Presentation on theme: "Collective Bargaining. 2 Meaning – Collective bargaining is the principle method whereby employers and employees establish and continue a relationship."— Presentation transcript:
2 Meaning – Collective bargaining is the principle method whereby employers and employees establish and continue a relationship – This is an important means of communication where – Allows the two sides to get together and talk about problems, needs, goals and to settle differences
3 Meaning – It is subjected to external influences such as economic and socio-political change, technological and demographic change
4 Definition “ A method of determining the terms and conditions of employment and regulating the employment relationship between representatives of management and employees with the intention to reach an agreement which may be applied to a group of workers”.
5 Collective Bargaining The role of conflict in bargaining: – Bargaining would not occur if there was no conflict – Parties have different needs, goals, interests, attitudes, values and perceptions – These goals are pursued at the costs of the other party – If parties have sufficient power then they use collective bargaining as a way forward
6 Sources of conflict – Scarcity of resources: availability of money – Incompatibility of goals, needs and interests – Different attitudes to work – Ambiguity in responsibilities and roles – Poor organisational structure – Poor communication
7 Sources of conflict – Most important over: wages and salaries – Management has to see to shareholder profits and workers want more money – Productivity needs may force the firm to operate flexible work practices and the unions might resist this – Companies might want to dismiss inefficient workers and the union would resist this, demanding job security
8 Sources of conflict – Employees might demand shorter working hours, longer vacation leave and more time off for training – Employees might insist on stricter health and safety controls which would be expensive for the company – Employers demand loyalty to the firm whereas employees see it as the individual right to change jobs when the opportunity arises
9 Features It is a collective process Establishes regular and and stable relationship between the parties involved It is a flexible and dynamic process It is a method of partnership of workers in management It is a give and take approach It is an attempt in achieving and maintaining discipline in industry
10 Subject matter of Collective Bargaining – The subject matter of CB is very wide Rights and responsibilities of the management and of the trade union Wages, bonus, production norms,leave retirement benefits and terms and conditions of service Grievance redressal procedure Methods and machinery for the settlement of possible future disputes Termination clause
11 Bargaining Power Power regulated the bargaining process: – If one party has more power it will override the interest of the other party – Historically management has had more power – Its only in the 1980s onwards that this power has been challenged by unions
12 Bargaining power Power: – Management's sources of power is their ownership and/or control over the firm – Workers power comes from their ability to withhold labour collectively - strikes – On an individual level workers hold very little power and its only in trade unions that they have power
Collective Bargaining Process Preparing for negotiations Administration of the agreement Overcoming Breakdowns Bargaining issues Negotiating Reaching the agreement Ratifying the agreement Negotiation breakdowns yes No
14 Collective Bargaining Process Preparing for negotiations – From the management side Specific proposals for change General size of the economic package that the company propose to offer Statistical displays and supportive data for negotiations Compilation of issues that will be be discussed – From the union side Collect information on the financial position of the company Attitude from the management towards various issues particularly the past negotiations Attitudes and desires of employees
15 Collective Bargaining Process Bargaining issues – Wage related issues – Supplementary economic benefits – Pension plans paid holidays,health insurance plans retrenchment pay etc – Institutional issues rights and duties of employers and employees,QWL Programmes – Administrative issues Employee discipline,discharge procedures,work rules,training and the like Negotiating – Each side presents its initial demands – Success of the negotiation depends on the skills and ability of the negotiators
16 Collective Bargaining Process Reaching the agreement Ratifying the agreement – The outcome of a collective bargaining process is an agreement – The agreement is put to the union members for vote and and if voted is formalised into a contract – Agreement can stipulate a time factor to the agreement, for e.g. wage increase for one year only or for a number of years Administration of the agreement
17 Bargaining styles Distributive or Conjunctive bargaining Integrative or cooperative bargaining Productivity Bargaining Composite Bargaining
18 Bargaining styles: – Distributive bargaining : this is the most common type – Management and unions are in opposing positions and gain for one is a loss for another – Antagonism dominates the bargaining items – These would be around wages and conditions of employment
19 Bargaining styles: In distributive bargaining power is used as part of the strategy and tactics on both side Each party strives towards an outcome that is favourable to its own side Both parties are thus assessing strengths and weaknesses on both sides Both parties are looking to how much they can push the other party Each party assesses its ability to withstand being pushed
20 Bargaining styles: Integrative Bargaining – This is when both parties want a successful outcome and there is a genuine desire to solve a problem – For Eg : Decisions taken when the the entire industry is in threat Like Global Recession – In integrative bargaining items are seen as problems that need resolving – Integrative bargaining strives for a win –win situation – Conflict is minimized
21 Bargaining Styles Productivity Bargaining – In this method, workers’ wages and benefits are linked to productivity. – Initially, a standard productivity index is finalized through negotiations. – This index is not fixed at an exceptionally high level. – Workers crossing the standard productivity norms will get substantial benefits. – This method of bargaining helps in making the workers realize the importance of raising productivity for organizational survival and growth.
22 Bargaining Styles Composite Bargaining – Workers tend to argue that productivity bargaining increases their workload. As a result, workers tend to favour composite bargaining – In this method, labour bargains for wages as usual. – In addition, they also bargain for such issues that, if permitted Eg. Workers demand further equity in matters relating to work norms, employment levels, manning standards, environmental hazards, sub- contracting clauses, etc.
23 Bargaining Styles – Through composite bargaining, unions are able to prevent the dilution of their powers and ensure justice to workers by putting certain limits on the freedom of employers. – For the employer, this is the lesser evil when compared to strikes and lockouts.
24 CBA of Volkswgaen & I G Metall Volkswagen and IG Metall agreed collective bargaining milestones for the six traditional plants during their negotiations The central element is that the standard working time was increased from 33 to 34 hours a week without more pay. A new, attractive profit sharing model for the workforce was developed. Production volumes for each of the plants have been determined Safeguarding capacity utilization and thus jobs. The envisaged term of the agreement is January 1, 2007 until the end of 2011.
25 Emerging Issues in CB Performance based Bargaining Women's issues Job security Productivity Quality of Work life
26 The Milestones in Industrial Harmony : TISCO 1934: Profit sharing given for the first time in India. December 9, 1938: Labour Association registered in the name of Tata Workers' Union. 1942: Tata Steel employees through representation of leaders of Tata Workers' Union join Quit India movement. January 8, 1956: Comprehensive Agreement between Tata Steel and the Tata Workers' Union broke new ground in collective bargaining and workers' participation in management. 1959: A new Agreement is signed between TWU and Tata Steel to implement a new wage structure. Agreements continue to strengthen bonds of industrial harmony in 1965,1970,1975,1999,2001
27 Reference 1. Industrial Relations ;Emerging Paradigms ;B D Singh 2. Human Resource Mangement ;K Aswathappa,fifth edition.