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Foramens of the base of skull

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1 Foramens of the base of skull

2 What is foramen? A foramen (pl. foramina) is an opening.
Foramina allow muscles, nerves, arteries, veins, or other structures to connect one part of the body with another.

3 Superior view of the cranial base

4 Inferior view of the cranial base

5 Structures Passing through
Foramen Located in or Formed by Structures Passing through Incisive foramen Maxilla (palatine process) Nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine a. Greater palatine foramen Palatine Greater palatine n. and vessels Lesser palatine foramina Lesser palatine n. and vessels

6 Foramen ovale Sphenoid Mandibular division of the trigeminal n., accessory meningeal a., lesser petrosal n., emissary v. Foramen spinosum Middle meningeal vessels and meningeal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. Foramen rotundum Maxillary division of the Sphenoid foramen Emissary v.

7 Foramen lacerum Articulation of the sphenoid (greater wing and body), temporal (petrous portion), and occipital (basilar portion) bones Nothing passes through it sphenoid Filled with fibrocartilage during body), temporal (petrous life (although the anterior wall of the foramen has an opening for the pterygoid canal and the posterior wall has an opening for the carotid canal)

8 Opening for auditory tube Temporal and sphenoid
Mastoid foramen Temporal (mastoid portion) Emissary v. (sometimes branches of the occipital a.) Opening for auditory tube Temporal and sphenoid Cartilaginous portion of the auditory tube Tympanic canaliculus Temporal Tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal n.

9 Jugular foramen Temporal (petrous portion) and occipital Glossopharyngeal n., vagus n., spinal accessory n., inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus, posterior meningeal a. Mastoid canaliculus Temporal (within the jugular fossa) Auricular branch of the vagus n.

10 Petrotympanic fissure
Temporal Chorda tympani n., anterior tympanic a. Stylomastoid foramen Facial n., stylomastoid a. Tympanomastoid fissure Auricular branch of the vagus n.

11 Hypoglossal canal Occipital Hypoglossal n. Condylar canal Emissary v., meningeal branches of ascending pharyngeal a. Foramen magnum Medulla oblongata, vertebral arteries, spinal roots of the spinal accessory n.

12 Foramen cecum Between the frontal and ethmoid bones Emissary v. from nasal cavity to the superior sagittal sinus Anterior ethmoid foramen Anterior ethmoid n. and vessels Posterior ethmoid foramen Posterior ethmoid n. and vessels

13 Carotid canal Temporal (petrous portion) Internal carotid a., internal carotid n. plexus (sympathetics) Hiatus for the lesser petrosal n. Lesser petrosal n. Hiatus for the greater petrosal n. Greater petrosal n. Internal acoustic meatus Facial n., vestibulocochlear n., labyrinthine a. Opening of the vestibular aqueduct Endolymphatic duct

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