Psychosocial Care 3 sets of care practices that influence survival, growth and development of children: - Social - Emotional - cognitive interactions between caregivers and children
Psychosocial Environment 1.Provide a nonthreatening environment 2.Determine support people and resources available to the child 3.Assess responses of the support people 4.Be supportive of child’s effective coping behaviors
Psychosocial Skills (of the nurse) A.Communication skills and behavioral assessment techniques -Establish trust with the child and family -Demonstrate sensitive interaction with the child -Recognize the different parameters of the behavioral cues of children
HEALTHY CHILDCRITICALLY ILL CHILD POSTURE moves, flexesLoose, flaccid GESTURES Turns to familiar voicesResponds slowly to familiar voices MOVEMENT moves purposefully moves toward new, pleasurable items moves away from threatening items, people Minimal movement Lethargy, unresponsive REACTIONS/COPING STYLE responds to parents coming, leaving Responds to environment, equipment Cries and fights invasive procedures Responds minimally Displays minimal defensive responses FACIAL EXPRESSIONS looks at faces, make eye contact Changes facial expression in response to interactions Blinks in response to stimuli Widens eye with fears May not track faces, objects Avoids eye contact, minimal response to interactions Drools, has loose mouth musculature Contrasting Affective Nonverbal Behavior Cues of the Healthy and Critically ill Child
2.Family-centered Care -involve parents in assessing the child’s level of comfort or in scheduling daily activities for the child -Family is the “constant” in the child’s life
PICU must provide multidisciplinary definitive care for a wide range of complex, progressive, and rapidly changing medical, surgical, and traumatic disorders occurring in pediatric patients of all ages, excluding premature newborns.
Physical Environment 1.Planning a designated area -A specific area in the ICU should be designated and designed for the care of the child and family. -Separate pedia and adult patients 2. Family support areas -Should be in close proximity to the pedia unit 3. Pediatric supply cart - Facilitate bedside equipment for easy access
Physical Assessment Skills: 1.Interpreting vital signs based on age- appropriate norms (HR, RR, BP) -Baseline parameters are the most useful and are obtained at rest or during sleep -It is important to compare the child’s vital signs not only to the age-appropriate norms but also to the present clinical condition.
2.Modifying assessment techniques on the anatomic and physiologic differences and similarities of the child -Pediatric assessment: airway/breathing, circulatory, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, endocrine, immunologic, pain and agitation 3. Recognizing the decompensating child using a quick examination approach (Wong-Baker faces)