Group Dynamics Group stage Forming Forming Storming Storming Norming Norming Performing Performing Group roles
Group/Team Development based on Tuckman's Stages of GroupTuckman's Stages of Group FORMING People act politely, superficially. No one mentions the elephant in the corner, the nagging question: Will they accept me as a member of this group? STORMING Once people feel like legitimate members, they ask, “How much influence do I have in this group?” A battle for control ensues. NORMING Knowing how much (or how little) influence they have, members tire of wrangling, develop their own rules (norms) and get down to work. Everyone acts alike. PERFORMING Everyone’s acting alike proves inefficient. As members accept each others’ different talents, the group works better.
Forming Testing Emphasis on defining the tasks of the group Look to leader for guidance and direction Avoid controversy Serious topics and feelings are avoided
Form stage First stage – behavior of group members can be described as : Dependent on direction Members are polite Introduction and sharing of information Stereotyping individuals based on first impressions Conversations are about safe acceptable topics Avoid disclosure, feedback, and interpreting non- verbals.
Forming To move on to the next stage each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk conflict.
Storming Intra-group conflict over leadership, structure, power, and authority Competition among group members Emotional expression Do we have common goals and objectives? Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? Use a table to share division of labor Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? Do we have adequate interpersonal skills?
Storming Discomfort in this stage causes some members to remain silent while others attempt to dominate In order to move on to the next stage members must move from a “testing and proving” mentality to a problem- solving mentality.
Storm stage Second stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Counter-dependent: each group member strongly feels the need to take care of himself/herself during this stage Bid for power Competitive Rationalization Close-minded Conflict/hostility Cliques are formed
Storm stage - continued Unexpressed individual needs Creativity suppressed Try to reach resolution by vote, compromise, or arbitration
Negotiating Conflict Separate problem issues from people issues Be soft on people, hard on problem Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions Find a creative solution that’s good for both
Addressing the Problem Problem Solving State your views in clear non-judgmental language Clarify the core issues Listen carefully to each person’s point of view Check understanding of the disagreement by restating the core issues Use techniques such as circling the group for comments and having some silent thinking time when emotions run high
Norming Development of group cohesion Establishment of individual roles in the group Members willing to accept ideas and opinions of other members based on facts presented
Norming Members share ideas and feelings Members solicit and give feedback Members feel good about being part of an effective group Members may fear the inevitable future breakup of the group
Norm stage Third stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Independent and constructive Real listening takes place Attempts to gain and maintain control lessen Progress toward objectives Creativity begins Roles identified The leader may become somewhat less identifiable or necessary to the group
Guide for Giving Constructive Feedback When you …. describe behavior I feel ….. how behavior affects you Because I … why behavior affects you (Pause for discussion) …. let other person(s) respond I would like …. what change would you like Because …. why change will alleviate problem What do you think …. Listen to other person’s response and discuss options
Giving Constructive Feedback Be descriptive Don't use labels Don’t exaggerate Don’t be judgmental Speak for yourself
Giving Constructive Feedback (cont.) Talk first about yourself, not about the other person Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback
Receiving Feedback Breathe Listen carefully Ask questions for clarity Acknowledge the feedback Acknowledge the valid points Take time to sort out what you heard
Performing Most productive phase Members are highly task oriented and highly people oriented Group identity is complete Group morale is high Emphasis on achievement
Performing Functional stage Not reached by all groups Interdependence Roles and authorities adjust to changing needs
Perform stage Fourth stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Independent High group morale and esprit Intense group loyalty Individual creativity is encouraged Disagreement is ok No cliques Group adopts an identification symbol
Recipe for Successful Team Effective systems and processes Clear communication Beneficial team behaviors Well-defined decision procedures Use of scientific approach Balanced participation Established ground rules Awareness of the group process
Recipe for Successful Team Commitment to shared goals and objectives Clearly defined roles and responsibilities Use best skills of each member Allows each to develop in all areas
Adjourn stage Fifth stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Less task ability Regression to less productive behavior Separation, grieving behaviors Re-definition Termination or mini-death
Adjourning May create apprehension Members give up inclusion in group Need strategies that facilitate task termination and disengagement
Stages of team development and associated management challenges FORMING (Orientation) STORMING (Internal problem solving) NORMING (Growth and productivity) PERFORMING (Evaluation and control) 1. Establish structure, rules, communication networks 2. Clarify relations and interdependencies among members 3. Identify leader roles, clarify responsibility and authority 4. Develop plans for goals accomplishment. 1. Identify and resolve interpersonal conflict. 2. Further clarify rules, goals, and structural relationships 3. Develop participate climate among group members 1. Direct group activity toward goal accomplishment. 2. Develop data-flow & feedback systems for task performance. 3. Promote more cohesion among group members 1. Leader role emphasis on facilitation, feedback, and evaluation. 2. Renewal, revision, and strengthening of roles and group interdependencies. 3. Show of strong motivation toward goal accomplishment
Nine Team Roles Plant Resource investigator Creative, imaginative, unorthodox, solves difficult problems Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities, develops contacts.
Nine Team Roles Coordinator Shaper Mature confident, a good chairperson, clarifies goals, promotes decision making, delegates well Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure, has the drive and courage to overcome obstacles.
Nine Team Roles Monitor, evaluator Team Worker Sober, strategic and discerning, sees all options and judges accurately Cooperative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic, listens and builds averts friction, calms the waters.
Nine Team Roles Implementer Completer Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient,, turns ideas into practical actions. Painstaking, conscientious, anxious, searches out errors and omissions, delivers on time
Leadership styles Solo leader Plays unlimited role Strives for conformity Collects acolytes Directs subordinates Projects objectives Team Leader Chooses to limit role Builds on diversity Seeks talent Develops colleagues Creates mission.
Self managed work teams Much of the authority rests with the team Distinct product or service Interdependent activities Mission, scope and budget predetermined Authority for operating decisions Potential Challenges
What an effective team leader can do Realize the need for individuality Teamwork is an ongoing negotiation Facilitates different views into consensus Challenges team to meet individual needs Provide work alone or with team
The L.E.A.D. Model Lead with a clear purpose Empower to participate Aim for consensus Direct the process
Aim for consensus Consensus? Help people move toward general agreement Bring as many ideas, opinions, and conflicts to the table Help find the approach that best meets the needs of the organization & team members Responsibility of leader to act on decision or to empower the team to direct the process Use various techniques to help the team complete their work Be aware of methods and practices that help team members work well together Direct does not mean to order the team around