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Group formation and Team building

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Presentation on theme: "Group formation and Team building"— Presentation transcript:

1 Group formation and Team building

2 Group Dynamics Group stage Forming Storming Norming Performing
Group roles

3 Group/Team Development based on Tuckman's Stages of Group
FORMING People act politely, superficially.  No one mentions the elephant in the corner, the nagging question: Will they accept me as a member of this group?  STORMING Once people feel like legitimate members, they ask, “How much influence do I have in this group?”  A battle for control ensues.  NORMING Knowing how much (or how little) influence they have, members tire of wrangling, develop their own rules (norms) and get down to work.  Everyone acts alike.  PERFORMING Everyone’s acting alike proves inefficient.  As members accept each others’ different talents, the group works better.

4 Forming Testing Emphasis on defining the tasks of the group
Look to leader for guidance and direction Avoid controversy Serious topics and feelings are avoided

5 Form stage Dependent on direction Members are polite
First stage – behavior of group members can be described as : Dependent on direction Members are polite Introduction and sharing of information Stereotyping individuals based on first impressions Conversations are about safe acceptable topics Avoid disclosure, feedback, and interpreting non-verbals.

6 Forming To move on to the next stage each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk conflict.

7 Storming Intra-group conflict over leadership, structure, power, and authority Competition among group members Emotional expression Do we have common goals and objectives? Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? Use a table to share division of labor Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? Do we have adequate interpersonal skills?

8 Storming Discomfort in this stage causes some members to remain silent while others attempt to dominate In order to move on to the next stage members must move from a “testing and proving” mentality to a problem-solving mentality.

9 Storm stage Second stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Counter-dependent: each group member strongly feels the need to take care of himself/herself during this stage Bid for power Competitive Rationalization Close-minded Conflict/hostility Cliques are formed

10 Storm stage - continued
Unexpressed individual needs Creativity suppressed Try to reach resolution by vote, compromise, or arbitration

11 Negotiating Conflict Separate problem issues from people issues
Be soft on people, hard on problem Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions Find a creative solution that’s good for both See lesson plan for more background on the various ways people or teams deal with conflict ( from The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel): Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict with Smooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained. Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position. Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Sounds good, but this can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked) Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. Continued on next slide

12 Addressing the Problem
Problem Solving State your views in clear non-judgmental language Clarify the core issues Listen carefully to each person’s point of view Check understanding of the disagreement by restating the core issues Use techniques such as circling the group for comments and having some silent thinking time when emotions run high Problem solving includes strategies aimed at taking diverse viewpoints into account, clarifying the issues, clearing the air constructively and enabling everyone to move forward together. You can clarify core issues by sorting out areas of agreement from areas of disagreement When listening to each person’s point of view – Accept that they believe/want this even if you don’t!! Look for the reasons (maybe something would be good for both)

13 Norming Development of group cohesion
Establishment of individual roles in the group Members willing to accept ideas and opinions of other members based on facts presented

14 Norming Members share ideas and feelings
Members solicit and give feedback Members feel good about being part of an effective group Members may fear the inevitable future breakup of the group

15 Norm stage Independent and constructive Real listening takes place
Third stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Independent and constructive Real listening takes place Attempts to gain and maintain control lessen Progress toward objectives Creativity begins Roles identified The leader may become somewhat less identifiable or necessary to the group

16 Guide for Giving Constructive Feedback
When you …. describe behavior I feel ….. how behavior affects you Because I … why behavior affects you (Pause for discussion) …. let other person(s) respond I would like …. what change would you like Because …. why change will alleviate problem What do you think …. Listen to other person’s response and discuss options This is a guideline on how to approach constructive feedback. It is in the form of: When you [do this], I feel [this way], because of [such and such]. (Pause) What I would like you to consider is [doing X], because I think it will accomplish [Y]. What do you think? Example: "When you are late for meetings, I get angry because I think it is wasting the time of all of the other team members and we are never able to get through our agenda items. (Pause) I would like you to consider finding some way of planning your schedule that lets you get to these meetings on time. That way we can be more productive at meetings and we can all keep to our tight schedules." Giving constructive feedback or learning how to criticize constructively is a lesson that many people have not learned, but an important one if teams are to succeed.

17 Giving Constructive Feedback
Be descriptive Don't use labels Don’t exaggerate Don’t be judgmental Speak for yourself Be descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examples Don’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it. Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issue Don’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child. Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves

18 Giving Constructive Feedback (cont.)
Talk first about yourself, not about the other person Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used. Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you. Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts. Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.

19 Receiving Feedback Breathe Listen carefully Ask questions for clarity
Acknowledge the feedback Acknowledge the valid points Take time to sort out what you heard Breathe. Our bodies are conditioned to react to stressful situations as though they were physical assaults. Taking full, deep breaths forces your body to relax and allows your brain to maintain greater alertness. Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver. Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples. Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said. Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgment about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsible Take time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.

20 Performing Most productive phase
Members are highly task oriented and highly people oriented Group identity is complete Group morale is high Emphasis on achievement

21 Performing Functional stage Not reached by all groups Interdependence
Roles and authorities adjust to changing needs

22 Perform stage Independent High group morale and esprit
Fourth stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Independent High group morale and esprit Intense group loyalty Individual creativity is encouraged Disagreement is ok No cliques Group adopts an identification symbol

23 Recipe for Successful Team
Effective systems and processes Clear communication Beneficial team behaviors Well-defined decision procedures Use of scientific approach Balanced participation Established ground rules Awareness of the group process Clear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting. Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressing Well-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by polling Balanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talents Established ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the team Awareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works together Use the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data

24 Recipe for Successful Team
Commitment to shared goals and objectives Clearly defined roles and responsibilities Use best skills of each member Allows each to develop in all areas To summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance. Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals. A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or research Clearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.

25 Adjourn stage Less task ability Regression to less productive behavior
Fifth stage – behavior of the group can be characterized as: Less task ability Regression to less productive behavior Separation, grieving behaviors Re-definition Termination or mini-death

26 Adjourning May create apprehension Members give up inclusion in group
Need strategies that facilitate task termination and disengagement b

27 Stages of team development and associated management challenges
FORMING (Orientation) 1. Establish structure, rules, communication networks 2. Clarify relations and interdependencies among members 3. Identify leader roles, clarify responsibility and authority 4. Develop plans for goals accomplishment. STORMING (Internal problem solving) 1. Identify and resolve interpersonal conflict. 2. Further clarify rules, goals, and structural relationships 3. Develop participate climate among group members NORMING (Growth and productivity) 1. Direct group activity toward goal accomplishment. 2. Develop data-flow & feedback systems for task performance. 3. Promote more cohesion among group members PERFORMING (Evaluation and control) 1. Leader role emphasis on facilitation, feedback, and evaluation. 2. Renewal, revision, and strengthening of roles and group interdependencies. 3. Show of strong motivation toward goal accomplishment

28 Nine Team Roles Plant Resource investigator
Creative , imaginative, unorthodox, solves difficult problems Extrovert , enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities , develops contacts. Weaknesses- plant- ignores details. Too preoccupied to communicate effectively R –investigator- overoptimistic , losses interest once initial enthu has passed

29 Nine Team Roles Coordinator Shaper
Mature confident , a good chairperson, clarifies goals, promotes decision making , delegates well Challenging , dynamic, thrives on pressure, has the drive and courage to overcome obstacles. Weakness- coordinator- manipulative, delegates personal wrk. Shaper- can provoke others , hurts people’s feelings

30 Nine Team Roles Monitor, evaluator Team Worker
Sober, strategic and discerning , sees all options and judges accurately Cooperative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic , listens and builds averts friction , calms the waters. Weakness- monitor- lacks drive and ability to inspire , overly critical. Team worker – indecisive in crunch situations , can be easily influenced.

31 Nine Team Roles Implementer Completer
Disciplined , reliable , conservative and efficient, , turns ideas into practical actions. Painstaking , conscientious, anxious, searches out errors and omissions, delivers on time Weakness- implementer- inflexible, slow to respond to new possibilities. Completer- inclined to worry unduly, reluctant to delegate, can be nit picker.

32 Leadership styles Solo leader Plays unlimited role
Strives for conformity Collects acolytes Directs subordinates Projects objectives Team Leader Chooses to limit role Builds on diversity Seeks talent Develops colleagues Creates mission.

33 Self managed work teams
Much of the authority rests with the team Distinct product or service Interdependent activities Mission, scope and budget predetermined Authority for operating decisions Potential Challenges

34 What an effective team leader can do
Realize the need for individuality Teamwork is an ongoing negotiation Facilitates different views into consensus Challenges team to meet individual needs Provide work alone or with team

35 The L.E.A.D. Model Lead with a clear purpose Empower to participate
Aim for consensus Direct the process

36 Aim for consensus Consensus?
Help people move toward general agreement Bring as many ideas, opinions, and conflicts to the table Help find the approach that best meets the needs of the organization & team members Responsibility of leader to act on decision or to empower the team to direct the process Use various techniques to help the team complete their work Be aware of methods and practices that help team members work well together Direct does not mean to order the team around

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