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SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Texture Profile Analysis A closer look at this popular way of characterising the structure.

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Presentation on theme: "SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Texture Profile Analysis A closer look at this popular way of characterising the structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Texture Profile Analysis A closer look at this popular way of characterising the structure of foods

2 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 General Foods texturometer developed –Force/time plot became known as a texture profile Szczesniak defined specific terms which correlated well with sensory panel scores - texture profile analysis –7 parameters were listed; 5 measured and 2 calculated TPA - The History

3 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Malcolm Bourne adapted the Instron to perform TPA and parameters were slightly modified TPA - The History

4 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Known as the “two bite test” Provides textural parameters which correlate well with sensory evaluation parameters TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)

5 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Known as the “two bite test” Provides textural parameters which correlate well with sensory evaluation parameters TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) FORCE TIME FIRST BITE

6 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Known as the “two bite test” Provides textural parameters which correlate well with sensory evaluation parameters TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) FORCE TIME SECOND BITE

7 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Movement of the Probe

8 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Movement of the PROBE DOW N ‘COMPRESSION’

9 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Movement of the PROBE UP ‘Decompression’

10 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 DOWN Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Movement of the PROBE

11 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 UP Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Movement of the PROBE

12 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Fracturability

13 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Fracturability Definition The force at which there is the first significant break in the curve (originally called the brittleness) NB - Not always present

14 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Hardness 1 Hardness 2

15 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Hardness Hardness 2 Definition The maximum force during the first cycle of compression. Is also known as the “firmness”.

16 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data A B Area 1 Area 2

17 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data A B Definition The ratio of the positive force area during the second cycle of compression to that of the first cycle.

18 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data A B Definition The ratio of the positive force area during the second cycle of compression to that of the first cycle.

19 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data A B

20 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Stringiness

21 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Stringiness Note Defined as the distance that the product is extended during de- compression before separating from the probe. Not an original TPA parameter and is not included in the TPA analysis macro at this point.

22 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Springiness

23 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Springiness Definition The height that the food recovers during the time that elapses between the end of the first cycle and the start of the second cycle.

24 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Springiness

25 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Work of Adhesion Adhesivness

26 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Definition The negative area for the first compression cycle - representing the work needed to overcome the attractive forces between the surfaces of the probe and the food. Work of Adhesion

27 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Force Time o TPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS) Analysis of the data Definition The maximum negative force of the first compression cycle Adhesivness

28 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Resilience   Not an original TPA parameter.   Developed from looking closely at elastic recovery   A measurement of how the sample recovers from deformation.   Ratio of the first UP ( decompression) stroke to the first DOWN ( compression) stroke

29 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 Initial Modulus   Not an original Texture Profile Analysis parameter   Developed from looking closer at curve before fracture   Initial Modulus = Initial Stress / Initial Strain   Initial Stress:taken as mean force from secs and then dividing by the Contact Area   Initial Strain:calculated at the 1.5 second point

30 SMSSMS TA.XT2i Texture Analyser (c) Stable Micro Systems, 1996 TPA Potential   TPA has been well received and used extensively since its development in BUT...   Has on few occasions been critically examined and modifications have been proposed but not universally accepted.   There are 2 ways to attempt to satisfy such criticisms: 1 1 change the name of the parameter to fit the definition, or 2 2 change the definition of the parameter (i.e. change the calculations) to fit the name.   Texture Expert allows total flexibility for both of these.


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