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1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: The Origins of the Cold War
Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Origins of the Cold War Section 2: The Early Cold War Years Section 3: The Cold War and American Society Section 4: Eisenhower’s Cold War Policies Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 How Did the Atomic Bomb Change the World?
The destructiveness of the atomic bomb raised the stakes in military conflicts. Growing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II led to a constant threat of nuclear war. • How did the atomic bomb change relations between nations? • Do you think the invention of the atomic bomb made the world safer? Chapter Intro

4 Chapter Timeline

5 Chapter Timeline

6 The Origins of the Cold War
Why did the Cold War develop after World War II? Chapter Intro 1

7 The Early Cold War Years
How did President Truman attempt to deter communism? Chapter Intro 2

8 The Cold War and American Society
How did the Cold War change Americans’ lives? Chapter Intro 3

9 Eisenhower’s Cold War Policies
How did Eisenhower’s policies address Cold War issues? Chapter Intro 4

10 Chapter Preview-End

11 Big Ideas Government and Society Although World War II was nearly over, personal and political differences among Allied leaders and the peoples they represented led to new global challenges. Section 1-Main Idea

12 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary satellite nations Iron Curtain
liberate equipment Section 1-Key Terms

13 People and Events to Identify
Yalta Cold War Potsdam Section 1-Key Terms

14 Section 1-Polling Question
Should Truman have tried to appease Stalin more in order to keep peace between the nations? A. Yes B. No A B Section 1-Polling Question

15 The Yalta Conference Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to discuss Poland, Germany, and the rights of liberated Europe. Section 1

16 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
In February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to plan the postwar world. Although the conference seemed to go well, several agreements reached at Yalta later played a role in causing the Cold War. Section 1

17 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
The three leaders made the following agreements: Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by the Soviets. Stalin agreed that the government would include members of the prewar Polish government and that free elections would be held as soon as possible. The Yalta Conference, 1945 Section 1

18 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
They also agreed to issue the Declaration of Liberated Europe. They decided to divide Germany into four zones, each of which would be controlled by either Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, or France. The Yalta Conference, 1945 Section 1

19 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
Tensions began to rise between the United States and the Soviet Union for several reasons: Stalin demanded that Germany pay war reparations and was not content with the ideas Roosevelt had to offer. The Soviets pressured the king of Romania into appointing a Communist government. Section 1

20 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
The Soviets refused to allow more than three non-Communist Poles to serve in the 18-member Polish government. There was no indication that they intended to hold free elections in Poland. The increasing hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States led to an era of confrontation and competition known as the Cold War. It lasted from about 1946 to 1990, Section 1

21 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
The Soviet Union and the United States had different goals: The Soviets were concerned about security. They wanted to keep Germany weak and make sure that the countries between Germany and the Soviet Union were under Soviet control. The Soviets also were concerned about encouraging communism in other nations; they were suspicious of capitalist nations. Section 1

22 The Yalta Conference (cont.)
The United States was focused on economic problems: Many American officials believed that the Depression had caused World War II. By 1945, Roosevelt and his advisers were convinced that economic growth, democracy, and free enterprise were the key to peace. Section 1

23 A B C D Why was Stalin so concerned about making Poland communist?
A. Invaders could easily enter Russia through Poland. B. He did not want Poland to align with the U.S. C. Poland consistently tried to invade Russian territory. D. He believed all bordering countries should be communist. A B C D Section 1

24 Truman Takes Control Although President Truman took a firm stand against Soviet aggression, Europe remained divided after the war. Section 1

25 Truman Takes Control (cont.)
Eleven days after confronting the Soviets about Poland, FDR died and Harry S. Truman became president. Truman did not want to appease Stalin as Britain had appeased Hitler. He told Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov that Stalin must hold free elections, as he had promised at Yalta. This meeting marked an important shift in Soviet-American relations. Section 1

26 Truman Takes Control (cont.)
In July 1945 Truman finally met Stalin at Potsdam. Truman was convinced that the rest of Europe could only recover if Germany’s economy was allowed to revive. Meanwhile, Stalin wanted more reparations from Germany. Section 1

27 Truman Takes Control (cont.)
Stalin did not like Truman’s proposals for reparations. However, American and British troops controlled Germany’s industrial heartland, and there was no way for the Soviets to get any reparations except by cooperating. The Soviets refused to make any stronger commitments to uphold the Declaration of Liberated Europe. Section 1

28 Truman Takes Control (cont.)
The Communist countries of Eastern Europe—Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia—came to be called satellite nations. With the Iron Curtain separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West, the Cold War era was about to begin. The Iron Curtain in Europe, 1946 Section 1

29 Why did Truman think World War II began? A. The Great Depression
B. Britain’s appeasement of Hitler C. Poland’s decision to fight Germany D. Japan’s emperor A B C D Section 1

30 Section 1-End

31 Big Ideas Trade, War, and Migration As the Cold War began, the United States struggled to oppose Communist aggression in Europe and Asia through political, economic, and military measures. Section 2-Main Idea

32 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary containment limited war
insecurity initially Section 2-Key Terms

33 People and Events to Identify
George Kennan Long Telegram Marshall Plan NATO SEATO Section 2-Key Terms

34 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you agree with Truman’s decision to maintain a limited war with the Soviet Union and Asia? A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 2-Polling Question

35 Containing Communism The Truman Doctrine offered aid to any nation resisting communism; the Marshall Plan aided European countries in rebuilding. Section 2

36 Containing Communism (cont.)
Increasingly exasperated by the Soviet’s refusal to cooperate, officials at the State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior. Diplomat George Kennan responded with what became known as the Long Telegram. Kennan proposed “a long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies”—the basic policy followed by the United States throughout the Cold War. Section 2

37 Containing Communism (cont.)
After World War II, instead of withdrawing as promised, the Soviet troops remained in northern Iran. Stalin then began demanding access to Iran’s oil supplies; he also helped local Communists establish a separate government in northern Iran. The secretary of state sent Stalin a strong message demanding that they withdraw from northern Iran. Section 2

38 Containing Communism (cont.)
Coupled with the threat of the USS Missouri sailing into the eastern Mediterranean, Stalin withdrew. In August 1946 Stalin demanded joint control of the Dardanelles with Turkey. After Britain informed the United States that they could no longer afford to help Greece, Truman gave a speech to Congress outlining a policy that became known as the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine Section 2

39 Containing Communism (cont.)
In June 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program, or Marshall Plan, which would give European nations American aid to rebuild their economies. In response to the Soviet attempt to undermine Germany’s economy, the United States, Great Britain, and France announced that they would merge their zones in Germany. The Truman Doctrine Section 2

40 Containing Communism (cont.)
The new nation was called the Federal Republic of Germany—or West Germany. The Soviet zone eventually became the German Democratic Republic—or East Germany. The Soviets then cut all road and rail traffic to West Berlin, hoping to force the United States to either reconsider its decision or abandon West Berlin. Section 2

41 Containing Communism (cont.)
Truman ordered the air force to fly supplies into Berlin instead—known as the Berlin airlift. By April 1949, an agreement had been reached to create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)—a mutual defense alliance. For the first time in its history, the United States had committed itself to maintaining peace in Europe. NATO Is Born, 1949 Section 2

42 In response to NATO’s decision to allow West Germany to rearm and join the alliance, which action did Eastern Europe take? A. They declared war against West Germany. B. They formed the Warsaw Pact. C. They took no action. D. They started working on an atomic bomb. A B C D Section 2

43 The Korean War Attempts to keep South Korea free from communism led the United States to military intervention. Section 2

44 The Korean War (cont.) After World War II, Communist forces led by Mao Zedong and the Nationalist government led by Chiang Kai-shek started fighting again. The United States sent the Nationalist government $2 billion in aid beginning in the mid-1940s, but they squandered the money through poor military planning and corruption. The victorious Communists established the People’s Republic of China in October 1949. Section 2

45 The Korean War (cont.) In September 1949 the Soviet Union announced that it had successfully tested the first atomic weapon. Then, in the early 1950s, the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of friendship and alliance. Section 2

46 The Korean War (cont.) At the end of World War II, General Douglas MacArthur had taken charge of occupied Japan. Once the United States lost China as its chief ally in Asia, it adopted policies to encourage the rapid recovery of Japan’s industrial economy. Section 2

47 The Korean War (cont.) At the end of World War II, American and Soviet forces entered Korea to disarm the Japanese troops stationed there. The Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude. Soviets controlled the north, while American troops controlled the south. The Korean War, 1950–1953 Section 2

48 The Korean War (cont.) On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invaded the south, rapidly driving back the poorly equipped South Korean forces. With the pledge of UN troops, Truman ordered General MacArthur to send American troops from Japan to Korea. He pushed the North Koreans north to the border with China. The Korean War, 1950–1953 Section 2

49 The Korean War (cont.) China then drove the UN forces back across the 38th parallel and MacArthur demanded approval to expand the war against China. Truman declined, but MacArthur persisted, even criticizing the president. Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination in April 1951. The Korean War, 1950–1953 Section 2

50 The Korean War (cont.) Truman’s concern—that an all-out war in Korea might lead to nuclear war—was the main reason why he favored limited war. In November 1951 peace negotiations began, but an armistice would not be signed until July 1953. The Korean War, 1950–1953 Section 2

51 The Korean War (cont.) The Korean War marked an important turning point in the Cold War: the United States embarked on a major military buildup after the war began. The Korean War also helped expand the Cold War to Asia. The Korean War, 1950–1953 Section 2

52 The Korean War (cont.) In 1954 the United States signed defense agreements with Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Australia, forming the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Section 2

53 When MacArthur asked for approval to expand the war against China, he demanded the following actions EXCEPT A. Blockade of Chinese ports B. The use of Nationalist forces C. Removal of the emperor D. The bombing of Chinese cities with atomic weapons A B C D Section 2

54 Section 2-End

55 Big Ideas Struggles for Rights In the early part of the Cold War, the fear of communism led to a hunt for spies and to intolerance and suspicion of people with radical ideas in the United States. Section 3-Main Idea

56 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary subversion
loyalty review program perjury censure fallout Academic Vocabulary manipulate convince Section 3-Key Terms

57 People and Events to Identify
Red Scare Alger Hiss McCarran Act McCarthyism Section 3-Key Terms

58 Section 3-Polling Question
Do you think that another country dropping an atomic bomb on the United States is a threat today? A. Yes B. No A B Section 3-Polling Question

59 A New Scare Public accusations and trials followed in the wake of fears of communism and spies. Section 3

60 A New Scare (cont.) The Red Scare began in September 1945 when Igor Gouzenko revealed a massive effort by the Soviet Union to infiltrate organizations and government agencies in Canada and the United States, with the goal of obtaining information about the atomic bomb. However, the search for spies escalated into a general fear of Communist subversion. Section 3

61 A New Scare (cont.) In early 1947, the president established a loyalty review program, to screen federal employees. Instead of calming public suspicion, the program seemed to confirm fears that Communists had infiltrated the government. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover urged the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to hold public hearings on Communist subversion. Section 3

62 A New Scare (cont.) One of HUAC’s first hearings in 1947 focused on the film industry as a powerful cultural force that Communists might manipulate to spread their ideas and influence. In 1950 a pamphlet called Red Channels was published, listing 151 blacklisted actors, directors, broadcasters, and screenwriters. These filmmakers were then unable to get work. Section 3

63 A New Scare (cont.) In 1948 Whittaker Chambers testified to HUAC that several government officials were former Communists or spies. The most prominent official named was Alger Hiss, a diplomat who had served in Roosevelt’s administration. Hiss sued Whittaker for libel, but a jury later convicted him of perjury. Section 3

64 A New Scare (cont.) The FBI arrested Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and charged them with heading a Soviet spy ring. They were executed for espionage in 1953. The messages collected using Project Verona confirmed extensive Soviet spying and an ongoing effort to steal nuclear weapons. Section 3

65 A New Scare (cont.) Following the federal government’s example, many state and local governments, universities, businesses, unions, churches, and private organizations began their own efforts to find Communists. Section 3

66 During the hearings in Hollywood, ten screenwriters, known as the “Hollywood Ten,” used which amendment right to protect themselves from self-incrimination? A. 1st Amendment B. 5th Amendment C. 12th Amendment D. 14th Amendment A B C D Section 3

67 McCarthyism Senator Joseph R. McCarthy used the fear of communism to increase his own power and destroy the reputations of many people. Section 3

68 McCarthyism (cont.) Senator Joseph R. McCarthy proclaimed that 205 men in the State Department were proclaimed Communists. He distributed a booklet called “The Party of Betrayal,” which accused Democratic party leaders of corruption and of protecting Communists. Section 3

69 McCarthyism (cont.) In 1950 Congress passed the Internal Security Act, usually called the McCarran Act. Truman vetoed the bill, but Congress overrode his veto. Later Supreme Court cases, however, limited the scope of the McCarran Act. Section 3

70 McCarthyism (cont.) After Republicans won control of Congress in 1952, McCarthy became chairman of the Senate subcommittee on investigations. McCarthy turned the investigation into a public witch hunt—his tactics became known as McCarthyism. Section 3

71 McCarthyism (cont.) After six weeks of televised hearings, Joseph Welch, the army’s lawyer, confronted McCarthy about his cruel treatment of people during the trials. Later that year, the Senate passed a vote of censure against McCarthy. He remained in the Senate, but lost all influence. Section 3

72 Why did many Americans fear that the United States was losing the Cold War?
A. The Soviet Union successfully tested an atomic bomb. B. China fell to communism. C. Truman was not a trusted president. D. A and B E. A and C A B C D E Section 3

73 Life During the Early Cold War
Obsessed with fear of a nuclear attack, many Americans took steps to protect themselves. Section 3

74 Life During the Early Cold War (cont.)
After the Soviets successfully tested the H-bomb, many Americans prepared for a surprise Soviet attack. Schools practiced bomb drills and some families built backyard fallout shelters. Cold War themes soon appeared in films, plays, television, the titles of dance tunes, and popular fiction. Section 3

75 Which nonfiction book is one of the most famous and enduring works of this period?
A. The Crucible B. I Led Three Lives C. Walk East on Beacon D. Hiroshima A B C D Section 3

76 Section 3-End

77 Big Ideas Science and Technology Nuclear technology enabled Eisenhower to change U.S. military policy, while new missile technology marked the beginning of the space age. Section 4-Main Idea

78 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary massive retaliation
brinkmanship covert developing nation military-industrial complex Academic Vocabulary imply response Section 4-Key Terms

79 People and Events to Identify
Central Intelligence Agency Sputnik Section 4-Key Terms

80 Section 4-Polling Question
Are threats an effective way to make someone listen? A. Yes B. No A B Section 4-Polling Question

81 Massive Retaliation Eisenhower fought the Cold War by increasing the U.S. nuclear arsenal and using the threat of nuclear war to end conflicts in Korea, Taiwan, and the Suez. Section 4

82 Massive Retaliation (cont.)
General Dwight D. Eisenhower won the presidential election in 1952 against the Democrat, Adlai Stevenson. Eisenhower was convinced that the key to a victory in the Cold War was a strong economy. Section 4

83 Massive Retaliation (cont.)
He used a policy called massive retaliation to prevent more wars from happening. Eisenhower’s willingness to threaten nuclear war to maintain peace worried some people. Critics called this brinkmanship and argued that it was too dangerous. Section 4

84 Massive Retaliation (cont.)
Eisenhower threatened Korea with a nuclear war, and in July 1953 negotiators signed an armistice. The battle line, very near the 38th parallel, became the border between North Korea and South Korea. American troops are still based in Korea, helping to defend South Korea’s border. Section 4

85 Massive Retaliation (cont.)
Eisenhower once again threatened nuclear attack when China tried to seize two small islands, as well as Taiwan, from the Nationalists. China backed down soon afterward. Section 4

86 Massive Retaliation (cont.)
Because Egypt bought weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia, Secretary of State Dulles withdrew aid from Egypt that would help finance the construction of a dam on the Nile River. Egyptian troops seized the Suez Canal from the Anglo-French company that had controlled it. In October 1956 British and French troops invaded Egypt. Section 4

87 Massive Retaliation (cont.)
The Soviet Union threatened rocket attacks on Britain and France and offered to send troops to help Egypt. Under strong pressure from the United States, the British and French called off their invasion. Soon afterward, the Arab nations began accepting Soviet aid, a diplomatic victory for the Soviets. Section 4

88 General Dwight D. Eisenhower was known for which accomplishment?
A. Putting the Red Scare to rest B. Organizing the D-Day invasion C. Forming the United Nations D. The Marshall Plan A B C D Section 4

89 Covert Operations Eisenhower directed the Central Intelligence Agency to use covert operations to limit the spread of communism and Soviet influence. Section 4

90 Covert Operations (cont.)
To prevent uprisings in other countries, Eisenhower decided to use covert operations conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Many of the CIA’s operations took place in developing nations. Many of these nations blamed European imperialism and American capitalism for their problems. Section 4

91 Covert Operations (cont.)
One way to stop developing nations from moving into the Communist camp was to provide them with financial aid. Two examples of covert operations that achieved U.S. objectives took place in Iran and Guatemala. Section 4

92 Covert Operations (cont.)
Covert operations did not always work, however. By 1965, Nikita Khrushchev had emerged as the leader of the Soviet Union. The CIA broadcast to Eastern Khrushchev's secret speech discrediting Stalin’s policies. Many Eastern Europeans were frustrated with Communist rule, and in June 1956 riots erupted. Khrushchev was not prepared for an end to communism; the rebellion in Budapest was crushed. Section 4

93 Covert Operations (cont.)
President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt emerged from the Suez crises as a hero to the Arab people. By 1957, he had begun working with Jordan and Syria to spread pan-Arabism. Eisenhower asked Congress to authorize the use of military force whenever the president thought it necessary to assist Middle East nations resisting Communist aggression—also known as the Eisenhower Doctrine. Section 4

94 Covert Operations (cont.)
In 1958 left-wing rebels, believed to be backed by Nasser and the Soviet Union, seized power in Iraq. The United States protected Beirut and British forces helped Jordan. Section 4

95 Covert Operations (cont.)
After the Hungarian uprising, Khrushchev reasserted Soviet power and the superiority of communism. In 1957, after the launch of Sputnik, Khrushchev boasted that capitalism would be buried. At Eisenhower’s invitation, Khrushchev visited the United States in late 1959; they agreed to hold a summit in 1960. Section 4

96 Covert Operations (cont.)
Shortly before the summit was to begin, the Soviet Union shot down an American U-2 spy plane. Khrushchev broke up the summit after Eisenhower refused to apologize. As Eisenhower left office, he warned Americans to be on guard against the influence of the military-industrial complex in a democracy. Section 4

97 How did Khrushchev prove that the plane the Soviets shot down was a spy plane?
A. Recordings on the black box B. The radars on the plane C. The pilot had survived. D. The instrument panel A B C D Section 4

98 Section 4-End

99 Causes of the Cold War Long-Range Causes
Both the United States and the Soviet Union believe their economic and political systems are superior. Defeat of Germany creates a power vacuum in Europe and leaves U.S. and Soviet forces occupying parts of Europe. The U.S. wants to rebuild Europe’s economy and support democratic governments to ensure peace and security. VS 1

100 Causes of the Cold War (cont.)
Long-Range Causes The USSR wants Germany weak and believes nations on its border should have Communist governments to ensure they remain friendly. VS 2

101 Causes of the Cold War (cont.)
Immediate Causes At Yalta, Soviets promise to allow free elections in Eastern Europe but instead gradually impose Communist regimes. At Potsdam, Soviets want German reparations, but the U.S. supports rebuilding Germany’s economy. Soviet troops help Communists in northern Iran, but U.S. pressure forces a withdrawal. VS 3

102 Causes of the Cold War (cont.)
Immediate Causes George Kennan sends the Long Telegram to U.S. officials, explaining that the Soviets need to be contained. Soviets send aid to Communist rebels in Greece and demand Turkey share control of the Dardanelles with the USSR; Truman issues the Truman Doctrine and sends aid to Greece and Turkey. VS 4

103 Effects of the Cold War Effects in Europe
U.S. launches the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. Germany is divided into two separate nations. The USSR blockades Berlin; U.S. organizes the Berlin Airlift. The U.S. creates NATO; the USSR creates the Warsaw Pact. VS 5

104 Effects of the Cold War (cont.)
Global Effects When China falls to communism, the U.S. responds by helping Japan build up its economy and military. When Communist North Korea invades South Korea, the U.S. organizes an international force to stop the invasion. VS 6

105 Effects of the Cold War (cont.)
Effects on the United States Soviet spies are arrested. A new Red Scare leads to laws restricting the Communist Party in the U.S. and to investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee and Senator Joseph McCarthy. Americans practice civil defense; some build bomb shelters. VS 7

106 Effects of the Cold War (cont.)
Effects on the United States President Eisenhower orders the development of new rockets, bombers, and submarines that can carry nuclear weapons. Eisenhower uses the CIA to covertly contain communism. VS 8

107 VS-End

108 Figure 1

109 Figure 2

110 Figure 3

111 Figure 4

112 Figure 5

113 Select a transparency to view.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Why It Matters Cause-and-Effect Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Select a transparency to view. Chapter Trans Menu

114 Why It Matters Trans

115 C & E Trans

116 Unit Timelines Trans

117 DFS Trans 1

118 DFS Trans 2

119 ANSWER: No. Explanations may vary but should include the point that few Communists were actually found. DFS Trans 3

120 DFS Trans 4

121 satellite nations nations politically and economically dominated or controlled by another, more powerful country Vocab1

122 Iron Curtain the political and military barrier that isolated Soviet-controlled countries of Eastern Europe after World War II Vocab2

123 liberate to set free Vocab3

124 equipment the articles or physical resources prepared or furnished for a specific task Vocab4

125 containment the policy or process of preventing the expansion of a hostile power Vocab5

126 limited war a war fought with limited commitment of resources to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism Vocab6

127 insecurity the state of not being confident or sure Vocab7

128 initial of or relating to the beginning Vocab8

129 subversion a systematic attempt to overthrow a government by using persons working secretly from within Vocab9

130 loyalty review program
a policy established by President Truman that authorized the screening of all federal employees to determine their loyalty to the American government Vocab10

131 perjury lying when one has sworn under oath to tell the truth Vocab11

132 censure to express a formal disapproval of an action Vocab12

133 fallout radioactive particles dispersed by a nuclear explosion Vocab13

134 manipulate to operate or arrange manually to achieve a desired effect

135 convince to bring to belief, consent, or a course of action Vocab15

136 massive retaliation a policy of threatening a massive response, including the use of nuclear weapons, against a Communist state trying to seize a peaceful state by force Vocab16

137 brinkmanship the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down Vocab17

138 covert not openly shown or engaged in Vocab18

139 developing nation a nation whose economy is primarily agricultural

140 military-industrial complex
an informal relationship that some people believe exists between the military and the defense industry to promote greater military spending and influence government policy Vocab20

141 imply to express indirectly Vocab21

142 response something said or done as a reaction Vocab22

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