Presentation on theme: "Group Dynamics. Groups Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. A group can."— Presentation transcript:
Groups Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. A group can be defined as a small group of people with complementary skills and abilities who are committed to a leader's goal and approach and are willing to be held accountable by the leader
Groups Formal A designated work group defined by the organization's structure. Designated work assignments. Directed towards organizational goals Informal A group that is neither formally nor informally structured nor organizationally determined ; appears in response to the need of social interactions. Friendship groups; kitty groups
Need to join Groups Security. Status. Self Esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement
Pivotal Studies in the Origins of Group Dynamics Sherif (1936) investigated social norms among groups of people one of the first studies that studied group phenomena experimentally Newcomb (1939) topic similar to Sherif used naturalistic observation showed that attitudes of individuals are strongly related to the groups to which they belong
Pivotal studies, cont. Whyte (1937) study of social clubs, political organizations, and racketeering use of participant observer technique Contributions (Whyte, 1937) dramatized the great significance of groups in the lives of individuals gave impetus to the interpretation of group properties and processes in terms of interactions generated new hypothesis concerning intra group relations
Pivotal studies, cont. Lewin, Lippitt, and White (1939) studied influences of leadership style on group and its members found that individual members were transferred from one group to another their aggressiveness change to approach the new group level Earliest use of the phrase “group dynamics”
Work Groups vs. Work Teams Work group -- collection of two or more people who interact with one another and share some interrelated task goals Work team -- a work group with 3 specific properties: actions of individuals must be interdependent and coordinated each member must have a particular, specified role. there must be common task goals and objectives.
Groups vs. Teams GroupsTeams MembersIndependentInterdependent GoalsIndividual/groupMutual Cognizance of membership Individual may not know Individuals know LeadershipIdentifiedShared ProductsIndividualCollective RewardIndividualCollective ConflictReactiveExpected
Types of Groups / Teams Command Group- composed of individuals who directly report to a given manager. Task Group- Individuals working together to complete a task. Self Managed-Individuals who operate without a manager and responsible for complete work process/ segment
Autonomous Work Groups Alternative organizational structuring where an entire product (or service) is produced (or provided) by a small group of employees Properties differ by setting Job satisfaction higher than in traditional structures Job performance equal to traditional in manufacturing organizations higher than traditional in non-manufactoring organizations
Types of Groups/Teams Virtual teams- Teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Cross Functional teams – Hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on a specified task.
Types of Groups/Teams Problem solving teams – Employees form the same department and functional areas who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or solve specific problems.
Quality Circles Groups of employees who meet periodically to discuss problems and propose solutions relevant to their jobs Benefits (in theory) individuals enjoy greater participation welcome break from routine better production procedures Problem: Usually considered a parallel function; have no enforcing power.
Properties of Groups Roles -- can be formal or informal Norms -- unwritten rules of behavior Group cohesiveness -- sum of forces keeping the group together Process loss -- time and effort expended on activities not directly related to task accomplishment
Role Structures Roles Parts individuals play in groups in helping the group reach its goals. Role Structure Set of defined roles and interrelationships among roles group members define and accept. Role Ambiguity When the sent role is unclear. Role Overload When role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities.
Characteristics of Groups and Teams The Development of a Role The first two stages of role development are group processes as the group members let the individuals know what is expected of them. The other two parts are individual processes as the new group members perceive and enact their roles. Expected role Sent role Perceived role Enacted role
Role Structures Role Conflict Inter-role Conflict: Conflict between roles. Intra-role Conflict: Conflicting demands from different sources. Intra-sender Conflict: When a single source sends contradictory messages. Person-role Conflict: Discrepancy between role requirements and an individual’s values, attitudes, and needs.
Behavioral Norms Norms Standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members. Factors contributing to norm conformity: Peer pressure Stimulus prompting group behavior Individual traits Situational factors Socialization Norm conformity that occurs when a person goes from outsider to insider.
Group Cohesiveness Factors increasing cohesiveness Inter-group competition Personal attraction Favorable evaluation Agreement on goals Interaction Factors reducing cohesiveness Group size Disagreement on goals Intra-group competition Domination Unpleasant experiences
The Interaction Between Cohesiveness and Performance Norms ModeratePerformanceModeratePerformance LowPerformanceLowPerformance HighPerformanceHighPerformance LowPerformanceLowPerformance High High Low Group Cohesiveness Performance Norms
Group Polarization Tendency for people to exaggerate preexisting attitudes as a result of group discussion. They move to more extreme shared attitudes.
Group Polarization Are groups more conservative or riskier decision makers than individuals? Group Polarization -- the groups decision tends to be more extreme than the mean of its individuals. Why? -- pressure from majority to make minority conform
Factors affecting Group Performance Performance in the presence of others -- effect depends on type of task Performance on additive tasks vs. nominal groups Process Loss Social Loafing -- effort per person decreases as group size increases
Social Loafing and Dealing with it The tendency for people to reduce their efforts on common goal or simple tasks when their efforts are pooled. Dealing 1. Motivation. - Increase sense of personal responsibility. - Feel that contributions are important. 2. Identification. 3. Make the activity interesting. 4. Optimize interpersonal trust.
Groupthink Definition: when groups make decisions that individual members are expected to confirm to. Factors leading to groupthink: group cohesiveness (unnecessary according to Aldag & Fuller, 1993) group isolation pressure for conformity strong leader
Groupthink, cont. Avoiding groupthink: group leaders should serve as impartial moderators Group members at every stage of the decision- making process should critically evaluate decision alternatives Groups should periodically break into smaller subgroups to discuss critical issues Group members should discuss issues with subordinates