3GroupsTwo or more individuals , interacting and interdependent , who have come together to achieve particular objectives.A group can be defined as a small group of people with complementary skills and abilities who are committed to a leader's goal and approach and are willing to be held accountable by the leader
4GroupsFormalA designated work group defined by the organization's structure.Designated work assignments.Directed towards organizational goalsInformalA group that is neither formally nor informally structured nor organizationally determined ; appears in response to the need of social interactions.Friendship groups; kitty groups
5Need to join Groups Security. Status. Self Esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement
6Pivotal Studies in the Origins of Group Dynamics Sherif (1936)investigated social norms among groups of peopleone of the first studies that studied group phenomena experimentallyNewcomb (1939)topic similar to Sherifused naturalistic observationshowed that attitudes of individuals are strongly related to the groups to which they belong
7Pivotal studies, cont. Whyte (1937) study of social clubs, political organizations, and racketeeringuse of participant observer techniqueContributions (Whyte, 1937)dramatized the great significance of groups in the lives of individualsgave impetus to the interpretation of group properties and processes in terms of interactionsgenerated new hypothesis concerning intra group relations
8Pivotal studies, cont. Lewin, Lippitt, and White (1939) studied influences of leadership style on group and its membersfound that individual members were transferred from one group to another their aggressiveness change to approach the new group levelEarliest use of the phrase “group dynamics”
9Work Groups vs. Work Teams Work group -- collection of two or more people who interact with one another and share some interrelated task goalsWork team -- a work group with 3 specific properties:actions of individuals must be interdependent and coordinatedeach member must have a particular, specified role.there must be common task goals and objectives.
10Groups vs. Teams Groups Teams Members Independent Interdependent Goals Individual/groupMutualCognizance of membershipIndividual may not knowIndividuals knowLeadershipIdentifiedSharedProductsIndividualCollectiveRewardConflictReactiveExpected
11Types of Groups / TeamsCommand Group- composed of individuals who directly report to a given manager.Task Group- Individuals working together to complete a task.Self Managed-Individuals who operate without a manager and responsible for complete work process/ segment
12Autonomous Work Groups Alternative organizational structuring where an entire product (or service) is produced (or provided) by a small group of employeesProperties differ by settingJob satisfaction higher than in traditional structuresJob performanceequal to traditional in manufacturing organizationshigher than traditional in non-manufactoring organizations
13Types of Groups/TeamsVirtual teams- Teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.Cross Functional teams – Hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on a specified task.
14Types of Groups/TeamsProblem solving teams – Employees form the same department and functional areas who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or solve specific problems.
15Quality CirclesGroups of employees who meet periodically to discuss problems and propose solutions relevant to their jobsBenefits (in theory)individuals enjoy greater participationwelcome break from routinebetter production proceduresProblem: Usually considered a parallel function; have no enforcing power.
16Properties of Groups Roles -- can be formal or informal Norms -- unwritten rules of behaviorGroup cohesiveness -- sum of forces keeping the group togetherProcess loss -- time and effort expended on activities not directly related to task accomplishment
17Role Structures Roles Role Structure Role Ambiguity Role Overload Parts individuals play in groups in helping the group reach its goals.Role StructureSet of defined roles and interrelationships among roles group members define and accept.Role AmbiguityWhen the sent role is unclear.Role OverloadWhen role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities.
18Characteristics of Groups and Teams The Development of a RoleThe first two stages of role development are group processes as the group members let the individuals know what is expected of them.The other two parts are individual processes as the new group members perceive and enact their roles.ExpectedroleSentPerceivedEnacted
19Role Structures Role Conflict Inter-role Conflict: Conflict between roles.Intra-role Conflict: Conflicting demands from different sources.Intra-sender Conflict: When a single source sends contradictory messages.Person-role Conflict: Discrepancy between role requirements and an individual’s values, attitudes, and needs.
20Behavioral Norms Norms Factors contributing to norm conformity: Standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members.Factors contributing to norm conformity:Peer pressureStimulus prompting group behaviorIndividual traitsSituational factorsSocializationNorm conformity that occurs when a person goes from outsider to insider.
21Group Cohesiveness Factors increasing cohesiveness Inter-group competitionPersonal attractionFavorable evaluationAgreement on goalsInteractionFactors reducing cohesivenessGroup sizeDisagreement on goalsIntra-group competitionDominationUnpleasant experiences
22The Interaction Between Cohesiveness and Performance Norms HighModeratePerformanceHighPerformancePerformance NormsLowPerformanceLowPerformanceLowHighGroup Cohesiveness
23Group Polarization Tendency for people to exaggerate preexisting attitudes as a result ofgroup discussion. They move to moreextreme shared attitudes.
24Group PolarizationAre groups more conservative or riskier decision makers than individuals?Group Polarization -- the groups decision tends to be more extreme than the mean of its individuals.Why? -- pressure from majority to make minority conform
25Factors affecting Group Performance Performance in the presence of others -- effect depends on type of taskPerformance on additive tasks vs. nominal groupsProcess LossSocial Loafing -- effort per person decreases as group size increases
26Social Loafing and Dealing with it The tendency for people to reduce their efforts on common goal or simple tasks when their efforts are pooled.Dealing1. Motivation.- Increase sense of personal responsibility.- Feel that contributions are important.2. Identification.3. Make the activity interesting.4. Optimize interpersonal trust.
27GroupthinkDefinition: when groups make decisions that individual members are expected to confirm to.Factors leading to groupthink:group cohesiveness (unnecessary according to Aldag & Fuller, 1993)group isolationpressure for conformitystrong leader
28Groupthink, cont. Avoiding groupthink: group leaders should serve as impartial moderatorsGroup members at every stage of the decision-making process should critically evaluate decision alternativesGroups should periodically break into smaller subgroups to discuss critical issuesGroup members should discuss issues with subordinates