2Group Dynamics Group stage Forming Storming Norming Performing Group roles
3Group/Team Development based on Tuckman's Stages of Group FORMINGPeople act politely, superficially. No one mentions the elephant in the corner, the nagging question: Will they accept me as a member of this group? STORMINGOnce people feel like legitimate members, they ask, “How much influence do I have in this group?” A battle for control ensues. NORMINGKnowing how much (or how little) influence they have, members tire of wrangling, develop their own rules (norms) and get down to work. Everyone acts alike. PERFORMINGEveryone’s acting alike proves inefficient. As members accept each others’ different talents, the group works better.
4Forming Testing Emphasis on defining the tasks of the group Look to leader for guidance and directionAvoid controversySerious topics and feelings are avoided
5Form stage Dependent on direction Members are polite First stage – behavior of group members can be described as :Dependent on directionMembers are politeIntroduction and sharing of informationStereotyping individuals based on first impressionsConversations are about safe acceptable topicsAvoid disclosure, feedback, and interpreting non-verbals.
6FormingTo move on to the next stage each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk conflict.
7StormingIntra-group conflict over leadership, structure, power, and authorityCompetition among group membersEmotional expressionDo we have common goals and objectives?Do we agree on roles and responsibilities?Use a table to share division of laborDo our task, communication, and decision systems work?Do we have adequate interpersonal skills?
8StormingDiscomfort in this stage causes some members to remain silent while others attempt to dominateIn order to move on to the next stage members must move from a “testing and proving” mentality to a problem-solving mentality.
9Storm stageSecond stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as:Counter-dependent: each group member strongly feels the need to take care of himself/herself during this stageBid for powerCompetitiveRationalizationClose-mindedConflict/hostilityCliques are formed
10Storm stage - continued Unexpressed individual needsCreativity suppressedTry to reach resolution by vote, compromise, or arbitration
11Negotiating Conflict Separate problem issues from people issues Be soft on people, hard on problemLook for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutionsFind a creative solution that’s good for bothSee lesson plan for more background on the various ways people or teams deal with conflict ( from The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel):Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict withSmooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained.Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position.Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Sounds good, but this can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked)Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. Continued on next slide
12Addressing the Problem Problem SolvingState your views in clear non-judgmental languageClarify the core issuesListen carefully to each person’s point of viewCheck understanding of the disagreement by restating the core issuesUse techniques such as circling the group for comments and having some silent thinking time when emotions run highProblem solving includes strategies aimed at taking diverse viewpoints into account, clarifying the issues, clearing the air constructively and enabling everyone to move forward together.You can clarify core issues by sorting out areas of agreement from areas of disagreementWhen listening to each person’s point of view –Accept that they believe/want this even if you don’t!!Look for the reasons (maybe something would be good for both)
13Norming Development of group cohesion Establishment of individual roles in the groupMembers willing to accept ideas and opinions of other members based on facts presented
14Norming Members share ideas and feelings Members solicit and give feedbackMembers feel good about being part of an effective groupMembers may fear the inevitable future breakup of the group
15Norm stage Independent and constructive Real listening takes place Third stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as:Independent and constructiveReal listening takes placeAttempts to gain and maintain control lessenProgress toward objectivesCreativity beginsRoles identifiedThe leader may become somewhat less identifiable or necessary to the group
16Guide for Giving Constructive Feedback When you …. describe behaviorI feel ….. how behavior affects youBecause I … why behavior affects you(Pause for discussion) …. let other person(s) respondI would like …. what change would you likeBecause …. why change will alleviate problemWhat do you think …. Listen to other person’s response and discuss optionsThis is a guideline on how to approach constructive feedback. It is in the form of:When you [do this], I feel [this way], because of [such and such]. (Pause) What I would like you to consider is [doing X], because I think it will accomplish [Y]. What do you think?Example:"When you are late for meetings, I get angry because I think it is wasting the time of all of the other team members and we are never able to get through our agenda items. (Pause) I would like you to consider finding some way of planning your schedule that lets you get to these meetings on time. That way we can be more productive at meetings and we can all keep to our tight schedules."Giving constructive feedback or learning how to criticize constructively is a lesson that many people have not learned, but an important one if teams are to succeed.
17Giving Constructive Feedback Be descriptiveDon't use labelsDon’t exaggerateDon’t be judgmentalSpeak for yourselfBe descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examplesDon’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it.Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issueDon’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child.Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves
18Giving Constructive Feedback (cont.) Talk first about yourself, not about the other personPhrase the issue as a statement, not a questionRestrict your feedback to things you know for certainHelp people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedbackTalk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used.Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you.Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts.Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.
19Receiving Feedback Breathe Listen carefully Ask questions for clarity Acknowledge the feedbackAcknowledge the valid pointsTake time to sort out what you heardBreathe. Our bodies are conditioned to react to stressful situations as though they were physical assaults. Taking full, deep breaths forces your body to relax and allows your brain to maintain greater alertness.Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver.Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples.Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said.Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgment about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsibleTake time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.
20Performing Most productive phase Members are highly task oriented and highly people orientedGroup identity is completeGroup morale is highEmphasis on achievement
21Performing Functional stage Not reached by all groups Interdependence Roles and authorities adjust to changing needs
22Perform stage Independent High group morale and esprit Fourth stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as:IndependentHigh group morale and espritIntense group loyaltyIndividual creativity is encouragedDisagreement is okNo cliquesGroup adopts an identification symbol
23Recipe for Successful Team Effective systems and processesClear communicationBeneficial team behaviorsWell-defined decision proceduresUse of scientific approachBalanced participationEstablished ground rulesAwareness of the group processClear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting.Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressingWell-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by pollingBalanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talentsEstablished ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the teamAwareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works togetherUse the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data
24Recipe for Successful Team Commitment to shared goals and objectivesClearly defined roles and responsibilitiesUse best skills of each memberAllows each to develop in all areasTo summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance.Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals.A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or researchClearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
25Adjourn stage Less task ability Regression to less productive behavior Fifth stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as:Less task abilityRegression to less productive behaviorSeparation, grieving behaviorsRe-definitionTermination or mini-death
26Adjourning May create apprehension Members give up inclusion in group Need strategies that facilitate task termination and disengagementb
27Stages of team development and associated management challenges FORMING(Orientation)1. Establish structure, rules, communication networks2. Clarify relations and interdependencies among members3. Identify leader roles, clarify responsibility and authority4. Develop plans for goals accomplishment.STORMING (Internal problemsolving)1. Identify and resolve interpersonal conflict.2. Further clarify rules, goals, and structural relationships3. Develop participate climate among group membersNORMING(Growth andproductivity)1. Direct group activity toward goal accomplishment.2. Develop data-flow & feedback systems for task performance.3. Promote more cohesion among group membersPERFORMING(Evaluationand control)1. Leader role emphasis on facilitation, feedback, and evaluation.2. Renewal, revision, and strengthening of roles and groupinterdependencies.3. Show of strong motivation toward goal accomplishment
28Nine Team Roles Plant Resource investigator Creative , imaginative, unorthodox, solves difficult problemsExtrovert , enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities , develops contacts.Weaknesses- plant- ignores details. Too preoccupied to communicate effectivelyR –investigator- overoptimistic , losses interest once initial enthu has passed
29Nine Team Roles Coordinator Shaper Mature confident , a good chairperson, clarifies goals, promotes decision making , delegates wellChallenging , dynamic, thrives on pressure, has the drive and courage to overcome obstacles.Weakness- coordinator- manipulative, delegates personal wrk.Shaper- can provoke others , hurts people’s feelings
30Nine Team Roles Monitor, evaluator Team Worker Sober, strategic and discerning , sees all options and judges accuratelyCooperative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic , listens and builds averts friction , calms the waters.Weakness- monitor- lacks drive and ability to inspire , overly critical.Team worker – indecisive in crunch situations , can be easily influenced.
31Nine Team Roles Implementer Completer Disciplined , reliable , conservative and efficient, , turns ideas into practical actions.Painstaking , conscientious, anxious, searches out errors and omissions, delivers on timeWeakness- implementer- inflexible, slow to respond to new possibilities.Completer- inclined to worry unduly, reluctant to delegate, can be nit picker.
32Leadership styles Solo leader Plays unlimited role Strives for conformityCollects acolytesDirects subordinatesProjects objectivesTeam LeaderChooses to limit roleBuilds on diversitySeeks talentDevelops colleaguesCreates mission.
33Self managed work teams Much of the authority rests with the teamDistinct product or serviceInterdependent activitiesMission, scope and budget predeterminedAuthority for operating decisionsPotential Challenges
34What an effective team leader can do Realize the need for individualityTeamwork is an ongoing negotiationFacilitates different views into consensusChallenges team to meet individual needsProvide work alone or with team
35The L.E.A.D. Model Lead with a clear purpose Empower to participate Aim for consensusDirect the process
36Aim for consensus Consensus? Help people move toward general agreementBring as many ideas, opinions, and conflicts to the tableHelp find the approach that best meets the needs of the organization & team membersResponsibility of leader to act on decision or to empower the team to direct the processUse various techniques to help the team complete their workBe aware of methods and practices that help team members work well togetherDirect does not mean to order the team around