to rebuild their economies. In response to the Soviet attempt to undermine Germanys economy, the United States, Great Britain, and France announced that they would merge their zones in Germany. Containing Communism (cont.) The Truman Doctrine
Section 2 The new nation was called the Federal Republic of Germanyor West Germany. The Soviet zone eventually became the German Democratic Republicor East Germany. The Soviets then cut all road and rail traffic to West Berlin, hoping to force the United States to either reconsider its decision or abandon West Berlin. Containing Communism (cont.)
Section 2 Truman ordered the air force to fly supplies into Berlin insteadknown as the Berlin airlift. By April 1949, an agreement had been reached to create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)a mutual defense alliance. For the first time in its history, the United States had committed itself to maintaining peace in Europe. Containing Communism (cont.) NATO Is Born, 1949
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 In response to NATOs decision to allow West Germany to rearm and join the alliance, which action did Eastern Europe take? A.They declared war against West Germany. B.They formed the Warsaw Pact. C.They took no action. D.They started working on an atomic bomb.
Section 2 The Korean War Attempts to keep South Korea free from communism led the United States to military intervention.
Section 2 After World War II, Communist forces led by Mao Zedong and the Nationalist government led by Chiang Kai-shek started fighting again. The United States sent the Nationalist government $2 billion in aid beginning in the mid-1940s, but they squandered the money through poor military planning and corruption. The victorious Communists established the Peoples Republic of China in October The Korean War (cont.)
Section 2 In September 1949 the Soviet Union announced that it had successfully tested the first atomic weapon. Then, in the early 1950s, the Peoples Republic of China and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of friendship and alliance. The Korean War (cont.)
Section 2 At the end of World War II, General Douglas MacArthur had taken charge of occupied Japan. The Korean War (cont.) Once the United States lost China as its chief ally in Asia, it adopted policies to encourage the rapid recovery of Japans industrial economy.
Section 2 At the end of World War II, American and Soviet forces entered Korea to disarm the Japanese troops stationed there. The Korean War (cont.) The Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude. Soviets controlled the north, while American troops controlled the south. The Korean War, 1950–1953
Section 2 On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invaded the south, rapidly driving back the poorly equipped South Korean forces. The Korean War (cont.) With the pledge of UN troops, Truman ordered General MacArthur to send American troops from Japan to Korea. He pushed the North Koreans north to the border with China. The Korean War, 1950–1953
Section 2 China then drove the UN forces back across the 38th parallel and MacArthur demanded approval to expand the war against China. The Korean War (cont.) Truman declined, but MacArthur persisted, even criticizing the president. Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination in April The Korean War, 1950–1953
Section 2 Trumans concernthat an all-out war in Korea might lead to nuclear warwas the main reason why he favored limited war.limited war The Korean War (cont.) The Korean War, 1950–1953 In November 1951 peace negotiations began, but an armistice would not be signed until July 1953.
Section 2 The Korean War marked an important turning point in the Cold War: the United States embarked on a major military buildup after the war began. The Korean War (cont.) The Korean War also helped expand the Cold War to Asia. The Korean War, 1950–1953
Section 2 In 1954 the United States signed defense agreements with Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Australia, forming the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). The Korean War (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 When MacArthur asked for approval to expand the war against China, he demanded the following actions EXCEPT A.Blockade of Chinese ports B.The use of Nationalist forces C.Removal of the emperor D.The bombing of Chinese cities with atomic weapons
Section 3-Main Idea Big Ideas Struggles for Rights In the early part of the Cold War, the fear of communism led to a hunt for spies and to intolerance and suspicion of people with radical ideas in the United States.
Section 3-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Red Scare Alger Hiss McCarran Act McCarthyism
A.A B.B Section 3-Polling Question Do you think that another country dropping an atomic bomb on the United States is a threat today? A.Yes B.No
Section 3 A New Scare Public accusations and trials followed in the wake of fears of communism and spies.
Section 3 The Red Scare began in September 1945 when Igor Gouzenko revealed a massive effort by the Soviet Union to infiltrate organizations and government agencies in Canada and the United States, with the goal of obtaining information about the atomic bomb. However, the search for spies escalated into a general fear of Communist subversion. A New Scare (cont.)
Section 3 In early 1947, the president established a loyalty review program, to screen federal employees. Instead of calming public suspicion, the program seemed to confirm fears that Communists had infiltrated the government. loyalty review program FBI director J. Edgar Hoover urged the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to hold public hearings on Communist subversion. A New Scare (cont.)
Section 3 One of HUACs first hearings in 1947 focused on the film industry as a powerful cultural force that Communists might manipulate to spread their ideas and influence. manipulate In 1950 a pamphlet called Red Channels was published, listing 151 blacklisted actors, directors, broadcasters, and screenwriters. These filmmakers were then unable to get work. A New Scare (cont.)
Section 3 In 1948 Whittaker Chambers testified to HUAC that several government officials were former Communists or spies. A New Scare (cont.) The most prominent official named was Alger Hiss, a diplomat who had served in Roosevelts administration. Hiss sued Whittaker for libel, but a jury later convicted him of perjury.perjury
Section 3 The FBI arrested Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and charged them with heading a Soviet spy ring. A New Scare (cont.) They were executed for espionage in The messages collected using Project Verona confirmed extensive Soviet spying and an ongoing effort to steal nuclear weapons.
Section 3 Following the federal governments example, many state and local governments, universities, businesses, unions, churches, and private organizations began their own efforts to find Communists. A New Scare (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 During the hearings in Hollywood, ten screenwriters, known as the Hollywood Ten, used which amendment right to protect themselves from self-incrimination? A.1st Amendment B.5th Amendment C.12th Amendment D.14th Amendment
Section 3 McCarthyism Senator Joseph R. McCarthy used the fear of communism to increase his own power and destroy the reputations of many people.
Section 3 Senator Joseph R. McCarthy proclaimed that 205 men in the State Department were proclaimed Communists. McCarthyism (cont.) He distributed a booklet called The Party of Betrayal, which accused Democratic party leaders of corruption and of protecting Communists.
Section 3 In 1950 Congress passed the Internal Security Act, usually called the McCarran Act. McCarthyism (cont.) Truman vetoed the bill, but Congress overrode his veto. Later Supreme Court cases, however, limited the scope of the McCarran Act.
Section 3 After Republicans won control of Congress in 1952, McCarthy became chairman of the Senate subcommittee on investigations. McCarthyism (cont.) McCarthy turned the investigation into a public witch hunthis tactics became known as McCarthyism.
Section 3 After six weeks of televised hearings, Joseph Welch, the armys lawyer, confronted McCarthy about his cruel treatment of people during the trials. McCarthyism (cont.) Later that year, the Senate passed a vote of censure against McCarthy.censure He remained in the Senate, but lost all influence.
A.A B.B C.C D.D E.E Section 3 Why did many Americans fear that the United States was losing the Cold War? A.The Soviet Union successfully tested an atomic bomb. B.China fell to communism. C.Truman was not a trusted president. D.A and B E.A and C
Section 3 Life During the Early Cold War Obsessed with fear of a nuclear attack, many Americans took steps to protect themselves.
Section 3 After the Soviets successfully tested the H-bomb, many Americans prepared for a surprise Soviet attack. Life During the Early Cold War (cont.) Schools practiced bomb drills and some families built backyard fallout shelters.fallout Cold War themes soon appeared in films, plays, television, the titles of dance tunes, and popular fiction.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which nonfiction book is one of the most famous and enduring works of this period? A.The Crucible B.I Led Three Lives C.Walk East on Beacon D.Hiroshima
Section 4-Main Idea Big Ideas Science and Technology Nuclear technology enabled Eisenhower to change U.S. military policy, while new missile technology marked the beginning of the space age.
Section 4-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Central Intelligence Agency Sputnik
A.A B.B Section 4-Polling Question Are threats an effective way to make someone listen? A.Yes B.No
Section 4 Massive Retaliation Eisenhower fought the Cold War by increasing the U.S. nuclear arsenal and using the threat of nuclear war to end conflicts in Korea, Taiwan, and the Suez.
Section 4 General Dwight D. Eisenhower won the presidential election in 1952 against the Democrat, Adlai Stevenson. Eisenhower was convinced that the key to a victory in the Cold War was a strong economy. Massive Retaliation (cont.)
Section 4 He used a policy called massive retaliation to prevent more wars from happening.massive retaliation Massive Retaliation (cont.) Eisenhowers willingness to threaten nuclear war to maintain peace worried some people. Critics called this brinkmanship and argued that it was too dangerous.brinkmanship
Section 4 Eisenhower threatened Korea with a nuclear war, and in July 1953 negotiators signed an armistice. Massive Retaliation (cont.) The battle line, very near the 38th parallel, became the border between North Korea and South Korea. American troops are still based in Korea, helping to defend South Koreas border.
Section 4 Eisenhower once again threatened nuclear attack when China tried to seize two small islands, as well as Taiwan, from the Nationalists. Massive Retaliation (cont.) China backed down soon afterward.
Section 4 Because Egypt bought weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia, Secretary of State Dulles withdrew aid from Egypt that would help finance the construction of a dam on the Nile River. Massive Retaliation (cont.) Egyptian troops seized the Suez Canal from the Anglo-French company that had controlled it. In October 1956 British and French troops invaded Egypt.
Section 4 The Soviet Union threatened rocket attacks on Britain and France and offered to send troops to help Egypt. Under strong pressure from the United States, the British and French called off their invasion. Soon afterward, the Arab nations began accepting Soviet aid, a diplomatic victory for the Soviets. Massive Retaliation (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4 General Dwight D. Eisenhower was known for which accomplishment? A.Putting the Red Scare to rest B.Organizing the D-Day invasion C.Forming the United Nations D.The Marshall Plan
Section 4 Covert Operations Eisenhower directed the Central Intelligence Agency to use covert operations to limit the spread of communism and Soviet influence.
Section 4 To prevent uprisings in other countries, Eisenhower decided to use covert operations conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).covert Many of the CIAs operations took place in developing nations. developing nations Covert Operations (cont.) Many of these nations blamed European imperialism and American capitalism for their problems.
Section 4 One way to stop developing nations from moving into the Communist camp was to provide them with financial aid. Two examples of covert operations that achieved U.S. objectives took place in Iran and Guatemala. Covert Operations (cont.)
Section 4 Covert operations did not always work, however. Covert Operations (cont.) By 1965, Nikita Khrushchev had emerged as the leader of the Soviet Union. The CIA broadcast to Eastern Khrushchev's secret speech discrediting Stalins policies. Many Eastern Europeans were frustrated with Communist rule, and in June 1956 riots erupted. Khrushchev was not prepared for an end to communism; the rebellion in Budapest was crushed.
Section 4 President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt emerged from the Suez crises as a hero to the Arab people. Covert Operations (cont.) By 1957, he had begun working with Jordan and Syria to spread pan-Arabism. Eisenhower asked Congress to authorize the use of military force whenever the president thought it necessary to assist Middle East nations resisting Communist aggressionalso known as the Eisenhower Doctrine.
Section 4 In 1958 left-wing rebels, believed to be backed by Nasser and the Soviet Union, seized power in Iraq. The United States protected Beirut and British forces helped Jordan. Covert Operations (cont.)
Section 4 After the Hungarian uprising, Khrushchev reasserted Soviet power and the superiority of communism. Covert Operations (cont.) In 1957, after the launch of Sputnik, Khrushchev boasted that capitalism would be buried. At Eisenhowers invitation, Khrushchev visited the United States in late 1959; they agreed to hold a summit in 1960.
Section 4 Shortly before the summit was to begin, the Soviet Union shot down an American U-2 spy plane. Khrushchev broke up the summit after Eisenhower refused to apologize. Covert Operations (cont.) As Eisenhower left office, he warned Americans to be on guard against the influence of the military-industrial complex in a democracy.military-industrial complex
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4 How did Khrushchev prove that the plane the Soviets shot down was a spy plane? A.Recordings on the black box B.The radars on the plane C.The pilot had survived. D.The instrument panel
VS 1 Causes of the Cold War Long-Range Causes Both the United States and the Soviet Union believe their economic and political systems are superior. Defeat of Germany creates a power vacuum in Europe and leaves U.S. and Soviet forces occupying parts of Europe. The U.S. wants to rebuild Europes economy and support democratic governments to ensure peace and security.
VS 2 Causes of the Cold War (cont.) Long-Range Causes The USSR wants Germany weak and believes nations on its border should have Communist governments to ensure they remain friendly.
VS 3 Causes of the Cold War (cont.) Immediate Causes At Yalta, Soviets promise to allow free elections in Eastern Europe but instead gradually impose Communist regimes. At Potsdam, Soviets want German reparations, but the U.S. supports rebuilding Germanys economy. Soviet troops help Communists in northern Iran, but U.S. pressure forces a withdrawal.
VS 4 Causes of the Cold War (cont.) Immediate Causes George Kennan sends the Long Telegram to U.S. officials, explaining that the Soviets need to be contained. Soviets send aid to Communist rebels in Greece and demand Turkey share control of the Dardanelles with the USSR; Truman issues the Truman Doctrine and sends aid to Greece and Turkey.
VS 5 Effects of the Cold War Effects in Europe U.S. launches the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. Germany is divided into two separate nations. The USSR blockades Berlin; U.S. organizes the Berlin Airlift. The U.S. creates NATO; the USSR creates the Warsaw Pact.
VS 6 Effects of the Cold War (cont.) Global Effects When China falls to communism, the U.S. responds by helping Japan build up its economy and military. When Communist North Korea invades South Korea, the U.S. organizes an international force to stop the invasion.
VS 7 Effects of the Cold War (cont.) Effects on the United States Soviet spies are arrested. A new Red Scare leads to laws restricting the Communist Party in the U.S. and to investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee and Senator Joseph McCarthy. Americans practice civil defense; some build bomb shelters.
VS 8 Effects of the Cold War (cont.) Effects on the United States President Eisenhower orders the development of new rockets, bombers, and submarines that can carry nuclear weapons. Eisenhower uses the CIA to covertly contain communism.
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DFS Trans 3 ANSWER: No. Explanations may vary but should include the point that few Communists were actually found.
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Vocab1 satellite nations nations politically and economically dominated or controlled by another, more powerful country
Vocab2 Iron Curtain the political and military barrier that isolated Soviet-controlled countries of Eastern Europe after World War II
Vocab3 liberate to set free
Vocab4 equipment the articles or physical resources prepared or furnished for a specific task
Vocab5 containment the policy or process of preventing the expansion of a hostile power
Vocab6 limited war a war fought with limited commitment of resources to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
Vocab7 insecurity the state of not being confident or sure
Vocab8 initial of or relating to the beginning
Vocab9 subversion a systematic attempt to overthrow a government by using persons working secretly from within
Vocab10 loyalty review program a policy established by President Truman that authorized the screening of all federal employees to determine their loyalty to the American government
Vocab11 perjury lying when one has sworn under oath to tell the truth
Vocab12 censure to express a formal disapproval of an action
Vocab13 fallout radioactive particles dispersed by a nuclear explosion
Vocab14 manipulate to operate or arrange manually to achieve a desired effect
Vocab15 convince to bring to belief, consent, or a course of action
Vocab16 massive retaliation a policy of threatening a massive response, including the use of nuclear weapons, against a Communist state trying to seize a peaceful state by force
Vocab17 brinkmanship the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
Vocab18 covert not openly shown or engaged in
Vocab19 developing nation a nation whose economy is primarily agricultural
Vocab20 military-industrial complex an informal relationship that some people believe exists between the military and the defense industry to promote greater military spending and influence government policy
Vocab21 imply to express indirectly
Vocab22 response something said or done as a reaction
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