2 "Help Wanted""Men wanted for hazardous journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful. Honor and recognition in case of success. Ernest Shackleton.”London Papers, 1920
3 Ethics Derived from the Greek word “Ethos” Means “way of living” Values that matter to usIdeas and beliefs we respect and hold specialMoral obligationsRules for deciding right and wrongCode of conductBehavior
4 Importance of EthicsIndian scriptures attribute great importance to ethicsInner desireCorrespond to basic human needsAlso comes from religious, environmental and other social groupsCreate credibility with the publicAid better decision making
5 Importance of Ethics Can ethics be taught? Passed on? Imbibed? Propogated?
6 Advertising EthicsApplied philosophical analysis of nature of advertisement in generalAnalysis of specific ethical issues that arise in a particular advertisementThe ethical premise for each organisation varies based on:Company’s mission and visionCorporate policyMarketing objectivesCompetitionResources
7 Advertising Ethics Stress importance of moral and values Honest and truthful claimsFulfill the norms of statutory authorities in advertising approvalsFollow a value oriented frameworkDefine purpose: spreading awareness + protect consumer from economic and physical harm
8 Unethical advertising Degrades or underestimates the substitute or competitor’s productGives false or misleading information on the value of the productFails to give useful information on the possible reaction or side effects of the productImmoral
9 Case StudyAdvertising tobacco and alcohol is not permitted since consumption of these commodities leads to adverse medical, social and psychological issuesDirect advertising of tobacco and alcohol has been prohibited by enforcement of National Legislation
10 Case StudySponsorship of sports and movie events (Wills World cup, Gold Flake Tennis Tournament, Chivas Regal Polo Championship, Manikchand Filmfare Awards)
11 ExamplesThumbs Up adMc Donald’sMemory PlusDabur Amla Hair Oil
12 Ethical issues Ads destroy freedom of choice or give more choice? Ads destroy democracy and freedom of mass media or propagate freedom of speech and expression?Wraps social values or reflects the real world?
13 Advertising Ethics and Racial Minorities Racially disadvantaged groups targeted"Smooth Dude" Joe Camel cigarettes campaign by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco CompanySuzuki SamuraiPan ParagMinto Fresh
14 Advertising Ethics and Racial Minorities More likely to find minority models for “everyday” product categories i.e. gum, electronic goods, cigarettes, carsNot the main character, but blend in the crowdPart of the background“Everyone” is part of the main message: to appeal to wide range of target audience
15 Advertising Ethics and Racial Minorities Fashion advertisements are less likely to have minority models: exception-supermodelsWomen’s magazines are more likely to have advertisements with minority modelsFemale models are more prominent than male models
16 Interracial couples seen as trendy and for the younger generation, a trend that started in the mid-1990’s1996 Ikea– “the outfitter for every style”– TV ad which showed an interracial couple discussing efforts to conceive a child– An “advertising breakthrough”
18 Current Scenario Shock value of interracial couples is wearing off More integrated advertisements overallMinorities are not in decision making roles in advertisingAdvertisers are ignoring the minority market, despite population and buying power growth
19 Advertising and Racial Distribution Advertisers balance race with regards to product endorsementsE.g. athletes in product endorsementsWomen in diamond jewellery ads
20 Women in AdvertisingMedia portrays women in debilitating, demeaning and inaccurate waysIt presents women as flawless, decorative objects, dependent on men and it ignores the complexity of women’s lives.Women in advertising are not only potentially debilitating and demeaning, and also inaccurate.Today’s advertisements do not reflect what women have achieved in our society.Ads ignore the women who become doctors, lawyers, politicians, entrepreneurs, decision makers, and business travelers.Ads completely ignore the complexities of modern women’s lives.
21 Women Dependent on Men Women’s Place is at Home
22 Stereotypes Women’s place is at home Women need to depend upon men Women do not make independent decisionWomen view themselves and are viewed as sex objects.Ads to women are filled with stereotypes.Ads present traditional, limited, and often demeaning stereotypes of women and men.Women’s place is home;women need to depend upon men;women do not have professional jobs;women viewed themselves and are viewed as sex objects.
24 Women are Shown…Women are shown as less authoritative, active, powerful, rational, decisive, and more concerned with youth and with their attractiveness.Women are depicted as less intelligent than men and tend to have subservient occupations.Women are shown to have different characteristics from men;women are less powerful rational, and more decisive, and more concerned with beauty;women are low-status, subservient occupations.
25 Beauty MythModels present a new “ melting pot” of beauty ( all colors, all creeds, all ethnicity -and all still young, thin, and flawless).Advertising portray women as white with white standards of beauty derived from myths of whiteness.Media presents all women as white women.White women, white beauty standards, white myths.Media does not present women of color or women of age.Only 1 % of ads use Africa American or older models, regardless their percentages in the population (12%-16%).
30 Children and Advertising FTC Guidelines“When representations or sales practices are targeted to a specific audience, such as children, the elderly, or the terminally ill, the Commission determines the effect of the practice on a reasonable member of that group.”
31 Exposure to ads Most exposure to ads is through tv commericals • Kids watch an average of 28 hours of tv a week(that’s ~1100 hours a year)!• Kids are exposed to an average of 20,000commercials/yr• How much of Saturday morning advertising isdevoted to sugary cereals, candy bars, and otherjunk food?90% !
34 Money spent on children’s advertising $2 billion is spent annually on advertising tochildren• Advertising spending aimed at children hasincreased by 2000% over the past 10 years.• No wonder! Children’s influence on family spending:– 1960: $5 billion– 1984: $50 billion– 1997: $177 billion– 2001: $290 billion
35 And it’s not only $– Increasing involvement of childpsychologists and cognitive scientists– No guidelines for psychologists workingin advertising– e.g. Saatchi & Saatchi: “We used child psychologists to interview kids around the country, with the idea of getting at the psychological underpinnings of kids’ relationship with digital technology, not just what they’ll tell you on the surface”
36 Suggestive relationships… • Children’s tastes and perceived needs reflect thecontent of the programs they watch:– food preferences (Atkin & Gibson, 1978)• Exposure to cigarette and alcohol ads:– Adolescents who recall more alcohol ads at 15 drinkmore at 18 (Connolly et al, 1994)– 2X as many children as adults able to associate JoeCamel with Camel cigarettes and find ads appealing(DiFranza et al, 1991)– In adolescents, exposure to tv alcohol ads more strongly correlated with drinking than other demographic factors (Atkin, Hocking & Block, 1984)
37 Linguistic and cognitive competence to evaluate advertisements 1) Recognition of intentCommercials as speech acts:– Agent—entity whose intent the message represents– Scriptor—entity who designs the form of the utterance– Actor—entity who physically realizes the messageIn commercials, the agent and scriptor are invisibleAdults typically understand when they are confrontedwith a persuasive actCan children distinguish between programs andcommercials?Do they understand the purpose of advertising?
38 2) Linguistic issuesDo children interpret language used by advertisers in the same way as adults?-Do children extract the same denotational meaning as adults?-Do children make the same pragmatic inferences as adults?TV advertising targeted at young children does not stand the most fundamental rule of advertising ethics: that advertisements should be easily recognizable as such,namely by those who form the target group.
39 Self-Regulatory Guidelines for Children’s Advertising Seven Principles:1. Advertisers should take into account the level ofknowledge, sophistication and maturity of their audience2. Advertisers should exercise care not to exploitunfairly the imaginative quality of children3. Products and content inappropriate for use bychildren should not be advertised or promoted directly to children4. Advertisers should communicate information in atruthful and accurate manner and in languageunderstandable to young children
40 5.Advertisers are urged to capitalize on the potential of advertising to influence behavior (for good!)6. Care should be taken to incorporate minority andother groups in advertisements7. It remains the prime responsibility of parents toprovide guidance for children. Advertisers shouldcontribute to this parent-child relationship in aconstructive manner
41 Arguments for and against regulation – Educative aspect of exposure to advertising– Ads as necessary part of maturation process– Needed for development of critical approach toadvertising later in life• For:– Children are not as cognitively sophisticated asadults and need external protection
43 Sex in advertising in the twentieth century has been on a steady increase since the late 1980’s. The increase since the late 1980’s has caused an increase in product sales and has not broken the stereotypes of sexes.Sex will be defined as both using sexuality to sell a product and also as using a male or female to sell a product.
44 People are more likely to buy products advertised by the same sex People are less likely to buy productsadvertised by the opposite sex People are more likely to buy a productbecause of a spokes-character People are more likely to rememberadvertisements with sexual innuendos