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Presentation on theme: "GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING"— Presentation transcript:

Part 2 Stephanie Faith C. Bautista

2 COMMON CAUSES Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Anal fissure Aorto-enteric fistula

3 Cancer of the small intestine

4 Celiac sprue Esophageal varices Dieulafoy's lesion Crohn's disease
Colon cancer Esophageal varices Dieulafoy's lesion Crohn's disease

5 Shigella stool - Dysentery
Entamoeba histolytica Esophagitis Gastric (stomach) ulcer

6 Duodenal ulcer Hemorrhoids Intestinal polyps

7 Ischemic bowel Radiation injury to the bowel

8 Nosebleed Intestinal vasculitis

9 Portal hypertensive gastropathy
Meckel's diverticulum Portal hypertensive gastropathy intussusception

10 Stomach cancer Ulcerative colitis

11 Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer
Endoscopy Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A physician using an endoscope

12 An example of a flexible endoscope.

13 Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy
Gastrointestinal Videoscope Colonovideoscope Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy System for Observation Using Specific Light Spectra. World's First Gastrointestinal Videoscopes with Auto Fluorescence Imaging. The AFI produces enhanced images showing differences in the coloration of tumorous and normal mucosa by irradiating blue light on mucosa. AFI offers an easy way to distinguish between normal and tumorous tissue by combining an auto fluorescence image with the image of green reflected light which depicts the absorbed light of hemoglobin, so that normal tissue appears pale green, tumorous tissue magenta, and deep blood vessels dark green.

14 Early stomach cancer imaging under normal light
Early stomach cancer imaging of chromo-endoscopy under normal light Early stomach cancer imaging by AFI

15 Angiogram Arteriogram of patient with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding, localizing the source of the bleeding to the ascending colon (arrow).

16 Enteroscopy The double-balloon enteroscope can also be passed in retrograde fashion, through the colon and into the ileum to visualize the end of the small bowel. Double-balloon enteroscopy, also known as push-and-pull enteroscopy is an endoscopic technique for visualization of the small bowel

17 Enteroscopy The technique involves the use of a balloon at the end of a special enteroscope camera and an overtube, which is a tube that fits over the endoscope, and which is also fitted with a balloon. The procedure is usually done under general anesthesia, but may be done with the use of conscious sedation. The enteroscope and overtube are inserted through the mouth and passed in conventional fashion (that is, as with gastroscopy) into the small bowel. Following this, the endoscope is advanced a small distance in front of the overtube and the balloon at the end is inflated. Using the assistance of friction at the interface of the enteroscope and intestinal wall, the small bowel is accordioned back to the overtube. The overtube balloon is then deployed, and the enteroscope balloon is deflated. The process is then continued until the entire small bowel is visualized.

18 Capsule Endoscopy

19 Sigmoidoscopy


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