Presentation on theme: "CONTRIBUTIONS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN VETERANS"— Presentation transcript:
1 CONTRIBUTIONS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN VETERANS DOUBLE VCONTRIBUTIONS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN VETERANS
2 The V for victory sign is being displayed prominently in all so-called democratic countries, which are fighting for victory…Let we colored Americans adopt the double V for a double victory. The first V for victory over our enemies from without, the second V for victory over our enemies from within.” James G. Thompson 1942
3 INTRODUCTIONAfrican Americans migrated to the young towns of Oakdale and Elizabeth, growing gems in the southwest Louisiana lumber industry.The first generation of military personnel were migrants who faced the military registration and draft from other towns and statesRestrictions on entry into the militaryThe meaning of “Double V”
7 Origin of Double V World War II Enlistment and Draft 1938-1949 Victory Abroad and Victory at HomeLee Street Riots93rd Infantry
8 Larry Johnson Post 528 Charter Members Eiljah Miller Elijah MCCoy John Cheatham** Walter HenryMat Peter Robert SuddsGeorge Atkins Johnnie M.MitchellMonroe Thomas Joe MartinHorace Brunson CharlieManuelMathew Johnson Booker T. Woods*Jack Norman Franklin MoreheadWillie Swope Herbert DelafosseIsrael Quiney Millas MatthewJohn L. Eaton Joseph YancyWillie E. Johnson*Post Commander**Post Adjutant
9 Bryford G. Metoyer D.A.V. Post 42 > When Ms. Alice Howard moved to Oakdale in 1967 she sought to establish a DAV post but was blocked by the state. She wrote letters to the national which ordered the creation of what was the only Oakdale post. The Charter was eventually revoked because the post adjutant did not submit some paper work in the early 70s.s. Ruby Metoyer was listed as in the organization as a Star Mother. After the disbandment se joined the post in Alexandria.Other members included Steve Richard, Thomas Russell and Leroy Johnson
10 Notable Contributions First Standing CommitteesChild Welfare, Membership,Finance and Audit,PublicitySelection of female Post CommanderMarguerette CheathamAmerican Legion Award to Graduating SeniorSponsor of Bayou Boys State
11 Men Names of WWII Veterans Service Loss of Life and Injured Contributions to OakdaleFormation of Civic and Business OrganizationsCivil Rights Activities
17 Article from Baltimore Afro-American newspaper february 26, 1944
18 RollCall This is a tribute to all WAACs by John Margueritte Cheatham “This is our war…join the WAAC!”The women marched left and right;The women fought for what was right.Hard-assed COs who ruled with iron hands;Attentive nurses who cured with caring hands.Roll Call:Harriet WestCharity AdamsDella Rainey“All present and accounted for.”“You are needed now…join the Army Nurse Corp!”Grimy mechanics that made sure the trucks would go;Dusty drivers who drove the trucks to the depot.Bessie GarrettHarriet PickensFrances Wills“We Can Do It!” shouted Rosie the Riveter.Meticulous machine operators who kept the war machine running;Cautious munitions workers who kept the machine guns humming.Olivia HookerCallye GardnerMarguerite Cole“It’s a woman’s war too!”My mother marched left and right;My mother fought for her rights.Strong Negro women worth their weight in gold;Strong Negro women whose story has now been told.Each of the women listed above with the exception of Callye Gardner and Marguerite Cole were the first African American women to enlist in the various armed services during World War II.
19 Korea through Peacetime Draft and VolunteeringServiceNumbersLife Loss and Injured
20 Vietnam Era Multi-variable Debate Veteran Service in Vietnam Veteran Service in Other Areas
32 AFRICAN-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS SERIES presented by BlueCross BlueShield of TennesseeTHE COLOR OF BLOODTIME LINE OF MILITARY INTEGRATION1639The Virginia House of Burgesses passed the first legislation to exclude blacks from themilitia. By the end of the 17th century, all of the colonies had enacted similar laws.1775Shortly after assuming command the newly established Continental Army, Washingtonordered his officers not to recruit black troops. He later rescinded this order to allow theenlistment of free blacks.1791The U.S. Congress passed legislation excluding blacks and Native Americans from thepeacetime militia.1798Secretary of War James McHenry and Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert issuedseparate directives prohibiting African-American enlistment for use on warships of theU.S. Navy or in the U.S. Marine Corps. These decisions reversed the non-racialenlistment policy that had been in effect since the Revolutionary War.1814General Andrew Jackson issued a proclamation urging the "Free Colored Inhabitants ofLouisiana" to volunteer for service in his army. Black recruits were offered equal pay andthe same bounty in money and lands as white volunteers and were organized intosegregated units with white officers and black noncommissioned officers.1861President Abraham Lincoln declared a state of insurrection and called for 75,000volunteers to serve for three months. At this time, the Union Army officially rejected blackvolunteers as many northern whites did not think it appropriate for blacks to fight a "whiteman’s war;" and most whites did not think blacks would be good soldiers. However, theSecretary of the Navy authorized the enlistment of escaped slaves.The Tennessee legislature authorized the governor "to receive into the military service ofthe State all male free persons of color, between the age of 15 and 50, who shouldreceive $8 per month, clothing and rations."The Secretary of the Navy authorized the enlistment of blacks into the U.S. Navy.1862The U.S. Congress passed the Militia Act, which authorized the president to use blacktroops in combat.The first use of black troops in combat during the Civil War involved a 225-mandetachment from the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry, who fought in a two-dayengagement at Island Mound, Missouri.1863Secretary of War Stanton ordered that black volunteers be paid at a lower rate thanwhite volunteers, because blacks were considered to be auxiliaries. In addition to lesspay initially, African Americans also faced other forms of discrimination: longerenlistment periods, little chance for promotion, inadequate medical care, inferiorweapons, and usually no prisoner-of-war status.Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation went into effect. Provisions for the use of blacktroops were included in the document. In response, Governor John A. Andrew ofMassachusetts ordered the organization of the all-black 54th Massachusetts Regiment.1864Officers in the Confederate Army of Tennessee proposed recruiting blacks for militaryservice in exchange for freedom. Confederate leaders rejected the suggestion.After months of debate, Congress passed a law giving African Americans equal pay,arms, equipment, and medical services.From the Civil War to World War I1881Tennessee enacted the first in a series of laws passed throughout the South segregatingpublic transportation. Additional laws were passed restricting black access to most publicaccommodations and educational facilities.1896After the 24th Infantry Regiment deployed to Fort Douglas near Salt Lake City, Utah,white townspeople responded by sending a delegation to Washington, D.C. to protest.The concern and professionalism shown by the black troops, however, later promptedthe area’s leading newspaper to print a public apology for the town’s earlier action.During the period between the Spanish-American War and World War I, the federal andvarious state governments began restricting black military service.1906A U.S. Army War College study begun this year ultimately recommended blackscontinue to be denied admission into the artillery branch because of their supposedinferior intelligence and inability to master the required technical skills.Beginning this year and continuing every year for the next decade, various congressmenintroduced bills attempting to prevent blacks from serving in the U.S. armed forces.From WWI through WWII1917The American Red Cross rejected the applications of qualified African-American nurseson the grounds that the U.S. Army did not accept black women.The United States entered World War I after President Woodrow Wilson askedCongress to declare war on Germany. Over 367,000 African-American soldiers served inthis conflict, 1400 of whom were commissioned officers. Despite the American restrictionon the use of blacks in combat units, about 40,000 African Americans fought in the war.Congress passed the Selective Service Act authorizing the registration and draft of allmen between 21 and 30, including African Americans.1918In an editorial written for the National Association for the Advancement of ColoredPeople (NAACP) publication Crisis, W.E.B. DuBois urged black Americans to put thewar effort before their own needs by "closing ranks" with white Americans in support ofthe fighting in France. His sentiments were partly based on the continuing belief thatAfrican-American military participation might help win greater acceptance and freedomfor all blacks in the United States.German propaganda leaflets dropped on African-American troops attempted to exploitthe contradictory attitudes reflected in American society. They noted that black troopswere sent to fight for democracy in Europe, while being denied this same personalfreedom at home. The leaflets were unsuccessful.The Army Nurses Corps accepted 18 black nurses on an "experimental" basis followingthe influenza epidemic.1925An Army War College study reported that African Americans would never be fit to serveas military pilots because of their supposed lack of intelligence and cowardice in combat.1932The U.S. Navy again allowed African Africans to enlist, lifting the restriction in placesince the end of WWI that excluded blacks from serving in this branch of the U.S. armedforces. However, they were only admitted into the predominantly Filipino Steward’sBranch.1940Judge William H. Hastie of Knoxville, Tennessee assumed the position of Civilian Aid tothe Secretary of War in Matters of Black Rights.1941The Army opened its integrated officers candidate schools. For the first six months,however, only 21 of the more than 2000 men admitted were black. The Army justified itspolicy of ignoring race in regard to officer training on the grounds of efficiency andeconomy.The U.S. Army Air Corps began training African-American pilots at the TuskegeeInstitute in Alabama. The Tuskegee Institute, which prepared the 926 members of thefamed "Tuskegee Airmen" for combat in WWII, remained the only official military flighttraining school for black pilots until its program closed with the graduation of the lastclass on 26 June 1946.While on assignment with the Army’s Inspector General, Brigadier General Benjamin O.Davis, Sr., completed several notable inspections involving black troops stationed atnorthern and southern posts. Davis pointed out the nearly impossible task required ofAfrican-American soldiers in developing "a high morale in a community that offers himnothing but humiliation and mistreatment."Many black leaders used a dual response to WWII, known as the "Double V" campaign,urging African Americans to support the war effort as a way to fight racism abroad, whilestill criticizing and trying to eliminate segregation and discrimination in the United States.Many African Americans refused to back the war unless they received better treatment.Over 2.5 million African Americans registered for military service during WWII, but onlyone million actually served.1942The U.S. Coast Guard recruited its first 150 black volunteers. Over 5000 AfricanAmericans served as coast guardsmen in WWII, about 965 of whom were petty orwarrant officers.President Roosevelt signed the act which created the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps(WAAC), later reorganized as the Women’s Army Corps (WAC). Over 150,000 WACsserved in WWII. The voluntary organization enlisted both black and white femalerecruits.The U.S. Marine Corps began admitting African-American recruits for the first time in167 years.1943Judge William H. Hastie resigned his position as Civilian Aide to the Secretary of Warbecause of continuing discrimination and segregation in the armed forces.Ohio Congresswoman Frances Payne Bolton successfully introduced an amendment tobar racial discrimination from the Nurses Training bill then under debate.1944The Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES), the women’sauxiliary of the U.S. Navy, was opened to African-American recruits.American film director Frank Capra produced The Negro Soldier, the first U.S. Armytraining film to favorably depict African-American servicemen, which was designed toimprove race relations in the U.S. military. It had a powerful impact on the soldiers whosaw it as well as on civilian audiences when it was released to the public after the war.After intense pressure was placed on the voluntary organization, the WAVES acceptedits first 72 black women, two of whom became officers.The U.S. Army integrated black volunteers with white troops to fight during the Battle ofthe Bulge. Over 5000 African-American soldiers in the Army’s service units volunteered;2500 of them were accepted. This was the first and only example of an integrated Armyfighting force in WWII.1945Pressure brought to bear by the National Association of Colored Nursing forced the U.S.Army Nurse Corps to drop its racial restrictions on qualified nurses.The U.S. Navy began allowing black women to enlist in the Navy Nurse Corps and on 9March 1945, Ensign Phyllis Mae Dailey became the Navy’s first African-American nurse.1947The President’s Committee on Civil Rights presented President Truman with acomprehensive survey on civil rights conditions in the United States, and made severalsweeping recommendations to correct the situation. The committee called for laws andpolicies to end discrimination and segregation in the Armed Forces and even went so faras to urge the President to use the military "as an instrument of social change."1948President Truman signed Executive Order 9981, providing for equal treatment andopportunity for African-American servicemen.Executive Order 9981 actually had little immediate affect on the U.S. military in thisperiod due to the fact that it did not consider segregation to be discriminatory. The AirForce complied most quickly with Executive Order 9981, which had already begun toreview and revise its racial policy before the President took action. The U.S. Navy, onthe other hand, took the longest, having to revise its original racial policy to align itspolicy and practices with that of Truman’s new government policy.1951The Marine Corps’ segregated racial policy ended with the cancellation of the last allblackdesignation. The Army’s nine training divisions were fully integrated by this year.Project CLEAR confirmed earlier findings that African-American soldiers in integratedunits fought as well as whites. It also reported that integration improved black moraleand did not lower that of whites, concluding that segregation hindered the Army’seffectiveness while integration increased it..1953Because of the Korean War, the number of African-American marines rapidly grew from1525 in May 1949 to 17,000 by this time. The competence and lack of racial tensionduring integration opened the way for general integration of the Marine Corps.1954The Secretary of Defense announced that the last racially segregated
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