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Mastering AutoLISP in 80 Minutes Instructor: Lynn Allen Course Summary: AutoLISP has been around for a long time and has always separated the AutoCAD.

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Presentation on theme: "Mastering AutoLISP in 80 Minutes Instructor: Lynn Allen Course Summary: AutoLISP has been around for a long time and has always separated the AutoCAD."— Presentation transcript:


2 Mastering AutoLISP in 80 Minutes Instructor: Lynn Allen Course Summary: AutoLISP has been around for a long time and has always separated the AutoCAD green thumbs from the gurus. This course begins by debunking some popular rumors and explores the amount of AutoLISP code used in CAD-dependent industries today. AutoLISP is more powerful, its free and it provides users with the ability to create new AutoCAD commands in minutes. This class helps seasoned AutoCAD users enter the world of customization and programming using AutoCAD's native graphical language. The class is designed for intermediate-level AutoCAD users who have never programmed in AutoLISP before.

3 You have come to the right place if... You know nothing or very little about Visual Lisp You want to write your own Visual Lisp routines but have no idea where to begin. You would like to have better control over your AutoCAD environment You tried to Walk down the Garden Path but landed in a ditch! You do not have a programming background

4 Objectives To lay a firm foundation of the basics of Visual Lisp. Prepare you to write your own Visual Lisp routines Start you down the path to official AutoCAD Gurudom ( or Nerdom) Teach you some quick and dirty basics of Visual Lisp (dont look too close!). Discover new ways to torture your coworkers!

5 Hold on - we have a lot of information to cover in 80 minutes!

6 First and Foremost! Dont let Visual Lisp intimidate you!

7 What does LISP stand for? LISt Processor (not Lost In Stupid Parentheses!)

8 The Basics Lists Functions Arguments Golden Rules of AutoLISP

9 What is a LIST? Anything inside of parentheses Examples of LISTS: (a b c) (setq x 1) (princ)

10 What is a FUNCTION? (or subr) The ACTION you want Visual Lisp to do!

11 In Visual Lisp the function ALWAYS go first!!! Visual Lisp uses Prefix notation Example: (+ 1 2) (- 5 3) (inters A B C D) (setq x 3)

12 Visual Lisp as a Calculator INFIX Notation (1 + 1) (3 * 4) (6 / 2) PREFIX Notation (+ 1 1) (* 3 4) (/ 6 2)

13 Arguments Arguments are the values you pass to a function (+ 5 6) + is the function 5 and 6 are the arguments (setq x Autodesk) Setq is the function X and Autodesk are the arguments

14 The Golden Rules of Visual Lisp For every open paren, you must have a closed paren Example: (setq x (+ a b)) For every open double quote, you must have a closed double quote. Example: (prompt How are you?)

15 The Key to unlocking complicated LISP routines: Visual Lisp works from the Inside Out (+ 5 (* 4 3)) is equal to (4 * 3) + 5 (- (+ 5 2) (* 6 (- 7 6))) is equal to (5 + 2) - (6 * (7 - 6)) 7 - (6 * 1)

16 Quiz Time! (* 4 (/ (+ 6 3) 3)) 12 (+ (* (- 5 2) (/ 15 3)) 6) 21 (/ (* (- 11 9) (+ 25 5)) (* 3 2)) 10

17 Some popular Data Types: Real Numbers1.5 Integers5 StringsLINE Lists(8. DIM) Subrs (or functions)SETQ

18 Real Numbers and Integers Real Numbers have decimal points Example: Integers do not! Example: 2511 Real Numbers must have a leading zero..5 is incorrect0.5 is correct Dotted pair: (0. CIRCLE) error: misplaced dot on input

19 (/ 7 2)=> 3 (/ 7 2.0)=> 3.5 ( )=> 21.0 (+ 1.5)=> invalid dotted pair ( )=> 1.5 One real number changes the entire pot!

20 Basic Arithmetic Functions (for you math-heads): + = addition* = multiplication / = division- = subtraction (sqrt x)(sin ang)(atan x) (expt x y)(cos ang) (abs x)(log x) (float x)(fix x)

21 btw... Angles are measured in radians! (not degrees) and youll need to remember that.

22 Strings Usually Text (literals) Always double-quoted Spaces accepted Examples:autodesk line 1.25

23 Setting Variables (SETQ) (SETQ X 1) SETQ is the function X is the variable name 1 is the value Setting several variables at once: (SETQ A 1 B 2 C 3)

24 Variable Names Alpha-numeric May not contain spaces should not replace existing preset values such as T or pi Note: A variable that hasnt been set is equal to nil

25 U sing Visual Lisp variables in AutoCAD (setq X 1 Y 2) Command: !X returns1 Command: circle 3P/2P/TTR/ : Diameter/ :!Y

26 Ways to ruin your Visual Lisp life (setq + -) (setq * /) (setq pi 2.5) Visual Lisp will let you abuse yourself...

27 Using AutoCAD commands in Visual Lisp (the good stuff!) Using the COMMAND function, you can access the AutoCAD commands Example: (command QSAVE) (command TRIM) (command ZOOM P) (command LAYER)

28 By default, Visual Lisp doesnt display dialog boxes Visual Lisp displays the command line interface for commands. To force the dialog box use: (initdia) Before the command: (initdia) (command layer)

29 pause allow for user input (command)cancel enter

30 (Command ZOOM A) (Command ERASE L ) (Command INSERT DESK pause 1 1 pause) (Command LINE A B C C) (Command TEXT pause.5 0 Visual Lisp) (Command LAYER S pause ) (Command)

31 Creating your own AutoCAD Commands (DEFUN) DEFUN binds a set of expressions to a variable. (DEFUN C:ZAP ( ) Command: zap

32 DEFUN is the function C: indicates the function will be an AutoCAD command ( ) indicates no local variables and no arguments (well get to that another time!) Anatomy of DEFUN

33 DEFUN examples (DEFUN C:ZA ( ) (Command ZOOM A) ) (DEFUN C:SQ ( ) (Command POLYGON 4 E pause pause) ) (DEFUN C:ZAP ( ) (Command erase all ) )

34 SHORT.LSP (defun c:ls ( ) (command layer M pause ) ) (defun c:ZO ( ) (command ZOOM O) ) (defun c:ttr ( ) (command circle ttr pause pause pause) ) (defun c:Jellydonut ( ) (command donut 0 pause ) )

35 Loading Visual Lisp routines APPLOAD - used to load one or more Visual Lisp routines (load short)

36 Opening a dialog to a specific tab (command +dialogname X) (command +options 7) will open the Options dialog to tab #8 (command +customize 0)

37 Whats wrong with this picture? (defun c:door (insert door pause ) ) (defun c:fun ()) (prompt are we having fun yet?) )

38 PPurge.LSP (Defun c:ppurge ( ) (command purge all * N) )

39 Lets create a command that breaks an object in the same spot twice (defun c:crack ()

40 Clean up your ACT! PRINC (get rid of the nils!)

41 PPurge.LSP (Defun c:ppurge ( ) (command purge all * N) (princ) )

42 Blind the user! (he doesnt really want to know whats going on...) (SETVAR CMDECHO 0) but dont forget to turn it back on! (SETVAR CMDECHO 1)

43 PPurge.LSP (Defun c:ppurge ( ) (setvar cmdecho 0) (command purge all * N) (setvar cmdecho 1) (princ) )

44 Talk to your user with PROMPT (defun c:clean ( ) (setvar cmdecho 0) (prompt this command will pick up all of your objects and clean the drawing file…please wait) (command erase all ) (prompt \nthere..thats better) (setvar cmdecho 1) (princ) )

45 SSGET-Getting a selection set (a bit tougher…hang on!) Used to grab a group of objects. (setq ss1 (ssget)) Select objects: (ssget x) grabs all the objects in the drawing

46 Using SSGET (defun c:cm ( ) (setq ss1 (ssget)) (command copy ss1 m) )

47 Lets create a command that does a full circle, rotated objects Polar Array (defun c:polar ()

48 Just for fun! ALERT ALERT sends an ALERT box to the screen with the indicated text Example: (ALERT Formatting the hard drive)

49 ACAD.LSP or ACADDOC.LSP Automatic Visual Lisp Loading Put frequently used Visual Lisp routines. Undefine those AutoCAD commands you want to automatically replace with Visual Lisp routines. Place partial menu loading instructions

50 ACAD.LSP (defun c:ZA ( ) (command Zoom All) (princ)) (defun c:DT ( ) (setvar clayer TEXT) (command Dtext) (princ)) (defun c:bolt ( ) (command insert bolt pause pause pause) (princ))


52 Undefine and Redefine Permits undefining and redefining the internal AutoCAD commands Note: AutoCAD commands can always be executed with a leading period.

53 S::STARTUP a special section of ACAD.LSP (defun C:LINE ( ) (prompt Shouldnt you be using Polylines?) (command PLINE)) (defun S::STARTUP ( ) (command undefine line) ) Note: s::startup is the last file to be loaded before control is handed over to the user.

54 Ways to torture your coworkers: ACAD.LSP (defun c:qsave ( ) (command undo b y) (command.qsave.qsave) (defun s::startup () (command undefine save) (command undefine qsave) (command undefine saveas) )

55 one more means of torture: (defun c:zoom ( ) (command erase L ) (command.zoom) (princ) ) (defun c:redo ( ) (prompt You goofed - deal with it!) ) (defun c:undo ( ) (alert Get it right the first time!)

56 (defun c:regen () (setvar cmdecho 0) (command donut ,10) (command regen) (command cmdecho 1) ) (defun s::startup ( ) (command undefine zoom) (command undefine undo) (command undefine redo) (command undefine regen) )

57 Other evil things to put in s::startup! S::STARTUP (setvar angbase 180) OR (setvar snapang ) OR (command vpoint 0,0,-1) (command ucsicon off)

58 Whats wrong with this picture? (1 + 1) (* 5.25) (/ 9 2) (setq x (+ 1 2) (defun d:dimwit (command text.5 90 pause) (alert hit cancel to exit dialog box) (defun s:startup ( )

59 Review LISP stands for... List Function Command pause DEFUN (princ) ( d ) undefine Acad.lsp s::startup string

60 Lynn Allen Lynns Blog

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