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Prof. NGUYEN QUANG (Ph.D.) CROSS-CULTURALCOMMUNICATION.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. NGUYEN QUANG (Ph.D.) CROSS-CULTURALCOMMUNICATION."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Prof. NGUYEN QUANG (Ph.D.) CROSS-CULTURALCOMMUNICATION

3 BACKGROUNDCONCEPTS

4 Food Language Appearance Communication Style Beliefs Attitudes Perceptions Values WHAT CULTURE?

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6 customs: dating customs No Information given In the vietnamese culture Brief notes to explain AUSRN 1 Young men and women go to parties/ social events together, which means they are in serious relationship. 2 In their mid-teen (around the ages of 14 or 15), boys and girls start their dates. 3 It is men who ask women on date, not women. 4 It is acceptable if people at the age of 18 stay overnight at their dates’ house. 5 The man, not the woman goes to collect his date at her home. 6 The children’s dates are of the parents’ concern.

7 No Information given In the vietnamese culture Brief notes to explain AUSRN 7 It is the fact that if someone brings his/her date home and introduces him/her to the parents, which means they have a serious relationship. 8 It is men who pay for expenses on dates. 9 It is normal if people kiss each other in public. 10 People date with many people before setting up a long-term and serious relationship. 11 It is normal if female drinks alcohol on a date. 12 Men should be a little bit earlier on dates than women.

8 customs: dating customs No Information given In the american culture Brief notes to explain AUSRN 1 Young man and women go to parties/ social event together, which means they are in serious relationship.v 2 In their mid-teen (around the ages of 14 or 15), boys and girls start their dates.v 3 It is men who ask women on date, not women.vv 4 It is acceptable if people at the age of 18 stay overnight at their dates’ house.vv 5 The man, not the woman goes to collect his date at her home.vv 6 The children’s dates are of the parents’ concern.v

9 No Information given In the american culture Brief notes to explain AUSRN 7 It is the fact that if someone brings his/her date home and introduces him/her to the parents, which means they have a serious relationship. v 8 It is men who pay for expenses on dates. vv 9 It is normal if people kiss each other in public. vv 10 People date with many people before setting up a long-term and serious relationship. vv 11 It is normal if female drinks alcohol on a date. v 12 Men should be a little bit earlier on dates than women. v

10 Household budget management M. I: Common cash M. II: Separate cash M. III: Mine-Yours-Ours M. IV: Wife-controled M. V: Husband-controled Which model would you prefer? Why?

11 Same or different? Work in group to discuss the situations described below and decide what would happen in similar situations in the Vietnamese culture. Situations SameDifferent 1When people are invited to a party, they often take a bottle of wine or even bottles of beer. 2When invited to a dinner party, people usually arrive within fifteen minutes of the appointed time. 3At a formal party, people don’t wait to be introduced. They introduce themselves. 4When people are being introduced, they try to make direct eye contact with the other person. 5After a formal introduction people often use titles until they are asked to use first names. 6People shake hands when they meet other people for the first time, but not every time they see them after that. 7Male and female friends may kiss each other on the cheek if they see each other after a long time, or even each time they meet.

12 COMMUNICATION VERBAL COMMUNICATION NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION INTRALANGUAGEPARALANGUAGEEXTRALANGUAGE - Vocabulary - Grammatical rules - Phonetic rules - Rules of laguage use Vocal chracteristics + Pitch + Pitch + Volume + Volume + Rate + Rate + Vocal quality + Vocal quality - Types of vocal flow - Vocal interferences - Silence/Pauses -... BODY LANGUAGE OBJECT LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTAL LANGUAGE - Eye contact - Facial expressions - Physical characteristics - Gestures - Postures - Body movements - Touch/Haptics/Tactile Clothing - Jewellery/Accessories - Make-up - Perfume/Artificial scents - Flowers - Gifts - … - Setting - Conversational distance/Proxemics - Time/Chronemics - Lighting system - Colour - Heat/Humidity/Ventilation - … Nguyen Quang Nguyen Quang(1999) WHAT COMMUNICATION?

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19 SAFE AND UNSAFE TOPICS Work in groups of four or five students. Are the questions considered to be safe or not when you meet someone for the first time in an English-speaking country. Please, explain your answer. Then, compare with the Vietnamese culture.QUESTIONSSAFEUNSAFE 1. What does your husband do? 2. Do you believe in God? 3. How much money do you earn? 4. How many children do you have? 5. Why aren’t you married? 6. Why don’t you have children? 7. Do you like sports? 8. How old are you? 9. Are you a Democrat or a Republican? 10. How much was your watch? 11. Why don’t you work? 12. Are you from Britain? 13. Do you work down town? 14. What did your father do for living?

20 Good manners (From Zanger, V.V., 1993) Situations in VietnamYesNoExplain 1Imagine that you are invited to a small dinner to celebrate the graduation of a good friend. Do you bring along something to eat or drink? (What should it be, if the answer is ‘yes’?) 2You bring your friend a gift for his graduation. Will he open it during the party? 3At the party, your friend introduces you to his cousin, a woman doctor who is about 30 years old. Do you call her by her first name? 4Your friend’s cousin invites you to a party at her house next week, but you know that you will be busy then. Do you tell her you will come anyway, just to be polite? 5Do you ask your host for a drink if you are thirsty? 6Do you light up a cigarette if you feel like smoking? 7Your friend has a very nice house. Do you ask him how much it costs?

21 Good manners (From Zanger, V.V., 1993) Situations in VietnamYesNoExplain 8Dinner is served and everyone sits down. Do you begin to eat? 9The food is delicious, but you are not really hungry. Do you eat anyway, just to be polite One of the dishes is wonderful, and you would like to try a little more. Do you ask for it? 1 If your host asks you if you want more to eat, do you first say no, just to be polite? 1212 After dinner, do you help your host take the dishes out to the kitchen, to be polite? 1313 After eating, everyone leaves the table to relax. Are you shocked when your host sits down and puts his feet up on a nearby chair? 1414 Several days after the party, you want to tell your friend what a good time you had. Would you stop by his house without calling first?

22 Prof. NGUYEN QUANG (Ph.D.) VERBALCOMMUNICATION

23 POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office STRATEGY 1 Notice, attend to H (his interest, wants, needs, goods) ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. You must be thirsty. How about some orange juice?. You've got a beautiful watch. Must be very expensive, heh?. Chắc là cậu khát lắm nhỉ. Làm tí nước cam nhé?. Đồng hồ của cậu đẹp thế. Chắc đắt lắm nhỉ? STRATEGY 2 Exaggerate interest, approval, sympathy with H ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Oh, yeah, you’re perfectly right about it.. You're such a genius!. Về chuyện này thì cậu cực kì đúng.. Cậu đúng là thiên tài. STRATEGY 3 Intensify interest to H ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I come down the stairs, and what do you think I see? A huge mess all over the place, the phone's off the hook and clothes are all over.. Tớ lao ngay xuống cầu thang. Rồi cậu biết tớ thấy cái gì không? Đồ đạc thì vứt bừa bãi khắp nơi, điện thoại thì treo lủng lẳng, quần áo thì ném lung tung.

24 POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office STRATEGY 4 Use in-group identity markers ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Let's clean up the kitchen, will you?. Yes, but we shouldn't forget that Bọn mình dọn bếp đi.. Vâng, nhưng chúng ta cũng không nên quên rằng STRATEGY 5 Seek agreement ENGLISHVIETNAMESE A. I'm an MU fan. B. Oh, yeah? Me too. A. Tôi là cổ động viên của Manchester..B. Thế a? Tôi cũng thế. STRATEGY 6 Avoid disagreement ENGLISHVIETNAMESE A. Can you hear me? B. Barely. A.Cậu có nghe rõ mình nói không? B. Cũng tàm tạm. POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

25 STRATEGY 7 Presuppose/Raise/Assert common ground ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. We both are surely hungry now. Let me get something to eat.. Chắc là cả hai đứa mình đều đói rồi. Để tớ kiếm cái gì ăn đã. STRATEGY 8 Joke ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. OK if I tackle those cookies now?. Để tớ xử lí mấy cái bánh này nhé? STRATEGY 9 Assert or presuppose S's knowledge of or concern for H's wants ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I know you love roses but the florist didn't have any more, so I bought you some daisies instead.. Anh biết em rất thích hoa hồng, nhưng ngoài hàng lại hết mất rồi nên anh đành phải mua mấy bông cúc vậy POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

26 STRATEGY 10 Offer/Promise ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Take it easy. I'll help you.. Không sao đâu. Tớ sẽ giúp cậu. STRATEGY 11 Be optimistic ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I'm sure you won't mind if I borrow your bike. Này, tớ lấy xe cậu phóng ra đây một tí. STRATEGY 12 Include both S and H in the activity ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Let's have some cookies, then.. Vậy thì ta làm mấy cái bánh nhé. POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

27 STRATEGY 13 Give (or ask for) reasons ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Why don't you come and have a cup of tea?. Sao ông không qua tôi trà lá cho vui? STRATEGY 14 Assume or assert reciprocity ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I'll give you some money if you promise not to tell it to anyone.. Tớ sẽ có quà cho cậu nếu cậu hứa không nói với ai chuyện này. STRATEGY 15 Give gifts to H ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I’ve just been out shopping. Here’s hot dog for you. Like it?. Mình vừa đi chợ về. Có xúc xích cho cậu đây. Thích không? POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

28 STRATEGY 16 Comfort and encourage ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Oh, I'm sorry to hear that.. Khổ quá nhỉ STRATEGY 17 Ask personal questions ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Are you married or single?. How much do you earn a month?. Cậu đã có gia đình chưa?. Lương lậu có được không? POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

29 NEGATIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office STRATEGY 1 Be conventionally indirect ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Why for God's sake are you painting your house purple?. Tại sao đang yên đang lành anh lại sơn nhà mầu tím thế này? STRATEGY 2 Question/Hedge ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I rather think it's hopeless.. I wonder if you could possibly Tôi cũng có nghĩ là chuyện ấy có lẽ cũng vô vọng thôi.. Tôi không hiểu anh có thể đ ược không? STRATEGY 3 Be pessimistic ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I don't suppose you could type this report for me.. Có lẽ chị bận quá nên không thể đánh máy báo cáo này cho tôi được đâu nhỉ?

30 STRATEGY 4 Minimise the imposition ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I just want to ask you if I can borrow this paper. Tôi muốn hỏi xem liệu tôi có thể mượn tờ báo này được không? STRATEGY 5 Give deference ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. Excuse me. Could you tell me the time please?. Phiền anh có thể cho biết bây giờ là mấy giờ không ạ? STRATEGY 6 Apologise ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I normally wouldn't ask you this, but I’m terribly sorry, but Thường thì tôi cũng không dám phiền anh chuyện này, nhưng Tôi rất xin lỗi, nhưng NEGATIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

31 STRATEGY 7 Impersonalise S and H ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. One shouldn't do such a thing.. Người ta không nên làm những chuyện như vậy. STRATEGY 8 State the FTA as a general rule ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. We don't beat about the bush in business discussions. We go straight to the point. Right?. Trong bàn luận công việc, ta không nói quanh co. Ta phải đi thẳng vào vấn đề. Đúng không nào? STRATEGY 9 Nominalise ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. It is my pleasure to be able to inform you that Đây là niềm vui của tôi khi được thông báo với ông rằng NEGATIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

32 STRATEGY 10 Go on record as incurring a debt or not indebting H Go on record as incurring a debt or not indebting H ENGLISHVIETNAMESE. I'd be grateful if you would Tôi sẽ rất biết ơn nếu anh có thể STRATEGY 11 Avoid asking personal questions ENGLISHVIETNAMESE NEGATIVE POLITENESS STRATEGIES SITUATION: You are talking to a colleague of yours in your office

33 Positive or negative utterancesPPNP John, could you open the door, please? My hands are dirty. John, could you open the door, please? My hands are dirty. Mary, let’s open the door. Mary, let’s open the door. How old are you, Hoa? How old are you, Hoa? What would you like to drink? What would you like to drink? Some lemon tea? I know you like it. Some lemon tea? I know you like it. I know you like white coffee and this is one for you. I know you like white coffee and this is one for you. You have a beautiful watch. How much is it? You have a beautiful watch. How much is it?

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38 Johari window Known to self Not known to self Known to others Not known to others Open Hidden Or blind secretunknown

39 The Open. # Work in pairs. # Include in the OPEN pane all the items of information about yourself that you feel free to share with your friend or loved one. # Discuss whether they are the same in the anglophone cultures

40 The secret # Work individually. # Include in the SECRET pane all the items of information about yourself that you are unwilling to share with your friend or loved one. # Discuss whether they are the same in the Anglophone cultures.

41 The blind # Work in pairs # Include in the BLIND pane two items of information about your partner that you are unwilling to share with him/her. # Discuss whether they are the same with other Vietnamese.

42 The unknown # Work in pairs. # Include in the UNKNOWN pane two items of information about yourselves in the English-speaking environment. # Fancy how you would cope with them. # Discuss whether they are the same with other Vietnamese and with native speakers of English.

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46 Conversation structures Bowling style (Levine & Adelman, 1993)

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51 LOW CONTEXT CULTURES INFORMATION IMPLICITLY RECEIVED HIGHCONTEXTCULTURES INFORMATION EXPLICITLY CONVEYED JAPANESE VIETNAMESE ARABIC LATIN AMERICAN ITALIAN ENGLISH FRENCH SCANDINAVIAN (EXCEPT FINLAND) NORTH AMERICAN GERMAN SWISS-GERMAN

52 A-A-A pattern A. Greeting B. Greeting A.Asking a question? A. Answering  Adding  Asking B. Answering  Adding  Asking A.Answering  Adding  Asking B.... A.... A. or B. Closing and farewell B. Farewell

53 American conversational style SituationsTrueFalseExplain Americans don’t appreciate a person who dominates a conversation Americans listen politely until the other person has finished talking Interrupting someone who is speaking is considered rude in the U.S. Even children are taught explicitly not to interrupt Silence in a conversation is uncomfortable and is often interpreted as disapproval, disagreement or unsuccessful communication

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55 Addressing systems English Addressing system Title alone (T) Title alone (T) Title plus Last Name (TLN) Title plus Last Name (TLN) Last name alone (LN) Last name alone (LN) First name (FN): First name (FN): * Full form * Diminutive * +y (a) Terms of Endearment (TE) Terms of Endearment (TE) Multiple Names (MN) Multiple Names (MN) Kinship Term (KT) Kinship Term (KT) Kinship Term with First Name (KFN) Kinship Term with First Name (KFN) Neutral dyad I-YOU (ND) Neutral dyad I-YOU (ND) Address Form Avoidance (AFA) Address Form Avoidance (AFA)

56 Vietnamese Addressing system Circular Relationship (CR) I YOU Anh/Chị Cô/Chú Bác Ông/Bà Cô Ông/Bà Bác Cô/Chú Anh/Chị Em Cháu/Con Em

57 Horisontal Relationship-Type I (HR-I) I YOU Tao Mày Tôi Cậu Mình Cậu Tớ Cậu TớẤy Tớ Given name Mình Given name Tớ Đằng ấy Tớ Mình Đằng này Đằng ấy Đây Đấy Người ta Mình Người ta Mình/Ta Ta/Mình Ai

58 Horisontal Relationship-Type II (HR-II) I YOU Tôi Tôi Tôi Tôi Tôi Tôi Chức danh Cụ Ông/Bà Bác Cô/Chú Anh/Chị Kinship terms above “Ego"

59 Dynamic Relationship-Type I (DR-I) Em/Cháu Tôi Chức danh

60 Dynamic Relationship-Type II (DR-II) Anh/Chị/Cô/Bác/Ông/Bà/Cụ Em/Cháu/Con Title (you) Tôi (I)

61 Dynamic Relationship-Type III (DR-III) I You Anh/ChÞ C«/D×/Chó/CËu Bè/MÑ B¸c ¤ng/Bµ CôCô ¤ng/Bµ B¸c C«/D×/Chó/CËu Anh/ChÞ Em Em Ch¸u/ConCh¸u/Con Con Con Ch¸u/Con Ch¸u/Con Ch¸u/ConCh¸u/Con Ch¸u/Con Ch¸u/Con Bè/MÑ

62 CROSS-CULTURAL AWARENESS Pragmatic force EnglishVietnameseNeutralisation - I-YOU dyad familialisation - K & KF (used among family members) - CR (widely used) - DR-III Familiarity - Terms of endearment - HR-I - Terms of endearment equality - I-YOU dyad - HR-II - - DR-II respect - - T - - TLN - - HR-II respect & solidarity DR-I

63 Prof. NGUYEN QUANG (Ph.D.) NONVERBALCOMMUNICATION

64 What nonverbal communication? NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION (Nonverbal communication) PARALANGUAGE EXTRALANGUAGE - Vocal characteristics: + Pitch + Pitch + Volume + Volume + Rate + Rate + Vocal quality + Vocal quality - Types of vocal flow - Vocal interferences - Silence/Pauses -... BODY LANGUAGE OBJECT LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTAL LANGUAGE - Eye contact - Facial expressions expressions - Physical characteristics - Gestures - Postures - Body movements - Touch /Haptics /Tactile Clothing - Jewellery /Accessories - Make-up - Perfume/ Artificial scents - Gift - Flowers... - Setting - Conversational distance/ Proxemics - Time/ Chronemics - Lighting system - Colour - Heat -... [Nguyen Quang]

65 WHAT PARALANGUAGE? Paralanguage is the total sum of all vocal nonverbal cues found in communication. It is used mostly for the expression of the how rather than the what of communication. Nguyen Quang (2002)

66 VOCAL CHARACTERISTICS Vocal characteristics PitchVolumeRateVocalquality

67 Types of vocal flow 1. Wavy-Thick: 2. Wavy-Thin

68 3. Softer-Louder: 4. Louder-Softer:

69 5. Flat-Thick: 6. Flat-Thin: 5. Flat-Thick: 6. Flat-Thin:

70 7. Continuous rise: 8. Continuous fall:

71 9. Sharp-Thick: 10. Sharp-Thin:

72 silence One can utter words without saying anything. (Searle, 1962:24) One can utter words without saying anything. (Searle, 1962:24) It is not the case that the man who is silent says nothing. It is not the case that the man who is silent says nothing. (Greek proverb) Silence is also speech. (African proverb) Silence is also speech. (African proverb) Speech is silver but silence is golden. (Polish proverb) Speech is silver but silence is golden. (Polish proverb) It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open your mouth and remove all doubt. (English proverb) A man of many words has little refinement. (Japanese proverb) A man of many words has little refinement. (Japanese proverb)

73 Silence and fillers “Interactive silences, or pauses, are products of the interaction itself and can communicate various messages about the relationship between two interactants.” “Interactive silences, or pauses, are products of the interaction itself and can communicate various messages about the relationship between two interactants.” (Richmond & McCroskey, 2000) “Silence is an indispensable component of human communication without which the proper decoding of the information would be impossible.” “Silence is an indispensable component of human communication without which the proper decoding of the information would be impossible.” (Larweczka, 2002)

74 MEANINGS OF SILENCE POSITIVESILENCE promoting, solidifying or maintaining the existing relationship

75 MEANINGS OF SILENCE NEGATIVESILENCE isolating, ignoring, disagreeing, etc. which would destroy or melt away the existing good will of interaction

76 MEANINGS OF SILENCE NEUTRALSILENCE Both negative and positive values of silence exist

77 FUNCTIONS OF SILENCE EVALUATING providing judgments of another’s behavior (character, motives and personality), or showing favor or disfavor, assent or dissent 3 AFFECTING healing, wounding, solidifying, or to weakening an existing relationship 2 FACE-SAVING saving face, concealing things or being covert in public 1

78 FUNCTIONS ACTIVATING making a hint that somebody continue or stop doing something 6 HIDING hiding information but revealing feelings and attitudes 5 LINKAGE binding people together, separating or isolating someone from others 4

79 SILENCE ACROSS CULTURES Availability Availability Proportion Proportion Manifestation Manifestation

80 SILENCE ACROSS CULTURES 77% 52% 66 15% 21% 2% 19% 81% Facial expressions Gestures Touching behaviour Silence Western Europe and North America Eastern Asia 66%

81 How to classify body language Bodylanguage Parts of the body Parts of the body Origin Functions Body language

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83 I am an American businessman and now I am working in a development project in Vietnam. It is not easy to understand all these different cultures, especially, it is the first time I work in the intercultural environment in Vietnam. My first culture shock happened when I worked with my Vietnamese colleague. As usual, whenever sharing my ideas or listening to her, I often looked at her. However, she always avoided looking at me. Did she confuse when working with a man, especially a foreigner? GROUP DISCUSSION + Work in groups of 3 + Explain in details the reasons of this Vietnamese woman’s reaction. + In your opinion, how should the man react? Why? ACTIVITY

84 ACTIVITY: EYE CONTACT Look at these pictures. In your group, you should compare and discuss your answers to the following questions: a. Based on these people’s gazez, what could you say about them? a. Based on these people’s gazez, what could you say about them? b. Why do you think so? b. Why do you think so? c. Do you interpret these gazez in the same or different ways? c. Do you interpret these gazez in the same or different ways? Note that you can use the suggested words below to help you. Then get ready to demonstrate these eye contacts to the whole class. shiftyconfidentcoldhard scared shydishonest slymodest arrogant strong determined sexyaggressive tired

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87 ACTIVITY DISCUSSION + WORK IN GROUPS OF 3. + DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN YOUR GROUPS. + REPORT THE ANSWERS TO THE WHOLE CLASS  Based on the facial expressions, what can you say about their attitudes?  Why do you think so?  Is your opinion same or different with other members’ in your group? You can use some of the suggested words. Then illustrate these expressions to your class members. perplexed serious suspicious confident anxious frightened thoughtful happy disapproving sad indifferent

88 ACTIVITY Answer these questions by putting a tick in the relevant box. In Vietnam In VietnamYesNo It depends 1. Is it rude to stare at strangers/new colleagues/new classmate? 2. Do businessmen use lots of eye contact in business conversation? 3. Is it impolite for women to have eye contact with men in business? 4. Do employees/students avoid eye contact with their bosses/teachers? 5. Lack of eye contact means lack of respect or interest in conversations. * FURTHER DISCUSSION Do you have any questions or cultural tips/ reminders to share with the whole class ?

89 GESTURES ACTIVITY + WORK IN GROUPS OF 3. + WITHOUT WORDS, NONVERBALLY COMMUNICATE THE FOLLOWING IDEAS. + DISCUSS VIETNAMESE-AMERICAN CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES. (The instructor is there to help you) - No!- Stop it! - I don’t know.- Sorry, it’s my fault. - After you.- Why on earth? - He’s mad.- It’s boring. - Good luck!- I love you. - I can’t hear you.- It’s O.K. - Relax!- That’s enough. - Come here!- Oh, I forgot!

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92 A big ‘Thank you’ … and hope you have had a huge time


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