6This became known as the Great Migration. African-Americans came to northern cities from the South looking for work and to escape racism.This became known as the Great Migration.In "the Promised Land" of Chicago, many black migrants still had to join picket lines to fight for fair wages. Some companies discriminated by placing restrictions upon the promotion and advancement of black workers, frequently preventing them from earning higher wages. Chicago, Illinois, July 1941
7Picket line at the Mid-City Realty Company, Chicago, Illinois, July 1941 John Vachon, Photographer
10City LifePoor families struggled to survive in crowded slums living in tenements.Tenements were overcrowded, dirty and oftentimes had no windows, heat, or indoor bathrooms.Hine, Lewis W. NYC tenement 1910
12Jacob Riis, 1889 “Lodgers in a Bayard Street Tenement, Five Cents a Spot"
13Bunks in a seven-cent lodging-house, Pell Street
14“There is no mistaking it: we are in Jewtown “There is no mistaking it: we are in Jewtown. It is said that nowhere in the world are so many people crowded together on a square mile as here….yet the sign “To Let" is the rarest of all….Here is one (building) seven stories high. The sanitary policeman whose beat this is will tell you that it contains thirty-six families, but the term has a widely different meaning here….In this house, where a case of small-pox was reported, there were fifty-eight babies and thirty-eight children that were over five years of age. In Essex Street two small rooms in a six-story tenement were made to hold a "family" of father and mother, twelve children, and six boarders….These are samples of the packing of the population that has run up the record here to the rate of three hundred and thirty thousand per square mile.” – Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, Source:
15Jacob Riis – Men’s Lodging Room in the West 47th Street Station – c
16The "Montgomery Guards" gang at the West 37th Street dock
17Street cleaning, Fourth Street ReformGarbage collection and street cleaning began regularly.Street cleaning, Fourth Street
18New buildings were required to have fire escapes and plumbing. Typical tenement fire-escape serving as an extension of the flat: Allen Street
19Separate residential and industrial zones were developed.
22Basketball was invented in 1891 at a YMCA YMCA, YWCAThe YWCA offered physical and educational programs during lunch breaks to female factory workers. (c. early 1900’s).Basketball was invented in 1891 at a YMCA
23Hull House – a settlement house set up by Jane Addams Hull House in the early 1900’s (above) and Jane Addams in the 1930’s (right).