Presentation on theme: "Diagnosis. Barium studies demonstrate the primary lesion and reveal a synchronous cancer elsewhere in the colon."— Presentation transcript:
Barium studies demonstrate the primary lesion and reveal a synchronous cancer elsewhere in the colon
Annular constricting or napkin-ring carcinoma of colon
Colonoscopy –most accurate and complete examination of the large bowel. The purpose of a complete colon and rectal evaluation for patients with large- bowel cancer is to rule out synchronous carcinomas and polyps. Serum level of CEA –important in the evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer.
Chest x-ray - pulmonary metastasis. CT of the abdomen - extent of invasion of the primary tumor and to search for intraabdominal metastatic disease.
Staging depth of tumor, penetration into the bowel wall presence of both regional lymph node involvement distant metastases
Staging of colorectal cancer
Optimum Treatment Strategy Surgery is the only hope for CURE Adjuvant chemotherapy for Colon CA –> Stage III disease –High risk Stage II disease Obstruction / Perforation High grade histology Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for Rectal CA –> Stage II disease –Either pre-operative or post-operative
Total resection of tumor - optimal treatment when a malignant lesion is detected in the large bowel.. The detection of metastases should not preclude surgery in patients with tumor-related symptoms such as gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction, but it often prompts the use of a less radical operative procedure. Laparotomy- the entire peritoneal cavity should be examined, with thorough inspection of the liver, pelvis, and hemidiaphragm and careful palpation of the full length of the large bowel.
Radiation therapy reduces the 20–25% probability of regional recurrences following complete surgical resection of stage II or III tumors, especially if they have penetrated through the serosa. either pre- or postoperatively, reduces the likelihood of pelvic recurrences but does not appear to prolong survival.
Chemotherapy 5-FU – backbone of treatment Concomitant administration of folinic acid (leucovorin) improves the efficacy of 5-FU in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, presumably by enhancing the binding of 5-FU to its target enzyme, thymidylate synthase.
Irinotecan - prolongs survival when compared to supportive care in patients whose disease has progressed on 5- FU.
FOLFIRI regimen Irinotecan -180 mg/m2 as a 90-min infusion day 1 LV - 400 mg/m2 as a 2-h infusion during irinotecan 5-FU bolus - 400 mg/m2 and 46-h continuous infusion of 2.4–3 g/m2 every 2 weeks. FOLFOX regimen –2-h infusion of LV (400 mg/m2 per day) –5-FU bolus -(400 mg/m2 per day) and 22-h infusion (1200 mg/m2) every 2 weeks, –Oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m2 as a 2-h infusion on day 1. FOLFIRI and FOLFOX are equal in efficacy.