2What Do I Need to Know? Summarize the elements of work flow analysis. Describe how work flow is related to an organization’s structure.Define the elements of a job analysis, and discuss their significance for human resource management.Tell how to obtain information for a job analysis.Summarize recent trends in job analysis
3Describe methods for designing a job so that it can be done efficiently. Identify approaches to designing a job to make it motivating.Explain how organizations apply ergonomics to design safe jobs.Discuss how organizations can plan for mental demands of a job.
4Work Flow in Organizations Work flow design : The process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service.A position : the set of duties (job) performed by a particular person.A job : A set of related duties
5Work Flow Analysis Raw Inputs : What materials, data, information are needed?Activity:What task are required in the production of the output?Output :What product, information, or service is provided? How is the output measured?Equipment :What special equipment, facilities, systems are needed?Human Resources:What knowledge, skills, abilities are needed?
6Job AnalysisJob Analysis : The process of getting detailed information about jobs.Analyzing jobs and understanding what is required to carry out a job provide essential knowledge for staffing, training, performance appraisal, and many other HR activities
7Job DescriptionJob Des : A list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entailsTDRs are observable actions. E.g a news photographer’s job requires the jobholder to use a camera to take photographs.
8Several ways to get information about the duties of a job : 1. Questionnaire : filled by the employees – asks about what they do/ their activities over several days.2. A job analyst can visit the workplace-watch/videotape an employee performing a job. Appropriate for jobs that are repetitive and involve physical activity
93. A job analyst can visit the workplace and ask an employee to show what the job entails. Appropriate for clerical and technical jobs.4. A manager or supervisor can describe what a person holding the job must do to be successful.5. A supervisor/job analyst can review company records related to performing the job
10From the information, the writer of the job description obtains the important elements of the description : Title of the job; Administrative information; Summary of the job, focusing on its purpose and duties; Essential duties of the job; Additional responsibilities; Job specification
11* Title of the jobThe title should be descriptive and, if appropriate, indicate the job’s level in the organization by using terms such as junior, senior, assistant, and executive
12* Administrative information about the job Depending on the company’s size and requirements, the job description may identify a division, department, supervisor’s title, date of the analysis, name of the analyst, and other information for administering the company’s human resource activities
13* Summary of the job, focusing on its purpose and duties The summary should be brief and as specific as possible, including types of responsibilities, tools and equipment used, and level of authority (for example, the degree of authority and responsibility of the job holder – how much the person is supervised and how much the person supervises others or participates in teamwork)
14* Essential duties of the job These should be listed in order of importance to successful performance of the job and should include details such as physical requirements (e.g. the amount of weight to be lifted), the persons with whom an employee in this job interacts, and the results to be accomplished.
15* Additional responsibilities The job description may have a section stating that the position requires additional responsibilities as requested by the supervisor.
16* Job specifications (Job spec) Cover knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics required for a person to be qualified to perform the job successfully.Job spec may appear at the end of the job description or as a separate document.
17Importance of Job Analysis Work Design : often an organization seeks to redesign work to make it more efficient – requires detailed information about the existing job(s).Human resource planning: Analyze human resource must have accurate information about the levels of skills required in various jobs.
18Selection : To identify the most qualified applicants for various positions, decision makers need to know what tasks the individual must perform, as well as the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities.Training : Any training program requires knowledge and tasks performed in job, so that the training is related to the necessary knowledge and skills
19Performance appraisal : Job analysis helps in identifying the behaviors and the results associated with effective performance.Career planning : career planners has to know the skills requirements of the various jobs, to guide individuals into job in which they will succeed and be satisfied.
20Job evaluation : The process of job evaluation involves assessing the relative dollar value of each job to the organization in order to set up fair pay structures. To put the dollar values on jobs, it is necessary to get information about difference job and compare them.
21Job DesignJob Design : The process of designing how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job.To design job effectively, a person must understand the job itself through job analysis
22Job Design for Efficiency Design for Mental Capacity: FilteringinformationClear displays andinstructionMemory aidsDesign for Motivation :JobenlargementJob enrichmentTeamworkFlexibilityJobDesign for Safety and Health(Ergonomics)
23Design Efficient JobsIndustrial engineering : the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency.Applying industrial engineering to a job reduces complexity of the work, make it so simple that almost everyone can be trained quickly and easily to perform the job
24Designing Jobs That Motivate Skill variety – The extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involvedTask Identity – The degree to which a job requires completing a “whole” piece of work from beginning to end (e.g., building an entire component or resolving a customer’s complaint)
25Task significance – The extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of other people.Autonomy – The degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out.Feedback – The extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself
26Job EnlargementJob enlargement : Broadening the types of tasks performed in a job – make job less repetitive and more interesting, include :Job extension : enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to perform a job with a wider range of task.Job rotation : enlarging jobs by moving employees among several different jobs.
27Job enrichment : Empowering workers by adding more decision- making authority to jobs. Teamwork : The teams have authority for an entire work process or segment.
28Flexible Work Schedules Flextime : A scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified bt the organization.Job sharing : A work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job
29Designing Ergonomic Jobs Ergonomics : the study of the interface between individuals’ physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment.The goal of ergonomics is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works.Focuses on outcomes such as reducing physical fatigue, aches and pains, and health complaints.
30Design for mental Capacity Filtering information : to limit the amount of information and memorization that the job requires.Provide adequate lighting, clear displays and instructions, checklist, charts or other memory aids.
31Data collected Aktifitas pekerjaan 1. Aktifitas kerja dan prosesnya 2. Rekaman aktifitas ( mis: bentuk film)3. Prosedur yang digunakan4. Tanggung jawab pribadiAktifitas orientasi karyawan1. Perilaku manusia (mis: gerak fisik,komunikasi)2. Gerakan gerakan3. Kebutuhan kerja yang bersifatpribadi (mis : pemakaian energi)Mesin, peralatan, alat bantu kerja yang dipakai
32Hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan pekerjaan 1. Pengetahuan yangberkaitan/dipakai, mis.:accounting.2. Material yang diproses3. Hasil produksi/jasa yang diberikanPerformance kerja1. Analisa kesalahan2. Standar-standar kerja3. Pengukuran kerja. Mis: waktu yangdiberikan untuk satu tugas
33Job context1. Jadwal kerja2. Insentif finansial & nonfinansial3. Kondisi fisik pekerjaanKebutuhan personal & pekerjaan1. Atribut personal, mis:kepribadian2. Pendidikan & pelatihan yangdibutuhkan3. Pengalaman kerja