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Essay Preparation Colonial American Issues

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1 Essay Preparation Colonial American Issues
AP History Day 3 Essay Preparation Colonial American Issues

2 1993 DBQ Question Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in development occur?

3 What we are looking for:
Introduction – not too long, but brings us into the subject, leading to a thesis (what you are trying to prove) Your thesis needs to do these three things: directly address the question, take a position, and address organizational categories (your main points) Two or three distinct areas you want to talk about In each area, we need examples from both your knowledge and from the documents A quick conclusion to tie it together

4 Outline form Introduction/Thesis (covering these three areas)
Main idea 1 1,2,3: details Main idea 2 (details 1,2,3) Main idea 3 (details 1,2,3) Conclusion

5 Examples of Documents Document A –could be used for the ideals of the Puritan Society Document B/C – should be compared to each other...differences are family units versus single people, occupations in Document B (and their application to society), men/women ratio, ages of colonists Document D –shows the religion and politics mixture, and the idealistic nature of Springfield (whereas the South had no ideals, they were just people making money) Quality of life is very important.

6 SOAPS: How to analyze documents
S: Subject O: Occasion (time and place, context) A: Audience P: Purpose

7 Documents 2 Document E – the role of government in helping the people, the religious nature, the desire to serve God, avoiding oppression Document F – John Smith talks about the rough nature of the journey, the evil (vile) commanders, poor quality life (lower life expectancies), brawls, plots Document G – much more worried about defense issues than the Northerners, issues of servants/slaves, about the issues of poor laborers turning sides (low quality of life by the majority, and the leaders understand this) Document H – justification for Bacon’s Rebellion

8 Comparisons you can make
Role of religion in society The average fate of citizens Community v. Individualized nature Native issues (from your knowledge) General prosperity (from your knowledge) Types of people each attracted Split between rich and poor Daily life In this question, you can pick several areas (for example, why people wanted to settle, differences in life/land, different agriculture, town structure vs. independent plantations/farmers, etc

9 DBQ Sample Essay 1 New England- The “Puritans” left England and cut off all ties with the Church of England. Upon arrival at New England the Puritans all agreed to abide by the laws of their leaders. This was called the Mayflower Compact. The Puritans of New England lived strict lives. They didn’t desire gold or wealth but a personal relationship with God. Religion was a part of everyday life and believed all sins should and would be punished. They worked hard and were expected to hide their emotions of opinions. For example: Roger Williams was kicked out because he voiced his opinion about Separation of Church and State. Puritans believed the Devil was real and those who sinned followed Satan. These Satan followers were considered witches and was punishable by death (the first woman to be accused of witchcraft was Tituba.) The colony of Salem in New England had an episode of so called “witch craft”. It began when a few teenager girls listened to Tituba (an Indian slave) tell voodoo stories. The girls began shouting barking and twitching for no reason. The towns Dr. figured the girls had been bewitched. They told on Tituba and the colony panicked. Tituba confessed but also accused many others. These events led to what is called the “Salem Witch Hunt”

10 Chesapeake- These colonies were quite different
Chesapeake- These colonies were quite different. They were much more relaxed, especially about religion. Chesapeake colonies looked at wealth and gold as more important than religion. Anglicanism were people who believed in being more conservative, rational, and formal in their forms of worship, the tended to “stress collective rituals over personal religious experience” Due to spread out population and lack of clergy’s most. Clergy’s became known to be addicted to drinking, gambling, and fox hunting. This was known as or called “sporting parsons.” Rich Angelic plantations owners would say for others’ passage in return for a few years of free work. Not all went to the New World. Voluntarily, some kids were taken by the London Underworld in the middle of the night and forced upon a waited ship. This eventually led to Slavery.

11 Trying to show too much information
In Document B, the "Ships List of Emigrants Bound for New England" showed that a minister and eight family members came, along with servants (March 20th, 1635). In Document C, the "Ship's List of Emigrants Bound for Virginia" showed that about 65 men emigrated, while only ten women came (July, 1635). The Chesapeake colonies were less structured. In Document D, pious residents of Springfield, Massachusetts citizens listed in "Articles of Agreement" that they "intend. The difference in emigration between the New England and Chesapeake created differing structures of societies, due to the already established hierarchy in the New England colonies. The unhealthy Chesapeake region, whose settlers' life expectancy was shortened by ten years, was based more on gaining a profit for survival. to procure some Godly and faithful minister" and plan on dividing land so that "every inhabitant shall have a convenient proportion for a house lot" (1636). Although the contradiction of slavery lurked in the shadows, equality was important to New England's citizens. The structured community of family members that immigrated to the New England region and the unhealthy family life of the Chesapeake region presented developmental differences in the societies. The list showed no relation of immigrants, presenting difficulties in creating families due to the 6:1 ratio of men to women. Emigrants came mostly as indentured servants. We must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill" (Doc. Unity was strengthened in church membership, a major foundation of the New England society. New England immigrants came as families and even whole communities.

12 Another sample opening/1st body
New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by the people of English origin. By 1700, the area had evolved into two distinct societies. The societies developed so distinctly because of the sociological differences between the people of both regions. One of the societies consisted of forty families that worked together as one and centered on God. The Lord came before success and the people followed him trying to be Disciples of Christ (Doc. D). The families shown in Doc. B ranged from 1 year to 40 at greatest. Most had some sort of skill that helped in doing work whether it be a tailor, a clothier or a minister, they all had something that they could do to help out the community. Although some were rich and others poor, they all pulled together as one to grow as a society. If one family had a great amount of something and another did not, they would trade so that both families were well off. The whole community made other's problems their own and helped to get want needed to be done, done. They wanted to be the kind of society that others would look up to and see as an example of how to live life for God.

13 Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon was an impoverished (poor) nobleman who was frustrated over economic issues and the failure of the government to protect the less wealthy people from Native Americans He accused the government, got hundreds of angry people in a similar struggling state, and they attacked Jamestown (burned it down, looted the city) It ended because Bacon died, but that didn’t solve the problems.

14 Pueblo Revolt (1680) AKA Pope’s Rebellion
Uprising of Pueblo (Indians) against Spanish colonization Pueblos hated the Spanish due to discrimination against religion and being forced to work as laborers for the colonists 1670’s drought caused famine among the Indians Example; 1675: 47 medicine men arrested and accused of witchcraft (4 sentenced to death)—the rest whipped July 1680, killed 380 Spaniards (including women and children) September 1680—cut off the water supply of Santa Fe, and the Spanish retreated 1692, Spanish re-conquered the city, lost it in 1693, regained it for good by 1700 This uprising did end up protecting their culture and religion, even if it didn’t succeed totally. It also got them land and public defenders for legal cases.

15 Problems in Virginia Crops were for sale rather than food crops (cotton, tobacco, etc) Many indentured servants were very poor, even after serving their seven years to pay for the trip over Large vs. small (tobacco plantations) Role of slavery in the society--from 1,000 in to 20,000+ by 1700. By the early 1700’s, more slaves than free whites.

16 Colonial Culture Enlightenment takes place in Europe
Rationalism and logic over religion Scientific Revolution worked to make the natural world understood Many of the leaders of the colonies/Revolution were followers of this movement In particular, the biggest American representative was Benjamin Franklin.

17 First Great Awakening This was a movement in response to the religious skepticism the Enlightenment produced Ministers stressed the emptiness of materials (goods) comfort, corruption of human nature, and the need to repent NOW. If you do not repent, God will show his fury and punish you. Many of the ministers founded universities to spread their teachers (many of them are now Ivy League!)

18 Jonathan Edwards Preacher, 1703-1759
Critical role in shaping the revival First fires, , Northampton, MA Known even today for his religious books Key sermon: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741)—the idea is that hell is real, and if you do not make the right choices, you will end up there!

19 George Whitfield Lived from , from England, but did his major work in America Able to preach to tens of thousands at once without a microphone Ministered to slaves, but actually was pro-slavery and a slave owner (but apparently treated his slaves very well, and was critical of abuse and neglect from other slaveowners) God’s sole role in salvation, offering Gospel in Christ

20 Life in the Colonies Over 90% rural (not in cities)
Population increased from 250,000 in 1700 to million in 1750 Over 200,000 blacks, majority in SC Women did housekeeping and childcare, Men farmed Social interaction with other families rare Cities had many poor people and immigrants Most people could not read and write

21 Road to Independence Albany Plan of Union (7 colonies met there, first attempt for inter-colonial government and collect taxes. Also attempted to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois League Plan was rejected because they didn’t want to give up the right to decide their own taxes or own choices Franklin’s response was a famous political cartoon.

22 “Join or Die” Benjamin Franklin

23 Seven Years War Actually lasted from 1754-1763
Called the French and Indian War in the United States, Seven Years War in Europe First time Americans served in the English army Problem: The English did not treat the Americans as equals, fostering resentment French wanted to protect their fur territory British won, and they received most of the French territory in North America

24 Native American Problems and Solutions
Native Americans didn’t like the fact that one side won— previously they were playing one side against the other English raised prices on goods for them, because they had a monopoly They also stopped paying rent on their forts in the West There was a rebellion led by Pontiac (near modern-day Detroit), Pontiac’s Rebellion/Uprising Solutions Proclamation of 1763 This forbid settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, but it was too late and it made the American colonists angry. It also set a pattern of white people making laws to cover Native Americans to their disadvantage (Indian Removal Act of 1830, starting a long cycle of abuse)

25 1763: The Beginnings of Change
Problems for England: They have to pay for the war. They can’t afford to follow salutatory neglect any longer. The Proclamation of was the first attempt to legislate the colonist’s movements. Problems for the Colonies England has to pay for this all. Since France has been defeated, England doesn’t have to worry about keeping them in good favor anymore. The colonists start running into issues with England.

26 Proclamation of 1763 The dark red is the limits of the colonies of 1763 The pink is the area that was supposed to be for Native Americans only The orange is Spanish property.

27 Acts to Raise Money for England
Currency Act (1763) – forbade colonies from printing their own money Sugar Act (1764) – tried to prevent smuggling of molasses, and for better enforcement of duty payments Stamp Act (1765) – first direct tax to raise revenue, ended policy of self-taxation, broad- based tax, but mainly affecting lawyers and the most literate parts (most offensively to the colonists: Taxation without Representation)

28 Opposition to the Stamp Act
Patrick Henry, Virginia Stamp Act Resolves, protest of the tax by the legislature Protect groups, including “Sons of Liberty Protests were so severe that none of the duty collectors accepted the job due to fears of safety Act repealed in 1766

29 Townshend Acts (1767) Taxed goods directly from England (encouraged under mercantilism) Part of tax raised paid collectors, so that the legislature couldn’t just refuse to pay the salary More government bureaucracy in the colonies New York Legislature suspended because they refusedto pay for soldier housing Writs of Assistance – If they think you are smuggling goods, the English can search the property All duties repealed in 1770 except tea tax Acts expanded in 1772

30 Rebellion against the Townshend Acts
Large number of troops needed in Boston (4,000 troops for 16,000 people) Soldiers tried to get off-hours jobs, which made jobs for locals harder to find and to pay less Boston Massacre, March 5, A mob pelted soldiers with snowballs with rock, so the soldiers fired back and killed five innocent people.

31 The Final Straws British gave the East India Company a monopoly on tea (1773) in order to collect a new tax Dec 16, 1773: Colonists boarded a ship and dumped 10,000 pounds (money) of tea Coercive “Intolerable” Acts: Closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for Tightened control over Mass. Government Required citizens to house soldiers Quebec Act granted greater liberties to Catholics, expanded Quebec Territory to limit colonial expansion

32 Boston Tea Party

33 Resistance Step 1 First Continental Congress came together in late 1774 Many different viewpoints represented Agreed to boycott English goods Set up Committees of Observation to enforce boycott (became a quasi- government) Agreed to a list of laws they wanted repealed

34 Step 2: Committees of Resistance
Expanded powers in winter 1774/spring 1775 Led acts such as collecting taxes, disrupting court sessions and organizing militias and weapons John Adams: “This was the beginning...of the real American Revolution”

35 Step 3: First Shots April 1775, Lexington, to try to disarm “Minutemen” militia This was a skirmish; the real battle was in Concord, and the English lost 18 soldiers Both groups dug in around Boston July 1775—Second Continental Congress started to prepare for war by printing money, making bureaucratic offices, establishing army, led by George Washington (who was well-liked and a Southerner, and they were weakest in their support of the war) Patriots were White Protestant Property holders, urban citizens, gentry Other group: Loyalists (government officials, devout Episcopals/Anglicans, merchants who traded with England, peaceful groups such as the Quakers) AP/SAT does not cover military history, so no more battle information

36 Battle of Lexington

37 The Book to Rally Them All
Thomas Paine, January 1776, “Common Sense” Argued for independence and republicanism over monarchy Sold over 100,000 copies This influenced intellectuals, and inspired the Declaration of Independence (June-July 1776)

38 Which led to this…

39 AP Independent Essays to 1763
You have 70 minutes to write TWO essays. Each essay should be about five paragraphs long, similar to the outline of the earlier DBQ essay. Graders are looking for strong theses, quality of the historical argument, and the evidence offered as support. You will have two choices for each question. Generally, in the first question, you have a choice of colonial or pre The second question has two questions from

40 Essay #1 1975 Exam (Question 5): “Although many northerners and southerners later came to think of themselves as having separate civilizations, the northern and southern colonies in the 16th and 17th centuries were in fact more similar than different.” Assess the validity.

41 Essay #2 1979 Exam (Question 4): "During the 17th century and increasingly in the 18th century, British colonists in America charged Great Britain with violating the ideals of rule of law, self-government, and, ultimately, equality of rights. Yet the colonists themselves violated these ideals in their treatment of blacks, Native Americans, and even poorer classes of white settlers." Assess the validity of this view.

42 Essay #3-5 In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during the seventeenth century? (1993) “To what extent and why did religious toleration increase in the American colonies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? (1981) Answer with reference to THREE individuals, events, or movements in American religion during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries "For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain's policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the following. (1995) Legislative assemblies Commerce Religion

43 Essay #6-7 Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American colonies prior to (1998) Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before (2000) British French Spanish

44 Essay #8-10 How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? (2001) Analyze the impact of the Atlantic trade routes established in the mid 1600’s on economic development of the British North American colonies. Consider the period (2002) Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1740) in TWO of the following regions: (2002) New England Chesapeake Middle Atlantic

45 Essay #11-12 Compare the ways in which TWO of the following reflected tensions in colonial society. (2003) Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Pueblo Revolt (1680) Salem witchcraft trials (1692) Stono Rebellion (1739) “Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies in North America.” (2005) Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600’s.

46 Essay #13-14 Compare and contrast the ways in which economic development affected politics in Massachusetts and Virginia in the period from to (2005) Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures. Analyze how the actions taken by BOTH American Indians and European colonists shaped those relationships in TWO of the following regions. Confine your answer to the 1600s. (2008) New England Chesapeake Spanish Southwest New York and New France

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