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Ch. 4 Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4 Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 4 Ethics

2 "Help Wanted" "Men wanted for hazardous journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful. Honor and recognition in case of success. Ernest Shackleton.” London Papers, 1920

3 Ethics Derived from the Greek word “Ethos” Means “way of living”
Values that matter to us Ideas and beliefs we respect and hold special Moral obligations Rules for deciding right and wrong Code of conduct Behavior

4 Importance of Ethics Indian scriptures attribute great importance to ethics Inner desire Correspond to basic human needs Also comes from religious, environmental and other social groups Create credibility with the public Aid better decision making

5 Importance of Ethics Can ethics be taught? Passed on? Imbibed?

6 Advertising Ethics Applied philosophical analysis of nature of advertisement in general Analysis of specific ethical issues that arise in a particular advertisement The ethical premise for each organisation varies based on: Company’s mission and vision Corporate policy Marketing objectives Competition Resources

7 Advertising Ethics Stress importance of moral and values
Honest and truthful claims Fulfill the norms of statutory authorities in advertising approvals Follow a value oriented framework Define purpose: spreading awareness + protect consumer from economic and physical harm

8 Unethical advertising
Degrades or underestimates the substitute or competitor’s product Gives false or misleading information on the value of the product Fails to give useful information on the possible reaction or side effects of the product Immoral

9 Case Study Advertising tobacco and alcohol is not permitted since consumption of these commodities leads to adverse medical, social and psychological issues Direct advertising of tobacco and alcohol has been prohibited by enforcement of National Legislation

10 Case Study Sponsorship of sports and movie events (Wills World cup, Gold Flake Tennis Tournament, Chivas Regal Polo Championship, Manikchand Filmfare Awards)

11 Examples Thumbs Up ad Mc Donald’s Memory Plus Dabur Amla Hair Oil

12 Ethical issues Ads destroy freedom of choice or give more choice?
Ads destroy democracy and freedom of mass media or propagate freedom of speech and expression? Wraps social values or reflects the real world?

13 Advertising Ethics and Racial Minorities
Racially disadvantaged groups targeted "Smooth Dude" Joe Camel cigarettes campaign by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Suzuki Samurai Pan Parag Minto Fresh

14 Advertising Ethics and Racial Minorities
More likely to find minority models for “everyday” product categories i.e. gum, electronic goods, cigarettes, cars Not the main character, but blend in the crowd Part of the background “Everyone” is part of the main message: to appeal to wide range of target audience

15 Advertising Ethics and Racial Minorities
Fashion advertisements are less likely to have minority models: exception-supermodels Women’s magazines are more likely to have advertisements with minority models Female models are more prominent than male models

16 Interracial couples seen as trendy and for the younger generation, a trend that started in the mid-1990’s 1996 Ikea – “the outfitter for every style” – TV ad which showed an interracial couple discussing efforts to conceive a child – An “advertising breakthrough”


18 Current Scenario Shock value of interracial couples is wearing off
More integrated advertisements overall Minorities are not in decision making roles in advertising Advertisers are ignoring the minority market, despite population and buying power growth

19 Advertising and Racial Distribution
Advertisers balance race with regards to product endorsements E.g. athletes in product endorsements Women in diamond jewellery ads

20 Women in Advertising Media portrays women in debilitating, demeaning and inaccurate ways It presents women as flawless, decorative objects, dependent on men and it ignores the complexity of women’s lives. Women in advertising are not only potentially debilitating and demeaning, and also inaccurate. Today’s advertisements do not reflect what women have achieved in our society. Ads ignore the women who become doctors, lawyers, politicians, entrepreneurs, decision makers, and business travelers. Ads completely ignore the complexities of modern women’s lives.

21 Women Dependent on Men Women’s Place is at Home

22 Stereotypes Women’s place is at home Women need to depend upon men
Women do not make independent decision Women view themselves and are viewed as sex objects. Ads to women are filled with stereotypes. Ads present traditional, limited, and often demeaning stereotypes of women and men. Women’s place is home; women need to depend upon men; women do not have professional jobs; women viewed themselves and are viewed as sex objects.

23 Women are Decorative/Sex Objects

24 Women are Shown… Women are shown as less authoritative, active, powerful, rational, decisive, and more concerned with youth and with their attractiveness. Women are depicted as less intelligent than men and tend to have subservient occupations. Women are shown to have different characteristics from men; women are less powerful rational, and more decisive, and more concerned with beauty; women are low-status, subservient occupations.

25 Beauty Myth Models present a new “ melting pot” of beauty ( all colors, all creeds, all ethnicity -and all still young, thin, and flawless). Advertising portray women as white with white standards of beauty derived from myths of whiteness. Media presents all women as white women. White women, white beauty standards, white myths. Media does not present women of color or women of age. Only 1 % of ads use Africa American or older models, regardless their percentages in the population (12%-16%).

26 Women are Flawless

27 Thin is Beautiful Thinness is Associated with Health

28 Ads and Articles in 48 Women’s Vs. 48 Men’s Magazines
Female: Green Male: Blue Alcoholic Bev

29 Real or Not? Real Not

30 Children and Advertising
FTC Guidelines “When representations or sales practices are targeted to a specific audience, such as children, the elderly, or the terminally ill, the Commission determines the effect of the practice on a reasonable member of that group.”

31 Exposure to ads Most exposure to ads is through tv commericals
• Kids watch an average of 28 hours of tv a week (that’s ~1100 hours a year)! • Kids are exposed to an average of 20,000 commercials/yr • How much of Saturday morning advertising is devoted to sugary cereals, candy bars, and other junk food? 90% !

32 Prevalence of advertising to kids

33 No escape!

34 Money spent on children’s advertising
$2 billion is spent annually on advertising to children • Advertising spending aimed at children has increased by 2000% over the past 10 years. • No wonder! Children’s influence on family spending: – 1960: $5 billion – 1984: $50 billion – 1997: $177 billion – 2001: $290 billion

35 And it’s not only $ – Increasing involvement of child psychologists and cognitive scientists – No guidelines for psychologists working in advertising – e.g. Saatchi & Saatchi: “We used child psychologists to interview kids around the country, with the idea of getting at the psychological underpinnings of kids’ relationship with digital technology, not just what they’ll tell you on the surface”

36 Suggestive relationships…
• Children’s tastes and perceived needs reflect the content of the programs they watch: – food preferences (Atkin & Gibson, 1978) • Exposure to cigarette and alcohol ads: – Adolescents who recall more alcohol ads at 15 drink more at 18 (Connolly et al, 1994) – 2X as many children as adults able to associate Joe Camel with Camel cigarettes and find ads appealing (DiFranza et al, 1991) – In adolescents, exposure to tv alcohol ads more strongly correlated with drinking than other demographic factors (Atkin, Hocking & Block, 1984)

37 Linguistic and cognitive competence to evaluate advertisements
1) Recognition of intent Commercials as speech acts: – Agent—entity whose intent the message represents – Scriptor—entity who designs the form of the utterance – Actor—entity who physically realizes the message In commercials, the agent and scriptor are invisible Adults typically understand when they are confronted with a persuasive act 􀃆Can children distinguish between programs and commercials? 􀃆Do they understand the purpose of advertising?

38 2) Linguistic issues Do children interpret language used by advertisers in the same way as adults? -Do children extract the same denotational meaning as adults? -Do children make the same pragmatic inferences as adults? TV advertising targeted at young children does not stand the most fundamental rule of advertising ethics: that advertisements should be easily recognizable as such, namely by those who form the target group.

39 Self-Regulatory Guidelines for Children’s Advertising
Seven Principles: 1. Advertisers should take into account the level of knowledge, sophistication and maturity of their audience 2. Advertisers should exercise care not to exploit unfairly the imaginative quality of children 3. Products and content inappropriate for use by children should not be advertised or promoted directly to children 4. Advertisers should communicate information in a truthful and accurate manner and in language understandable to young children

40 5.Advertisers are urged to capitalize on the potential of
advertising to influence behavior (for good!) 6. Care should be taken to incorporate minority and other groups in advertisements 7. It remains the prime responsibility of parents to provide guidance for children. Advertisers should contribute to this parent-child relationship in a constructive manner

41 Arguments for and against regulation
– Educative aspect of exposure to advertising – Ads as necessary part of maturation process – Needed for development of critical approach to advertising later in life • For: – Children are not as cognitively sophisticated as adults and need external protection

42 Sex In Advertising

43 Sex in advertising in the twentieth century has been on a steady increase since the late 1980’s.
The increase since the late 1980’s has caused an increase in product sales and has not broken the stereotypes of sexes. Sex will be defined as both using sexuality to sell a product and also as using a male or female to sell a product.

44 People are more likely to buy products
advertised by the same sex 􀁺 People are less likely to buy products advertised by the opposite sex 􀁺 People are more likely to buy a product because of a spokes-character 􀁺 People are more likely to remember advertisements with sexual innuendos

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